Life Extension Skin Care Sale


Bilberry: 17 Research Abstracts

Anti-angiogenic **

1. Free Radic Res. 2002 Sep;36(9):1023-31. Anti-angiogenic property of edible berries. Roy S, Khanna S, Alessio HM, Vider J, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Sen CK. Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Surgery, 512 Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Medical Center, 473 W. 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Recent studies show that edible berries may have potent chemopreventive properties. Anti-angiogenic approaches to prevent and treat cancer represent a priority area in investigative tumor biology. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role for the vascularization of tumors. The vasculature in adult skin remains normally quiescent. However, skin retains the capacity for brisk initiation of angiogenesis during inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and skin cancers. We sought to test the effects of multiple berry extracts on inducible VEGF expression by human HaCaT keratinocytes. Six berry extracts (wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seed, and strawberry) and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) were studied. The extracts and uptake of their constituents by HaCaT were studied using a multi-channel HPLC-CoulArray approach. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by ORAC. Cranberry, elderberry and raspberry seed samples were observed to possess comparable ORAC values. The antioxidant capacity of these samples was significantly lower than that of the other samples studied. The ORAC values of strawberry powder and GSPE were higher than cranberry, elderberry or raspberry seed but significantly lower than the other samples studied. Wild bilberry and blueberry extracts possessed the highest ORAC values. Each of the berry samples studied significantly inhibited both H2O2 as well as TNF alpha induced VEGF expression by the human keratinocytes. This effect was not shared by other antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol or GSPE but was commonly shared by pure flavonoids. Matrigel assay using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells showed that edible berries impair angiogenesis.

Cancer **

2. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jan 1;51(1):68-75. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the anthocyanins. Katsube N, Iwashita K, Tsushida T, Yamaki K, Kobori M. Fruit Processing Research Center, AOHATA Corporation, Takehara, Hiroshima 729-2392, Japan.

Among ethanol extracts of 10 edible berries, bilberry extract was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL60 human leukemia cells and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells in vitro. Bilberry extract induced apoptotic cell bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL60 cells. The proportion of apoptotic cells induced by bilberry extract in HCT116 was much lower than that in HL60 cells, and DNA fragmentation was not induced in the former. Of the extracts tested, that from bilberry contained the largest amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, and showed the greatest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Pure delphinidin and malvidin, like the glycosides isolated from the bilberry extract, induced apoptosis in HL60 cells. These results indicate that the bilberry extract and the anthocyanins, bearing delphinidin or malvidin as the aglycon, inhibit the growth of HL60 cells through the induction of apoptosis. Only pure delphinidin and the glycoside isolated from the bilberry extract, but not malvidin and the glycoside, inhibited the growth of HCT116 cells.

3. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Sep 24;51(20):5867-5870. Resveratrol in Raw and Baked Blueberries and Bilberries. Lyons MM, Yu C, Toma RB, Cho SY, Reiboldt W, Lee J, Van Breemen RB. Food and Nutritional Science Division, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, California 90840; Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607; and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois College of Pharmacy, Chicago, Illinois 60612.

Resveratrol in the fruits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), the lowbush "wild" blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade), and the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were measured using a new assay based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS assay provided lower limits of detection than previous methods for resveratrol measurement, 90 fmol of trans-resveratrol injected on-column, and a linear standard curve spanning >3 orders of magnitude. The recoveries of resveratrol from blueberries spiked with 1.8, 3.6, or 36 ng/g were 91.5 +/- 4.5, 95.6 +/- 6.5, and 88.0 +/- 3.6%, respectively. trans-Resveratrol but not cis-resveratrol was detected in both blueberry and bilberry samples. The highest levels of trans-resvertatrol in these specimens were 140.0 +/- 29.9 pmol/g in highbush blueberries from Michigan and 71.0 +/- 15.0 pmol/g in bilberries from Poland. However, considerable regional variation was observed; highbush blueberries from British Columbia contained no detectable resveratrol. Because blueberries and bilberries are often consumed after cooking, the effect of baking on resveratrol content was investigated. After 18 min of heating at 190 degrees C, between 17 and 46% of the resveratrol had degraded in the various Vaccinium species. Therefore, the resveratrol content of baked or heat-processed blueberries or bilberries should be expected to be lower than in the raw fruit. Although blueberries and bilberries were found to contain resveratrol, the level of this chemoprotective compound in these fruits was <10% that reported for grapes. Furthermore, cooking or heat processing of these berries will contribute to the degradation of resveratrol.

4. Planta Med. 1996 Jun;62(3):212-6. In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA. Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.

Fruit extracts of four Vaccinium species (lowbush blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, and lingonberry) were screened for anticarcinogenic compounds by a combination of fractionation and in vitro testing of their ability to induce the Phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR) and to inhibit the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, by the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA). The crude extracts, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin fractions were not highly active in QR induction whereas the ethyl acetate extracts were active QR inducers. The concentrations required to double QR activity (designated CDqr) for the ethyl acetate extracts of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, lingonberry, and bilberry were 4.2, 3.7, 1.3, and 1.0 microgram tannic acid equivalents (TAE), respectively, Further fractionation of the bilberry ethyl acetate extract revealed that the majority of inducer potency was contained in a hexane/chloroform subfraction (CDqr = 0.07 microgram TAE). In contrast to their effects on QR, crude extracts of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry were active inhibitors of ODC activity. The concentrations of these crude extracts needed to inhibit ODC activity by 50% (designated IC50) were 8.0, 7.0, and 9.0 micrograms TAE, respectively. The greatest activity in these extracts appeared to be contained in the polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions of the lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry fruits (IC50 = 3.0, 6.0, and 5.0 micrograms TAE, respectively). The anthocyanidin and ethyl acetate extracts of the four Vaccinium species were either inactive or relatively weak inhibitors of ODC activity. Thus, components of the hexane/chloroform fraction of bilberry and of the proanthocyanidin fraction of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry exhibit potential anticarcinogenic activity as evaluated by in vitro screening tests.

Capillary support **

5. Pharmacol Res. 1995 Mar-Apr;31(3-4):183-7. (Animal Study)

Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on ischaemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation.

Bertuglia S, Malandrino S, Colantuoni A.

CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy.

The effects of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides (VMA) on ischaemia reperfusion injury were investigated in the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Ischaemia was induced by clamping the cheek pouch for 30 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. The microvasculature was visualized by a fluorescence technique. VMA [10 mg (100 g body weight)-1] were orally administered for 2 and 4 weeks. The number of adhering leukocytes to venular vessel walls, the perfused capillary length, the increase in permeability, the arteriolar diameter changes were determined. Ischaemia and reperfusion were associated with increased number of leukocytes sticking to venules, decreased number of perfused capillaries, and increased permeability. VMA decreased the number of leukocytes sticking to the venular wall and preserved the capillary perfusion; the increase in permeability was significantly reduced after reperfusion. VMA saved the arteriolar tone and induced the appearance of rhythmic diameter changes of arterioles. These results demonstrate the ability of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides to reduce microvascular impairments due to ischaemia reperfusion injury, with preservation of endothelium, attenuation of leukocyte adhesion and improvement of capillary perfusion.

6. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(5):832-5. (Animal Study) Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. II. Aspects of anthocyanins pharmacokinetics in the rat. Lietti A, Forni G.

Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanins adminstered by i.v. or i.p. route to the rat undergo a rapid body distribution and in part also are easily eliminated such as to fit a three-compartments pharmacokinetic model. The anthocyanins elimination occurs mostly through urine and bile. The slight difference between the amount of anthocyanins eliminated after i.v. and after i.p. application shows a modest liver extracion of these substances. Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanins possess a greater affinity for some tissues, namely kidneys and skin rather than for plasma. This fact could explain the long-lasting activity of anthocyanins on capillary resistance which is still elevated when plasma levels of these substances are no more detectable.

7. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(5):829-32. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. I. Vasoprotective and antiinflammatory activity. Lietti A, Cristoni A, Picci M.

A Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides preparation (equivalent to 25% of anthocyanidins) demonstrated significant vasoprotective and antioedema properties in exerimental animals. In rabbits, the skin capillary permeability increase, due to chloroform, was reduced both after i.p. (25--100 mg/kg) and oral administration (200--400 mg/kg) of anthocyanosides. Their activity was more lasting in comparison to rutin or mepyramine and this did not seem to be due to a specific antagonism towards inflammatory process mediators such as histamine or bradykinin. Experiments carried out in rats demonstrated that Vacinium myrtillus anthocyanosides were effective both in skin capillary permeability test as well as on vascular resistance of rats fed a P factor deficient diet. In the former test effective doses were in the range of 25--100 mg/kg (by oral route). In both the animal species investigated, anthocyanosides were two-fold more active when compared to the flavonoid rutin. Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides by oral route inhibited carrageein paw oedema in rats showing a dose-response relationship. An antioedema activity was detected also after i.v. or topical application.

Connective tissue **

8. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1996 Dec;209(6):368-72. [Effect of anthocyanins on human connective tissue metabolism in the human] [Article in German] Boniface R, Robert AM. Labor fur Bindegewebsbiochemie, Medizinische Fakultat, Universitat Paris, Val de Marne.

BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. This is due to an abnormally increased synthesis of connective tissue in order to a) repair leaking capillaries and b) formation of new capillaries. METHOD: Twelve adult diabetics were treated with 600 mg anthocyanosides per day for two months. Samples of gingiva tissue were taken before and after treatment. Incubated with radio-active labeled amino acids, the measure of radioactivity from different connective tissue extracts can show a changed protein biosynthesis activity. RESULTS: The use of radio-active labeled amino acids show significant decrease of biosynthesis-activity of connective tissue especially polymeric collagen and structure-glycoproteins by anthocyanoside medication. CONCLUSIONS: Anthocyanosides help to prevent diabetics from injuries caused by malfunction of synthesis-activities throughout normal diabetic medical treatment.

Dyslipidaemiae **

9. Thromb Res. 1996 Dec 1;84(5):311-22. (Animal Study) Novel lipid-lowering properties of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves, a traditional antidiabetic treatment, in several models of rat dyslipidaemia: a comparison with ciprofibrate. Cignarella A, Nastasi M, Cavalli E, Puglisi L. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milano, Italy.

Vaccinium myrtillus L. (blueberry) leaf infusions are traditionally used as a folk medicine treatment of diabetes. To further define this therapeutical action, a dried hydroalcoholic extract of the leaf was administered orally to streptozotocin-diabetic rats for 4 days. Plasma glucose levels were consistently found to drop by about 26% at two different stages of diabetes. Unexpectedly, plasma triglyceride (TG) were also decreased by 39% following treatment. Subsequent to the latter observation, possible lipid-lowering properties of the extract were investigated on other models of hyperlipidaemia and ciprofibrate, a well-established hypolipidaemic drug, was used as a reference compound. Both drug reduced TG levels of rats on hyperlipidaemic diet in a dose-dependent fashion. When administered at single doses over the same experimental period, blueberry and ciprofibrate were effective in lowering TG concentrations in ethanol-treated normolipidaemic animals and in genetically hyperlipidaemic Yoshida rats. Unlike ciprofibrate, however, blueberry failed to prevent the rise in plasma TG elicited by fructose and did not affect free fatty acid levels in any of the above experimental conditions. In rats treated with Triton WR-1339, blueberry feeding induced an hypolipidaemic activity one hour after injection but proved to be ineffective at later time points, thus suggesting that its hypolipidaemic action may reflect improved TG-rich lipoprotein catabolism. In addition, ciprofibrate and the extract were tested for antithrombotic activity using a collagen-triggered model of venous thrombosis in diabetic and Yoshida rats. Only ciprofibrate, however, significantly reduced thrombus formation in diabetics, possibly because of its effects on free fatty acid metabolism, whereas no effect was observed in Yoshida rats. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that active consituent(s) of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves may prove potentially useful for treatment of dyslipidaemiae associated with impaired TG-rich lipoprotein clearance.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

10. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Oct;6(5):450-9. Chronic fatigue syndrome: oxidative stress and dietary modifications. Logan AC, Wong C. CFS/FM Integrative Care Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an illness characterized by persistent and relapsing fatigue, often accompanied by numerous symptoms involving various body systems. The etiology of CFS remains unclear; however, a number of recent studies have shown oxidative stress may be involved in its pathogenesis. The role of oxidative stress in CFS is an important area for current and future research as it suggests the use of antioxidants in the management of CFS. Specifically, the dietary supplements glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, Ginkgo biloba, and Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) may be beneficial. In addition, research on food intolerance is discussed, since food intolerance may be involved in CFS symptom presentation and in oxidation via cytokine induction. Finally, recent evidence suggests celiac disease can present with neurological symptoms in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms; therefore, celiac disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of CFS.

Cardiocascular and EYE

11. Curr Mol Med. 2003 Mar;3(2):149-59. Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins. Hou DX. Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Korimoto 1-21-24, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.

Anthocyanins are the chemical components that give the intense color to many fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, red cabbages and purple sweet potatoes. Epidemiological investigations have indicated that the moderate consumption of anthocyanin products such as red wine or bilberry extract is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and improvement of visual functions. Recently, there is increasing interesting in the pharmaceutical function of anthocyanins. This review summarizes current knowledge on the various molecular evidences of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins. These mechanisms can be subdivided into the following aspects: 1) the antioxidation; 2) the molecular mechanisms involved in anticarcinogenesis; 3) the molecular mechanisms involved in the apoptosis induction of tumor cells. Finally, the bioavailability and structure-activity relationship of anthocyanins are also summarized.


12. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 16;278(20):18207-13. Epub 2003 Mar 19. A2E-epoxides damage DNA in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit A2E-epoxide formation. Sparrow JR, Vollmer-Snarr HR, Zhou J, Jang YP, Jockusch S, Itagaki Y, Nakanishi K. Department of Ophthalmology and Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10028, USA.

The autofluorescent pigments that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells with aging and in some retinal disorders have been implicated in the etiology of macular degeneration. The major constituent is the fluorophore A2E, a pyridinium bisretinoid. Light-exposed A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelium exhibits a propensity for apoptosis with light in the blue region of the spectrum being most damaging. Efforts to understand the events precipitating the death of the cells have revealed that during irradiation (430 nm), A2E self-generates singlet oxygen with the singlet oxygen in turn reacting with A2E to generate epoxides at carbon-carbon double bonds. Here we demonstrate that A2E-epoxides, independent of singlet oxygen, exhibit reactivity toward DNA with oxidative base changes being at least one of these lesions. Mass spectrometry revealed that the antioxidants vitamins E and C, butylated hydroxytoluene, resveratrol, a trolox analogue (PNU-83836-E), and bilberry extract reduce A2E-epoxidation, whereas single cell gel electrophoresis and cell viability studies revealed a corresponding reduction in the incidence of DNA damage and cell death. Vitamin E, a lipophilic antioxidant, produced a more pronounced decrease in A2E-epoxidation than vitamin C, and treatment with both vitamins simultaneously did not confer additional benefit. Studies in which singlet oxygen was generated by endoperoxide in the presence of A2E revealed that vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, resveratrol, the trolox analogue, and bilberry reduced A2E-epoxidation by quenching singlet oxygen. Conversely, vitamin C and ginkgolide B were not efficient quenchers of singlet oxygen under these conditions.

13. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):141-66. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma. Head KA. Thorne Research, Inc., P.O. Box 25, Dover, ID 83825,USA.

Pathophysiological mechanisms of cataract formation include deficient glutathione levels contributing to a faulty antioxidant defense system within the lens of the eye. Nutrients to increase glutathione levels and activity include lipoic acid, vitamins E and C, and selenium. Cataract patients also tend to be deficient in vitamin A and the carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. The B vitamin riboflavin appears to play an essential role as a precursor to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a co-factor for glutathione reductase activity. Other nutrients and botanicals, which may benefit cataract patients or help prevent cataracts, include pantethine, folic acid, melatonin, and bilberry. Diabetic cataracts are caused by an elevation of polyols within the lens of the eye catalyzed by the enzyme aldose reductase. Flavonoids, particularly quercetin and its derivatives, are potent inhibitors of aldose reductase. Glaucoma is characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in some but not all cases. Some patients with glaucoma have normal IOP but poor circulation, resulting in damage to the optic nerve. Faulty glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis or breakdown in the trabecular meshwork associated with aqueous outflow has also been implicated. Similar to patients with cataracts, those with glaucoma typically have compromised antioxidant defense systems as well. Nutrients that can impact GAGs such as vitamin C and glucosamine sulfate may hold promise for glaucoma treatment. Vitamin C in high doses has been found to lower IOP via its osmotic effect. Other nutrients holding some potential benefit for glaucoma include lipoic acid, vitamin B12, magnesium, and melatonin. Botanicals may offer some therapeutic potential. Ginkgo biloba increases circulation to the optic nerve; forskolin (an extract from Coleus forskohlii) has been used successfully as a topical agent to lower IOP; and intramuscular injections of Salvia miltiorrhiza have shown benefit in improving visual acuity and peripheral vision in people with glaucoma.

Ulcer **

14. Arzneimittelforschung. 1988 May;38(5):686-90. (Animal Study) Antiulcer activity of an anthocyanidin from Vaccinium myrtillus. Magistretti MJ, Conti M, Cristoni A. Research and Development Laboratories, Inverni della Beffa S.p.A., Milan, Italy.

The antiulcer effects of 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-benzopyrylium chloride (IdB 1027) were assessed in various experimental models. Given orally, IdB 1027 antagonized gastric ulcerations induced by pylorus ligation, stress, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, ethanol, reserpine, histamine and duodenal ulceration induced by mercaptamine (cysteamine). Moreover it antagonized chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid. Given intraperitoneally, it was more potent than after oral administration. IdB 1027 did not affect gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats and increased gastric mucus in normal animals both in the absence and in the presence of indometacin treatment. Tolerability was very good. These results indicate that IdB 1027 possesses a promising antiulcer activity, probably by potentiating the defensive barriers of the gastrointestinal mucosa.

Bilberry high in Quercetin **

15. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;57(1):37-42. Consumption of black currants, lingonberries and bilberries increases serum quercetin concentrations. Erlund I, Marniemi J, Hakala P, Alfthan G, Meririnne E, Aro A. Biomarker Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

OBJECTIVE: To study serum quercetin concentrations of subjects consuming berries or habitual Finnish diets. DESIGN: Randomized parallel dietary intervention. SUBJECTS: Forty healthy men (age 60 y). INTERVENTION: Twenty subjects consumed 100 g/day of berries (black currants, lingonberries and bilberries) for 8 weeks. Twenty subjects consuming their habitual diets served as controls. Fasting blood samples were obtained 2 weeks prior to the study, at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Intake of quercetin was assessed from 3 day food records collected at baseline and at 8 weeks. RESULTS: The serum quercetin concentrations were significantly higher in the subjects consuming berries compared to the control group (P=0.039 ANCOVA with repeated measures). During the berry consumption period the mean serum concentrations of quercetin ranged between 21.4 and 25.3 micro g/l in the berry group, which was 32-51% higher compared with the control group. According to 3 day food records, there was no difference in quercetin intake at baseline, but at 8 weeks the intake was 12.3+/-1.4 mg/day (mean+/-s.e.m.) in the berry group and 5.8+/-0.6 mg/day in the control group (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the berries used in this study are a good source of bioavailable quercetin.

16. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Jul;48(7):2960-5. Influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries. Hakkinen SH, Karenlampi SO, Mykkanen HM, Torronen AR. Department of Clinical Nutrition, Department of Physiology, University of Kuopio, PO box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Effects of domestic processing and storage on the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in five berries were studied using an optimized RP-HPLC method with UV and diode array detection after an acid hydrolysis of the corresponding glycosides. In fresh berries, the total content of flavonols was highest in lingonberry (169 mg/kg) and black currant (157 mg/kg), intermediate in bilberry (41 mg/kg) and strawberry (17 mg/kg), and lowest in red raspberry (9.5 mg/kg). Cooking strawberries with sugar to make jam resulted in minor losses (quercetin 15%, kaempferol 18%). During cooking of bilberries with water and sugar to make soup, 40% of quercetin was lost. Traditional preservation of crushed lingonberries in their own juice caused a considerable (40%) loss of quercetin. Only 15% of quercetin and 30% of myricetin present in unprocessed berries were retained in juices made by common domestic methods (steam-extracted black currant juice, unpasteurized lingonberry juice). Cold-pressing was superior to steam-extraction in extracting flavonols from black currants. During 9 months of storage at 20 C, quercetin content decreased markedly (40%) in bilberries and lingonberries, but not in black currants or red raspberries. Myricetin and kaempferol were more susceptible than quercetin to losses during storage.

RNA **

17. Mol Biotechnol. 2001 Oct;19(2):201-3. Isolation of high quality RNA from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit. Jaakola L, Pirttila AM, Halonen M, Hohtola A. Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.

A simple and efficient method is described for isolating high quality RNA from bilberry fruit. The procedure is based on the use of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and beta-mercaptoethanol in an extraction buffer in order to eliminate the polysaccharides and prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. This method is a modification of the one described for pine trees, and yields high-quality RNA suitable for cDNA based methodologies. This method is applicable for a variety of plant tissues.