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Recommendation #5: Generate New Mitochondria, Protect Proteins Against Glycation, Suppress Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines And Optimize Mitochondrial Function

How Much Carnosine is in a Typical Diet?

Health-conscious people often limit their intake of meat. One downside to avoiding meat, however, is that meat is the most abundant source of dietary carnosine.

A human study sought to determine carnosine concentrations in blood plasma after eating beef.39 Each 7.1-ounce serving of ground beef used in this study naturally contained 248 mg of carnosine.

In the study’s first phase, meat foods were removed from the diet for 48 hours. When fasting blood levels were measured, no carnosine was present. After the subjects ate 7.1 ounces of ground beef, carnosine was detected in the blood within 15 minutes and continued to increase for several hours. After 5.5 hours, there was again no carnosine in the blood. This study clearly showed that 248 mg of carnosine does not provide the body with all-day protection against glycation reactions.

The reason carnosine disappears so quickly from the blood is the presence of an enzyme (carnosinase) that naturally degrades carnosine in the body. This study on carnosine blood levels confirms what Life Extension published 13 years ago when we advised members that at least 1,000 mg a day of carnosine is needed to overwhelm the carnosinase enzyme and protect against glycation reactions.40,41

Commercial supplement companies are still selling 50 mg carnosine capsules and claiming that this low dose is effective. Based on this human study showing that the body degrades 248mg of carnosine within 5.5 hours, consumers who take these 50-mg carnosine capsules are obtaining virtually no benefit.

The daily dose of a nutrient formula called Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® provides 1,000 mg of carnosine. This dose is needed to provide enough anti-glycating carnosine to your proteins before being depleted by the carnosinase enzyme that rapidly degrades dietary carnosine.

Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ ® supplies 1,000 mg of carnosine plus benfotiamine the fat-soluble form of vitamin B1. Benfotiamine provides additional protection against glycation reactions while guarding cells against the harmful effects of glucose exposure. Even people with normal glucose levels encounter damaging sugar reactions over a lifetime. Benfotiamine protects against glucose-induced cell damage via three different mechanisms.42-46

Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ ® also features 100 mg of pyridoxal-5’-phosphate … the form of vitamin B6 that is an efficient inhibitor of both lipid and protein glycation reactions.47-49

Optimizing Mitochondrial Function

Aging results in the loss of cellular vitality, the depletion of mitochondrial energy function.50-52 Cells require healthy mitochondrial activity to perform life-sustaining metabolic processes. As mitochondrial function weakens in our cells, so does the vitality of organs such as the heart and brain or, in some cases, the entire body.53-58

While CoQ10 is necessary for youthful mitochondrial energy function, there are other essential nutrients involved in the mitochondria’s respiratory chain. In order for the mitochondria to create the energy needed to sustain cellular function, fatty acids (which serve as the mitochondria’s fuel) must be transported through the cell membrane and into the mitochondria.59-61 The amino acid acetyl-L-carnitine boosts mitochondrial energy production by facilitating fatty acid transport and oxidation within the cell. 62-64

As the mitochondria burn fatty acids to produce cellular energy, they generate a host of free radicals in the process. That is why a mitochondrial antioxidant like lipoic acid is so critical. Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® provides the more potent form of lipoic acid (called R-lipoic acid), along with a more effective form of L-carnitine (acetyl-L-carnitine arginate dihydrochloride).

Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ ® incorporates the tremendous advances in our knowledge about the importance of maintaining mitochondrial integrity as we age. Scientists now know that mitochondrial decay in aging is a major driving force behind the aging process.50,53,56-58

Fatty acids that serve as the fuel for the mitochondria are pulled across the mitochondrial membrane by carnitines.59-61 As we age, we lose the ability to pull fatty acids across the membrane because of free radical damage that occurs inside the mitochondria. 65-67 Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® helps restore mitochondrial function by boosting cellular levels of R-lipoic acid, L-carnitine, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes.

The Brain Regeneration Form of Carnitine

Brain cells communicate with each other because they are connected to one another by neurites (dendrites and axons). Neurites are long filament-like terminal branches of nerve cells that grow much like branches of a tree. Neurites function to provide the communication circuitry pathways between the nerve cells. As we age, there is a loss of neurites, which results in slowed thinking as neural-connection pathways are reduced from many in number to only a few. The effect of the age-related neurite loss is that thought-processing pathways, thinking time, and reaction times are all significantly diminish


ArginoCarn® is a patented form of acetyl-L-carnitine arginate dihydrochloride that has been shown in cell cultures to stimulate the growth of neurites.68

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