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Glutathione: 64 Citations

“Glutathione, Reduced (GSH): Technical Monograph” Alternative Medicine Review - Volume 6, Number 6, December 2001.

1. Kosower NS, Kosower EM. The glutathione status of cells. Intl Rev Cytol 1978;54:109-157.

2. Kidd PM. Glutathione: systemic protectant against oxidative and free radical damage. Altern Med Rev 1997;1:155-176.

3. Sen CK. Nutritional biochemistry of cellular glutathione. Nutr Biochem 1997;8:660-672.

4. Cook GC, Sherlock S. Results of a controlled clinical trial of glutathione in cases of hepatic cirrhosis. Gut 1965;6:472-476.

5. Bremer HJ, Duran M, Kamerling JP, et al. Glutathione. In: Bremer HJ, Duran M, Kamerling JP, et al, eds. Disturbances of Amino Acid Metabolism:Clinical Chemistry and Diagnosis. Baltimore-Munich: Urban and Schwarzenberg; 1981:80-82.

6. Chawla RK, Lewis FW, Kutner MH, et al. Plasma cysteine, cysteine, and glutathione in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1984;87:770-776.

7. Cai J, Nelson KC, Wu M, et al. Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE. Progr Retinal Eye Res 2000;19:205-221.

8. Look MP, Rockstroh JK, Rao GS, et al. Serum selenium, plasma glutathione (GSH) and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)-levels in asymptomatic versus symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infection. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:266-272.

9. Luo J-L, Hammarqvist F, Andersson K, et al. Surgical trauma decreases glutathione synthetic capacity in human skeletal muscle tissue. Am J Physiol1998;275:E359-E365.

10. Spies CD, Reinhart K, Witt I, et al. Influence of N-acetylcysteine on direct indicators of tissue oxygenation in septic shock patients: results from a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Crit Care Med 1994;22:1738-1746.

11. Whitcomb DC, Block GD. Association of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with fasting and ethanol use. JAMA 1994;272:1845-1850.

12. Anderson ME. Glutathione and glutathione delivery compounds. Adv Pharmacol 1997;38:65-78.

13. Lomaestro BM, Malone M. Glutathione in health and disease: pharmacotherapeutic issues. Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:1263-1273.

14. Meister A, Larsson A. Glutathione synthetase deficiency and other disorders of the gamma-glutamyl cycle. In: Scriver CR, Kinzler KW, Valle D, et al, eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1995:1461-1477.

15. Verjee ZH, Behal R. Protein-calorie malnutrition: a study of red blood cell and serum enzymes during and after crisis. Clin Chim Acta 1976;70:139-147.

16. Meister A. Glutathione, ascorbate, and cellular protection. Cancer Res 1994;54:1969S-1975S.

17. Strange RC, Jones PW, Fryer AA. Glutathione S-transferase: genetics and role in toxicology. Toxicol Letts 2000;112-113:357-363.

18. Monks TJ, Lau SS. Glutathione conjugation as a mechanism for the transport of reactive metabolites. Adv Pharmacol 1994;27:183-205.

19. Mulder GJ, Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan S. Modulation of glutathione conjugation in vivo: how to decrease glutathione conjugation in vivo or in intact cellular systems in vitro. Chem-Biol Interact 1997;105:17-34.

20. Weber GF. Final common pathways in neurodegenerative diseases: regulatory role of the glutathione cycle. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1999;23:1079-1086.

21. Sen CK. Redox signaling and the emerging therapeutic potential of thiol antioxidants. Biochem Pharmacol 1998;55:1747-1758.

22. Gul M, Kutay FZ, Temocin S, et al. Cellular and clinical implications of glutathione. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38:625-634.

23. Pace GW, Leaf CD. The role of oxidative stress in HIV disease. Free Rad Biol Med 1995;19:523-528.

24. Loguercio C, Taranto D, Vitale LM, et al. Effect of liver cirrhosis and age on the glutathione concentration in the plasma, erythrocytes, and gastric mucosa of man. Free Rad Biol Med 1996;20:483-488.

25. Altomare E, Vendemiale G, Alano O. Hepatic glutathione content in patients with alcoholic and non alcoholic liver diseases. Life Sci 1998;43:991-998.

26. Suarez M, Beloqui O, Ferrer JV, et al. Glutathione depletion in chronic hepatitis C. Intl Hepatol Commun 1993;1:215-221.

27. Suter PM, Domenighetti G, Schaller MD, et al. N-acetylcysteine enhances recovery from acute lung injury in man. Chest 1994;105:190-194.

28. Iantomasi T, Marraccini P, Favilli F, et al. Glutathione metabolism in Crohn's disease. Biochem Med Metab Biol 1994;53:87-91.

29. Usal A, Acarturk E, Yuregir GT, et al. Decreased glutathione levels in acute myocardial infarction. Jpn Heart J 1996;37:177-182.

30. Prasad A, Andrews NP, Padder FA, et al. Glutathione reverses endothelial dysfunction and improves nitric oxide bioavailability. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:507-514.

31. Amano J, Suzuki A, Sunamori M. Salutary effect of reduced glutathione on renal function in coronary artery bypass operation. J Am Coll Surg 1994;179:714-720.

32. Kugiyama K, Ohgushi M, Motoyama T, et al. Intracoronary infusion of reduced glutathione improves endothelial vasomotor response to acetylcholine in human coronary circulation. Circulation 1998;97:2299-2301.

33. Gut A, Chaloner C, Schofield D, et al. Evidence of toxic metabolite stress in black South Africans with chronic pancreatitis. Clin Chim Acta 1995;236:145-153.

34. Vijayalingam S, Parthiban A, Shanmugasundaram KR, et al. Abnormal antioxidant status in impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diab Med 1996;13:715-719.

35. Yoshida K, Hirokawa J, Tagami S, et al. Weakened cellular scavenging activity against oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus: regulation of glutathione synthesis and efflux. Diabetol 1995;38:201-210.

36. Grimble RF. Effect of antioxidative vitamins on immune function with clinical applications. Intl J Vit Nutr Res 1997;67:312-320.

37. Sen CK. Glutathione homeostasis in response to exercise training and nutritional supplements. Mol Cell Biochem 1999;196:31-42.

38. Meister A. Mitochondrial changes associated with glutathione deficiency. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995;1271:35-42.

39. Kidd PM. Parkinson's disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:502-529.

40. Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, et al. The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;43:667-669.

41. Hagen TM, Wierzbicka GT, Sillau AH, et al. Bioavailability of dietary glutathione: effect on plasma concentrations. Am J Physiol 1990;259:G524-529.

42. Vincenzini MT, Favilli F, Iantomasi T. Intestinal uptake and transmembrane transport systems of intact GSH; characteristics and possible biological role. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992;1113:13-23.

43. Aw TY, Wierzbicka G, Jones DP. Oral glutathione increases tissue glutathione in vivo. Chem-Biol Interact 1991;80:89-97.

44. Perlmutter D. Naples, FL: The Perlmutter Health Center; 2000.

45. Faintuch J, Aguilar PB, Nadalin W. Relevance of N-acetylcysteine in clinical practice: fact, myth or consequence? Nutrition 1999;15:177-179.

46. Traber J, Suter M, Walter P, et al. In vivo modulation of total and mitochondrial glutathione in rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;43:961-964.

47. Bridgeman MM, Marsden M, Selby C, et al. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on the concentrations of thiols in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Thorax 1994;49:670-675.

48. Fuchs J, Schofer H, Milbradt R, et al. Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Arzneimittelforschung1993;43:1359-1362.

49. Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Rad Biol Med 1995;19:227-250.

50. Kalayjian RC, Skowron G, Emgushov R-T, et al. A phase I/II trial of intravenous L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (procysteine) in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects. J Acq Immune Def Syndr 1994;7:369-374.

51. Vita JA, Frei B, Holbrook M. L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. J Clin Invest 1998;101:1408-1414.


1: Kaposzta Z, Clifton A, Molloy J, Martin JF, Markus HS.
S-nitrosoglutathione reduces asymptomatic embolization after carotid angioplasty.
Circulation. 2002 Dec 10;106(24):3057-62.
PMID: 12473551

2: Fraternale A, Casabianca A, Orlandi C, Cerasi A, Chiarantini L, Brandi G, Magnani M.
Macrophage protection by addition of glutathione (GSH)-loaded erythrocytes to AZT and DDI in a murine AIDS model.
Antiviral Res. 2002 Dec;56(3):263-72.
PMID: 12406509

3: Knight TR, Ho YS, Farhood A, Jaeschke H.
Peroxynitrite is a critical mediator of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in murine livers: protection by glutathione.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Nov;303(2):468-75.
PMID: 12388625

4: Usberti M, Gerardi G, Micheli A, Tira P, Bufano G, Gaggia P, Movilli E, Cancarini GC, De Marinis S, D'Avolio G, Broccoli R, Manganoni A, Albertin A, Di Lorenzo D.
Effects of a vitamin E-bonded membrane and of glutathione on anemia and erythropoietin requirements in hemodialysis patients.
J Nephrol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):558-64.
PMID: 12455724

5: Cascinu S, Catalano V, Cordella L, Labianca R, Giordani P, Baldelli AM, Beretta GD, Ubiali E, Catalano G.
Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2002 Aug 15;20(16):3478-83.
PMID: 12177109

6: Arosio E, De Marchi S, Zannoni M, Prior M, Lechi A.
Effect of glutathione infusion on leg arterial circulation, cutaneous microcirculation, and pain-free walking distance in patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2002 Aug;77(8):754-9.
PMID: 12173710

7: Ueno Y, Kizaki M, Nakagiri R, Kamiya T, Sumi H, Osawa T.
Dietary glutathione protects rats from diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy.
J Nutr. 2002 May;132(5):897-900.
PMID: 11983810

8: Gao F, Yao CL, Gao E, Mo QZ, Yan WL, McLaughlin R, Lopez BL, Christopher TA, Ma XL.
Enhancement of glutathione cardioprotection by ascorbic acid in myocardial reperfusion injury.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 May;301(2):543-50.
PMID: 11961055

9: Inal ME, Akgun A, Kahraman A.
Radioprotective effects of exogenous glutathione against whole-body gamma-ray irradiation: age- and gender-related changes in malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in rat liver.
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2002 May;24(4):209-12.
PMID: 12092007

10: Snyder AH, McPherson ME, Hunt JF, Johnson M, Stamler JS, Gaston B.
Acute effects of aerosolized S-nitrosoglutathione in cystic fibrosis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Apr 1;165(7):922-6.
PMID: 11934715

11: Kaposzta Z, Martin JF, Markus HS.
Switching off embolization from symptomatic carotid plaque using S-nitrosoglutathione.
Circulation. 2002 Mar 26;105(12):1480-4.
PMID: 11914258

12: Ortolani O, Conti A, De Gaudio AR, Moraldi E, Novelli GP.
[Glutathione and N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of free-radical damage in the initial phase of septic shock]
Recenti Prog Med. 2002 Feb;93(2):125-9. Italian.
PMID: 11887346

13: Amer MA.
Modulation of age-related biochemical changes and oxidative stress by vitamin C and glutathione supplementation in old rats.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2002;46(5):165-8.
PMID: 12378038