Recommendation #5: Generate New Mitochondria, Protect Proteins Against Glycation, Suppress Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines And Optimize Mitochondrial Function
Suppressing Mitochondria-Generated Free Radicals
Free radical damage is a well-established culprit behind premature aging.69 To counteract free radicals, health-conscious people supplement with antioxidants such as green tea, grapeseed, lycopene, gamma tocopherol, and other plant extracts.
Lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant because of its ability to boost glutathione levels already within normal range inside cells to protect against mitochondrial-generated free radicals.55,70-75 Lipoic acid functions as a fat- and water-soluble antioxidant.76 It easily crosses cell membranes to confer antioxidant protection to interior and exterior cellular structures.76,77
Alpha-lipoic acid contains 50% “R”-lipoic and 50% “S”-lipoic acids. Most people don’t know that the active part of alpha lipoic acid is the “R”-lipoic acid isomer.76 R-lipoic acid is found in very small amounts in the tissues and is tightly bound to mitochondrial complexes. Due to the difficulty of isolating R-lipoic acid, researchers originally conducted studies using only synthetic lipoic acid containing a 50/50 mixture of two forms of alpha lipoic acid.
While the body can absorb both forms of lipoic acid, the R-lipoic form is far more biologically active. For example, the “R”-form improves ATP synthesis in isolated cells, whereas the “S”-lipoic form does not. The R-lipoic acid form was shown to increase cell membrane fluidity and transport.78,79
As the biologically active form of “alpha-lipoic acid,” R-lipoic acid is directly involved in cellular metabolism. It is a vital component of the intracellular antioxidant cycle, able to scavenge a variety of free radicals and reactive oxygen species while recycling vitamins C, E and glutathione. 79-85
R-lipoic acid readily crosses the blood-brain barrier86,87 and has been shown effective for elevating intracellular glutathione levels.88 This biologically active lipoic acid isomer helps regulate neuronal calcium homeostasis,89 protects against excitotoxic insults,89 regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines,90-93 and alters the expression of toxic genes.94 R-lipoic acid has been used to protect against adverse glucose reactions in the body and is recommended as a neuroprotective agent.88,91,95-98 Because R-lipoic acid is the naturally occurring form found in mitochondrial complexes, it offers substantially greater benefits at significantly lower doses than the synthetic forms of lipoic acid currently available.
Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ ® contains this potent form of lipoic acid as the microencapsulated Bio-Enhanced®R-lipoic acid, which provides more protection against free radicals than higher amounts of alpha-lipoic acid.
Suppressing Inflammatory Cytokines
Normal aging is accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines that often results in enduring low level, systemic inflammation. Nutrients that suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines are thought to confer longevity benefits.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an example of a pro-inflammatory cytokine that often increases with aging and is associated with many undesirable effects. A study of people who have reached or passed their 100th birthday reveals that they uniformly express lower than normal IL-6 levels, and higher levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.99
Luteolin is a flavonoid that is found in olive oil, green pepper, and perilla plant, and has been shown to lower pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vitro and in vivo.100-102 In particular, luteolin is a strong IL-6 inhibitor that may work via several different mechanisms to reduce levels of this inflammatory cytokine. Some studies show that luteolin down-regulates pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha activity to lower IL-6 levels. Other studies demonstrate that luteolin reduces NF-kappa B levels that control IL-6 production.103-105 Additional studies show that luteolin reduces the majority of the most dangerous inflammatory factors in the body including NF-kappa B, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6.106-113
The up-regulation of inflammatory genes is one of the cruelest aspects of the aging process. Luteolin is an ideal supplement that is orally very effective as a potent inhibitor of IL-6 and related inflammatory cytokines at low doses. Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® provides a high purity luteolin in each daily dose.
Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ ® provides nutrients that have demonstrated significant biological benefits at the cellular level. A look at the complete formula reveals the comprehensive value of this energy-restoring mitochondrial supplement in only four capsules per day.
The cost of taking all of the individual ingredients found in Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® would be prohibitive for most people. Life Extension members, however, gain access to these important cutting-edge nutrients at huge savings.
A bottle containing 120 capsules of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® retails for $94.00. If a member buys four bottles, the price is reduced to $63.00 per bottle.
Life Extension also offers the value-priced Mitochondrial Basics with BioPQQ®, for those members who are cost-conscious but still want to support mitochondrial function. For more information on both of these products, please refer to the Mitochondrial Support section of this Directory.
Note: It is important to take four capsules per day of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ®in order to benefit from carnosine. The reason for this is because the body automatically metabolizes lower amounts of carnosine into an inert substance, but the body cannot quickly neutralize the amount of carnosine (1000 mg) contained in four capsules of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ ® formula.