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Green Tea: 292 Research Abstracts

1. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Oct 22;51(22):6627-34.

A Combination of Tea (Camellia senensis) Catechins Is Required for Optimal Inhibition of Induced CYP1A Expression by Green Tea Extract.

Williams SN, Pickwell GV, Quattrochi LC.

Department of Medicine, Section of Medical Toxicology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262.

It was previously demonstrated that the commercial green tea extract Polyphenon 100 (P100), and to a lesser extent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), partially antagonizes 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced transcription of human CYP1A1 (Williams, S. N.; Shih, H.; Guenette, D. K.; Brackney, W.; Denison, M. S.; Pickwell, G. V.; Quattrochi, L. C. Chem.-Biol. Interact. 2000, 128, 211-229). Here, P100 is compared to a reconstituted mixture of the four major tea catechins (referred to as P100R) to determine whether inhibition was due to additional polyphenols in the extract or from synergistic interactions among the tea catechins. It was found that cotreatment of cells with TCDD and either P100 or P100R inhibited TCDD-induced CYP1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity (HepG2 cells) and CYP1A expression (HepG2 and primary human hepatocytes), similarly. These results indicate that modulation of human CYP1A expression by P100 can be attributed entirely to the combination of the four tea catechins. These findings may be important in the evaluation of future chemoprevention strategies using green tea and single catechin agents.

2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Oct 24;310(3):715-719.

Suppression of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis by green tea extract in Mongolian gerbils.

Matsubara S, Shibata H, Ishikawa F, Yokokura T, Takahashi M, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K.

Cancer Prevention Basic Research Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, 104-0045, Tokyo, Japan

Since urease of Helicobacter pylori is essential for its colonization, we focused attention on foodstuffs which inhibit the activity of this enzyme. Among plant-derived 77 foodstuff samples tested, some tea and rosemary extracts were found to clearly inhibit H. pylori urease in vitro. In particular, green tea extract (GTE) showed the strongest inhibition of H. pylori urease, with an IC(50) value of 13microg/ml. Active principles were identified to be catechins, the hydroxyl group of 5(')-position appearing important for urease inhibition. Furthermore, when H. pylori-inoculated Mongolian gerbils were given GTE in drinking water at the concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000ppm for 6 weeks, gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori-infected animals were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. Since the acquisition by H. pylori of resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem, tea and tea catechins may be very safe resources to control H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases.

3. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003 Aug;60(8):1760-3.

Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate is an inhibitor of mammalian histidine decarboxylase.

Rodriguez-Caso C, Rodriguez-Agudo D, Sanchez-Jimenez F, Medina MA.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, an antiproliferative and antiangiogenic component of green tea, has been reported to inhibit dopa decarboxylase. In this report,we show that this compound also inhibits histidine decarboxylase, the enzymic activity responsible for histamine biosynthesis. This inhibition was proved by a double approach, activity measurements and UV-Vis spectra of enzyme-bound pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. At 0.1 mM (-)-epi-gallocatechin-3-gallate, histidine decarboxylase activity was inhibited by more than 60% and the typical spectrum of the internal aldimine form shifted to a stable major maximum at 345 nm, suggesting that the compound causes a stable change in the structure of the holoenzyme.Since histamine release is one of the primary events in many inflammatory responses, a new potential application of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in prevention or treatment of inflammatory processes is suggested by these data.

4. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Oct;12(5):391-5.

Effects of green tea on carcinogen-induced hepatic CYP1As in C57BL/6 mice.

Yang M, Yoshikawa M, Arashidani K, Kawamoto T.

Department of Preventive Medicine/Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-Dong Chongno-Gu, 110-799 Seoul, Korea.

SUMMARY: Green tea (GT) drinking showed chemopreventive effects on various cancers. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A activity by green tea components-polyphenols-has been suggested as a chemoprevention against carcinogens that were bioactivated by CYP1As. Therefore, any changes in hepatic CYP1As may be considered as a biomarker for GT chemoprevention and clarify whether whole GT is chemopreventive for the population who are exposed to CYP1A specifically-bioactivated carcinogens. In this study, we investigated the changes in CYP1A levels by pre- and concurrent GT drinking against a CYP1A-inducing carcinogen, 3-methylcholanthrene (MC), in aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive C57 BL/6 mice. We found that GT drinking itself induced hepatic CYP1As and enhanced MC-induced ethoxyresorufin-O-demethylase (EROD) activity (P<0.05). However, our studies of CYP1A monoclonal antibody and western blots revealed that the enhanced hepatic EROD activity by GT did not come from CYP1As. Therefore, our results suggest that GT may work to biotransform CYP1A inducing carcinogens into non-carcinogenic metabolites by modulation of other microsomal enzymes rather than CYP1As. In addition, the mechanism of GT chemoprevention may be different from that of GT components, such as polyphenols that reduce CYP1As activity.

5. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Oct;12(5):383-90.

Protective effects of green tea extracts (polyphenon E and EGCG) on human cervical lesions.

Ahn WS, Yoo J, Huh SW, Kim CK, Lee JM, Namkoong SE, Bae SM, Lee IP.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

SUMMARY: We investigated clinical efficacy of green tea extracts (polyphenon E; poly E and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG]) delivered in a form of ointment or capsule in patients with human papilloma virus (HPV) infected cervical lesions. Fifty-one patients with cervical lesions (chronic cervicitis, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia and severe dysplasia) were divided into four groups, as compared with 39 untreated patients as a control. Poly E ointment was applied locally to 27 patients twice a week. For oral delivery, a 200 mg of poly E or EGCG capsule was taken orally every day for eight to 12 weeks. In the study, 20 out of 27 patients (74%) under poly E ointment therapy showed a response. Six out of eight patients under poly E ointment plus poly E capsule therapy (75%) showed a response, and three out of six patients (50%) under poly E capsule therapy showed a response. Six out of 10 patients (60%) under EGCG capsule therapy showed a response. Overall, a 69% response rate (35/51) was noted for treatment with green tea extracts, as compared with a 10% response rate (4/39) in untreated controls (P<0.05). Thus, the data collected here demonstrated that green tea extracts in a form of ointment and capsule are effective for treating cervical lesions, suggesting that green tea extracts can be a potential therapy regimen for patients with HPV infected cervical lesions.

6. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):517-22.

Hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity of small centaury (Centaurium erythraea) infusion. A comparative study with green tea (Camellia sinensis).

Valentao P, Fernandes E, Carvalho F, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Bastos ML.

CEQUP/Servico de Farmacognosia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Small centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafin.) is a herbal species with a long use in traditional medicine due to its digestive, stomachic, tonic, depurative, sedative and antipyretic properties. This species is reported to contain considerable amounts of polyphenolic compounds, namely xanthones and phenolic acids as the main constituents. Although the antiradicalar activity of some pure polyphenolic compounds is already known, it remains unclear how a complex mixture obtained from plant extracts functions against reactive oxygen species. Thus, the ability of small centaury infusion to act as a scavenger of the reactive oxygen species hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid was studied and compared with that of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Hydroxyl radical was generated in the presence of Fe3+-EDTA, ascorbate and H2O2 (Fenton system) and monitored by evaluating hydroxyl radical-induced deoxyribose degradation. The reactivity towards hypochlorous acid was determined by measuring the inhibition of hypochlorous acid-induced 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid oxidation to 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The obtained results demonstrate that small centaury infusion exhibits interesting antioxidant properties, expressed both by its capacity to effectively scavenge hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid, although with a lower activity against the second than that observed for green tea. Green tea exhibited a dual effect at the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, stimulating deoxyribose degradation at lower dosages.

7. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):494-8.

Enhancement of neutral endopeptidase activity in SK-N-SH cells by green tea extract.

Melzig MF, Janka M.

Institut fur Pharmazie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany.

Green tea extract (EFLA85942) is able to induce specifically the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity and to inhibit the proliferation of SK-N-SH cells; the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is not influenced under the same conditions. The treatment of the cells with arabinosylcytosine and green tea extract results in a strong enhancement of cellular NEP activity whereas cellular ACE activity was not changed significantly, indicating a green tea extract-specific regulation of NEP expression. Because of its role in the degradation of amyloid beta peptides this enzyme induction of NEP by long term treatment with green tea extract may have a beneficial effect regarding the prevention of forming amyloid plaques.

8. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(3):487-499. Epub 2003 Aug 26.

Interactions of androgens, green tea catechins and the antiandrogen flutamide with the external glucose-binding site of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter GLUT1.

Naftalin RJ, Afzal I, Cunningham P, Halai M, Ross C, Salleh N, Milligan SR.

New Hunt's House, King's College London, Guys Campus, London SE1 1UL.

This study investigates the effects of androgens, the antiandrogen flutamide and green tea catechins on glucose transport inhibition in human erythrocytes. These effects may relate to the antidiabetogenic effects of green tea. Testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-3-acetate inhibit glucose exit from human erythrocytes with half-maximal inhibitions (Ki) of 39.2+/-8.9, 29.6+/-3.7, 48.1+/-10.2 and 4.8+/-0.98 microm, respectively. The antiandrogen flutamide competitively relieves these inhibitions and of phloretin. Dehydrotestosterone has no effect on glucose transport, indicating the differences between androgen interaction with GLUT1 and human androgen receptor (hAR). Green tea catechins also inhibit glucose exit from erythrocytes. Epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) has a Ki ECG of 0.14+/-0.01 microm, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) has a Ki EGCG of 0.97+/-0.13 microm. Flutamide reverses these effects. Androgen-screening tests show that the green tea catechins do not act genomically. The high affinities of ECG and EGCG for GLUT1 indicate that this might be their physiological site of action. There are sequence homologies between GLUT1 and the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of hAR containing the amino-acid triads Arg 126, Thr 30 and Asn 288, and Arg 126, Thr 30 and Asn 29, with similar 3D topology to the polar groups binding 3-keto and 17-beta OH steroid groups in hAR LBD. These triads are appropriately sited for competitive inhibition of glucose import at the external opening of the hydrophilic pore traversing GLUT1.British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 140, 487-499. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705460

9. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;9(9):3312-9.

Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals.

Chow HH, Cai Y, Hakim IA, Crowell JA, Shahi F, Brooks CA, Dorr RT, Hara Y, Alberts DS.

Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA.

PURPOSE: Green tea and green tea polyphenols have been shown to possess cancer preventive activities in preclinical model systems. In preparation for future green tea intervention trials, we have conducted a clinical study to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of green tea polyphenols after 4 weeks of daily p.o. administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or Polyphenon E (a defined, decaffeinated green tea polyphenol mixture). In an exploratory fashion, we have also determined the effect of chronic green tea polyphenol administration on UV-induced erythema response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Healthy participants with Fitzpatric skin type II or III underwent a 2-week run-in period and were randomly assigned to receive one of the five treatments for 4 weeks: 800 mg EGCG once/day, 400 mg EGCG twice/day, 800 mg EGCG as Polyphenon E once/day, 400 mg EGCG as Polyphenon E twice/day, or a placebo once/day (8 subjects/group). Samples were collected and measurements performed before and after the 4-week treatment period for determination of safety, pharmacokinetics, and biological activity of green tea polyphenol treatment. RESULTS: Adverse events reported during the 4-week treatment period include excess gas, upset stomach, nausea, heartburn, stomach ache, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, and muscle pain. All of the reported events were rated as mild events. For most events, the incidence reported in the polyphenol-treated groups was not more than that reported in the placebo group. No significant changes were observed in blood counts and blood chemistry profiles after repeated administration of green tea polyphenol products. There was a >60% increase in the area under the plasma EGCG concentration-time curve after 4 weeks of green tea polyphenol treatment at a dosing schedule of 800 mg once daily. No significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetics of EGCG after repeated green tea polyphenol treatment at a regimen of 400 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetics of the conjugated metabolites of epigallocatechin and epicatechin were not affected by repeated green tea polyphenol treatment. Four weeks of green tea polyphenol treatment at the selected dose and dosing schedule did not provide protection against UV-induced erythema. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that it is safe for healthy individuals to take green tea polyphenol products in amounts equivalent to the EGCG content in 8-16 cups of green tea once a day or in divided doses twice a day for 4 weeks. There is a >60% increase in the systemic availability of free EGCG after chronic green tea polyphenol administration at a high daily bolus dose (800 mg EGCG or Polyphenon E once daily).

10. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003 Sep;33(9):1252-5.

Green tea-induced asthma: relationship between immunological reactivity, specific and non-specific bronchial responsiveness.

Shirai T, Reshad K, Yoshitomi A, Chida K, Nakamura H, Taniguchi M.

Department of Internal Medicine, Fujinomiya City General Hospital, Fujinomiya, Japan.

BACKGROUND: The relationships between immunological reactivity and bronchial responsiveness to allergen and non-specific bronchial responsiveness are unclear in occupational asthma caused by low molecular weight substances. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the above relationships in green tea-induced asthma, an occupational asthma of green tea factory workers, in which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), a low molecular weight component of green tea leaves, is the causative agent. METHODS: Subjects consisted of 21 patients suspected of having green tea-induced asthma, on whom skin test and inhalation challenge with EGCg were performed. The skin sensitivity or end-point titration to EGCg as a measure of immunological reactivity, together with the provocative concentrations causing a 20% or greater fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (PC20) of EGCg and methacholine, were determined. RESULTS: We found that 11 patients had green tea-induced asthma, with immediate asthmatic reactions in eight and dual asthmatic reactions in three. We also found that 11 of 13 patients (85%) with immunological reactivity and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to methacholine experienced an asthmatic reaction and that no subject without immunological reactivity reacted. There were significant correlations among skin sensitivity, EGCg PC20 and methacholine PC20. Multiple linear regression analysis showed the relationship: log (EGCg PC20)=0.42 log (skin sensitivity)+1.17 log (methacholine PC20)+0.93 (r=0.796, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: It is concluded that bronchial responsiveness to EGCg can be highly satisfactorily predicted by skin sensitivity to EGCg and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine.

11. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Oct;307(1):230-6. Epub 2003 Sep 03.

Green tea polyphenol causes differential oxidative environments in tumor versus normal epithelial cells.

Yamamoto T, Hsu S, Lewis J, Wataha J, Dickinson D, Singh B, Bollag WB, Lockwood P, Ueta E, Osaki T, Schuster G.

Kochi Medical School, Japan.

Green tea polyphenols (GTPPs) are considered beneficial to human health, especially as chemopreventive agents. Recently, cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) were identified in tumor and certain normal cell cultures incubated with high concentrations of the most abundant GTPP, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). If EGCG also provokes the production of ROS in normal epithelial cells, it may preclude the topical use of EGCG at higher doses. The current study examined the oxidative status of normal epithelial, normal salivary gland, and oral carcinoma cells treated with EGCG, using ROS measurement and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity assays. The results demonstrated that high concentrations of EGCG induced oxidative stress only in tumor cells. In contrast, EGCG reduced ROS in normal cells to background levels. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation data were also compared between the two oral carcinoma cell lines treated by EGCG, which suggest that a difference in the levels of endogenous catalase activity may play an important role in reducing oxidative stress provoked by EGCG in tumor cells. It is concluded that pathways activated by GTPPs or EGCG in normal epithelial versus tumor cells create different oxidative environments, favoring either normal cell survival or tumor cell destruction. This finding may lead to applications of naturally occurring polyphenols to enhance the effectiveness of chemo/radiation therapy to promote cancer cell death while protecting normal cells.

12. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Sep;26(9):1235-8.

Inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols on membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, MT1-MMP.

Oku N, Matsukawa M, Yamakawa S, Asai T, Yahara S, Hashimoto F, Akizawa T.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and COE Program in the 21st Century, University of Shizuoka, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which generates an active form of MMP-2 from proMMP-2, are deeply involved in angiogenesis as well as in tumor cell migration and metastasis. To obtain a specific inhibitor for MT1-MMP, we screened a number of natural and synthetic compounds using recombinant human MMP-2, MMP-7, and soluble MT1-MMP in a fluorogenic peptide cleavage assay. (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) followed by (-)-epigallocatechin 3,5-di-O-gallate and epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate, was found to have potent and distinct inhibitory activity against MT1-MMP. Therefore, we investigated the effect of EGCG on the suppression of MMP-2 activation as determined by gelatin zymography, and observed that the active form of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was decreased in the presence of EGCG. The results suggest the possibility that tea polyphenols suppress tumor growth through the suppression of angiogenesis.

13. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2003 Apr;34(2):303-5.

[Protective effects of green tea on mice with the irradiating damage induced by gamma-ray]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang Z, Zeng L, Xiao Y, Lu S, Gao X.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of green tea on mice with the irradiating damage induced by 60Co-gamma-ray. METHODS: Thirty-five mice were divided into normal control group, irradiating control group and three experiment groups. The mice of the experiment groups drank in water soluble extractives of green tea (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%) for two weeks. Then all animals were irradiated by 60Co-gamma-ray except those of the normal control group. The animals of three experiment groups continued drinking the water soluble extractives of green tea for one week, after that all mice of the five groups were killed. The levels of malondiadehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serums, the optical density (OD) value of DNA and the number of karyota of femur, the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow in mice of all groups were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the measurements in the irradiating control group, the level of MDA in serums and the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow in the three experiment groups were decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while the activities of SOD in serums, the OD value of DNA and the number of karyota of femur in mice of the three experiment groups were increased significantly (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The water soluble extractives of green tea have protective effects on mice with the irradiating damage induced by gamma-ray.

14. Int J Cancer. 2003 Oct 10;106(6):871-8.

Green tea catechins inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro through suppression of VE-cadherin phosphorylation and inactivation of Akt molecule.

Tang FY, Nguyen N, Meydani M.

Vascular Biology Laboratory, JM USDA-Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Studies have indicated that the consumption of green tea is associated with a reduced risk of developing certain forms of cancer and angiogenesis. The mechanism of inhibition of angiogenesis by green tea or its catechins, however, has not been well-established. Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an adhesive molecule located at the site of intercellular contact, is involved in cell-cell recognition during vascular morphogenesis. The extracellular domain of VE-cadherin mediates initial cell adhesion, whereas the cytosolic tail binding with beta-catenin is required for interaction with the cytoskeleton and junctional strength. Therefore, the cadherin-catenin adhesion system is implicated in cell recognition, differentiation, growth and migration of capillary endothelium. Using tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) in culture as an in vitro model of angiogenesis, we reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tube formation is inhibited by anti-VE-cadherin antibody and dose-dependently by green tea catechins. We also demonstrated here that inhibition of tube formation by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), one of the green tea catechins, is in part mediated through suppression of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibition of Akt activation during VEGF-induced tube formation. These findings indicate that VE-cadherin and Akt, known downstream proteins in VEGFR-2-mediated cascade, are the new-targeted proteins by which green tea catechins inhibit angiogenesis. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

15. J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):773-6.

Inhibition of bladder tumor growth by the green tea derivative epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

Kemberling JK, Hampton JA, Keck RW, Gomez MA, Selman SH.

Department of Urology, Medical College of Ohio, 3065 Arlington Avenue, Dowling Hall 2170, Toledo, OH 43614-5807, USA.

PURPOSE: We evaluated the green tea derivative epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as an intravesical agent for the prevention of transitional cell tumor implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro studies were performed in the AY-27 rat transitional cell cancer and the L1210 mouse leukemia cell lines. Cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of EGCG for 30 minutes to 48 hours. Surviving cell colonies were then determined. A DNA ladder assay was performed in the 2 cell lines. Fisher 344 rats were used for in vivo studies with an intravesical tumor implantation model. Group 1 (12 rats) served as a control (tumor implantation and medium wash only). In group 2 (28 rats) 200 microM EGCG were instilled intravesically 30 minutes after tumor implantation. Rats were sacrificed 3 weeks following treatment. Gross and histological analyses were then performed on the bladders. RESULTS: At 6.0 x 104 cells per 100 mm dish a time dose dependent response was observed. After 2 hours of treatment with EGCG 100% cell lethality of the AY-27 cell line occurred at concentrations greater than 100 microM. Strong banding on the DNA ladder assay was seen with the L1210 mouse leukemia cell line. Only weak banding patterns were found in the AY-27 cell line treated with EGCG (100 and 200 microM) for 24 hours. All 12 controls were successfully implanted with tumors. In group 2 (EGCG instillation) 18 of the 28 animals (64%) were free of tumor (Fisher's exact test p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The clonal assays showed a time dose related response to EGCG. Intravesical instillation of EGCG inhibits the growth of AY-27 rat transitional cells implanted in this model.

16. J Neurochem. 2003 Sep;86(5):1189-200.

Green tea polyphenols enhance sodium nitroprusside-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

Zhang Y, Zhao B.

Laboratory of Visual Information Processing, Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China.

Oxidative stress is a main mediator in nitric oxide (NO) -induced neurotoxicity and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. Green tea polyphenols are usually expected as potent chemo-preventive agents due to their ability of scavenging free radicals and chelating metal ions. However, not all the actions of green tea polyphenols are necessarily beneficial. In the present study, we demonstrated that higher-concentration green tea ployphenols significantly enhanced the neurotoxicity by treatment of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor. SNP induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner, as estimated by cell viability assessment, FACScan analysis and DNA fragmentation assay, whereas treatment with green tea polyphenols alone had no effect on cell viability. Pre-treatment with lower-dose green tea polyphenols (50 and 100 microm) had only a slightly deleterious effect in the presence of SNP, while higher-dose green tea polyphenols (200 and 500 microm) synergistically damaged the cells severely. Further research showed that co-incubation of green tea polyphenols and SNP caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, depletion of intracellular GSH and accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and exacerbated NO-induced neuronal apoptosis via a Bcl-2 sensitive pathway.

17. Brain Res Bull. 2003 Aug 30;61(4):399-406.

Effects of delayed administration of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, a green tea polyphenol on the changes in polyamine levels and neuronal damage after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils.

Lee SY, Kim CY, Lee JJ, Jung JG, Lee SR.

Department of Pharmacology, Kyungpook National University, 700-422 Taegu, South Korea.

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate has a potent antioxidant property and can reduce free radical-induced lipid peroxidation as a green tea polyphenol. In previous study, systemic administration of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate immediately after ischemia has been shown to inhibit the hippocampal neuronal damage in the gerbil model of global ischemia. Polyamines are thought to be important in the generation of brain edema and neuronal cell damage associated with various types of excitatory neurotoxicity. We examined the effects of delayed administration of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the changes in polyamine levels and neuronal damage after transient global ischemia in gerbils. To produce transient global ischemia, both common carotid arteries were occluded for 3 min with micro-clips. The gerbils were treated with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (50 mg/kg, i.p.) at 1 or 3 h after ischemia. The polyamines; putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels were examined using high performance liquid chromatography in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus 24 h after ischemia. Putrescine levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased significantly after ischemia and the delayed administrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (1 or 3 h after ischemia) attenuated the increases. Only minor changes were noted in the spermidine and spermine levels after ischemia. In histology, neuronal injuries in the hippocampal CA1 regions were evaluated quantitatively 5 days after ischemia. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate administered 1 h or 3 after ischemia significantly reduced hippocampal neuronal damage. The present results show that the delayed administrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit the transient global ischemia-induced increase of putrescine levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate is neuroprotective against neuronal damage even when administered up to 3 h after global ischemia. These findings suggest that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate may be promising in the acute treatment of stroke.

18. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2003;163:165-71; discussion 264-6.

Chemoprevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer: experience with a polyphenol from green tea.

Linden KG, Carpenter PM, McLaren CE, Barr RJ, Hite P, Sun JD, Li KT, Viner JL, Meyskens FL.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive, Orange, CA 92868, USA.

Nonmelanoma skin cancer is extremely common and is increasing in incidence. It would be very useful to have forms of therapy that would prevent precancerous changes from going on to form cancer, or to reverse the precancerous changes. Epidemiologic evidence in humans, in vitro studies on human cells, and clinical experiments in animals have identified polyphenol compounds found in tea to be possibly useful in reducing the incidence of various cancers, including skin cancer. To examine the potential for a polyphenol from green tea, epigallocatechin gallate, to act as a chemopreventive agent for nonmelanoma skin cancer, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial of topical epigallocatechin gallate in the prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer was performed.

19. FASEB J. 2003 Oct;17(13):1913-5. Epub 2003 Aug 01.

Dual mechanisms of green tea extract (EGCG)-induced cell survival in human epidermal keratinocytes.

Chung JH, Han JH, Hwang EJ, Seo JY, Cho KH, Kim KH, Youn JI, Eun HC.

Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Laboratory of Cutaneous Aging Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Beneficial effects attributed to green tea, such as its anticancer and antioxidant properties, may be mediated by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). In this study, the effects of EGCG on cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis were investigated in normal epidermal keratinocytes. When topically applied to aged human skin, EGCG stimulated the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes, which increased the epidermal thickness. In addition, this topical application also inhibited the UV-induced apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes. EGCG was found to increase the phosphorylation of Bad protein at the Ser112 and Ser136. Moreover, EGCG-induced Erk phosphorylation was found to be critical for the phosphorylation of Ser112 in Bad protein, and the EGCG-induced activation of the Akt pathway was found to be involved in the phosphorylation of Ser136. Furthermore, EGCG increased Bcl-2 expression but decreased Bax expression, causing an increase in the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio. In addition, we demonstrate the differential growth inhibitory effects of EGCG on cancer cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that EGCG promotes keratinocyte survival and inhibits the UV-induced apoptosis via two mechanisms: by phosphorylating Ser112 and Ser136 of Bad protein through Erk and Akt pathways, respectively, and by increasing the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio. Moreover, these two proposed mechanisms of EGCG-induced cell proliferation may differ kinetically to promote keratinocyte survival.

20. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Aug 15;308(1):64-7.

Effect of green tea polyphenols on angiogenesis induced by an angiogenin-like protein.

Maiti TK, Chatterjee J, Dasgupta S.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India.

Angiogenesis is a fundamental process by which new blood vessels are formed. The angiogenesis process is induced by several growth factors. Among them angiogenin is the most potent blood vessel inducer known. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of green tea polyphenols, mainly the catechins, on an angiogenin-like protein induced angiogenesis process. The angiogenin-like protein was isolated from goat serum and the effect of green tea components was tested by the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The results show that green tea components are capable of reducing the vascularization on CAM that is induced by the angiogenin-like protein.

21. Eur J Epidemiol. 2003;18(5):401-5.

Relation of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intake to gallstone disease in middle-aged Japanese men.

Ishizuk H, Eguchi H, Oda T, Ogawa S, Nakagawa K, Honjo S, Kono S.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

A possible protective effect of coffee or caffeine intake in the formation of gallstones has been suggested in some epidemiological studies. We examined the relation of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intake to gallstone disease in middle-aged Japanese men, distinguishing known gallstones from unknown diagnosed gallstones. Study subjects were 174 cases of gallstones as determined by ultrasonography, 104 cases of postcholecystectomy, and 6889 controls of normal gallbladder in the total of 7637 men who received a health examination at four hospitals of the Self-Defense Forces (SDF). Of the 174 cases of prevalent gallstones, 50 had been aware of having gallstones. Previously diagnosed gallstones and postcholecystectomy were combined as known gallstone disease. The consumption of coffee and green tea was ascertained by a self-administered questionnaire, and caffeine intake was estimated. Statistical adjustment was done for body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, rank in the SDF, and hospital. Coffee and caffeine intake were associated each with a statistically significant increase in the prevalence odds of known gallstone disease, but unrelated to newly diagnosed gallstones. Adjusted odds ratios of known gallstone disease were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.8) for coffee consumption of five cups or more per day vs. no consumption and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3-3.7) for caffeine intake of 300 mg/day or more vs. less than 100 mg/day. The consumption of green-tea showed no material association with either unknown gallstones or known gallstone disease. The findings do not support a hypothesis that coffee drinking may be protective against gallstone formation.

22. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(2):226-35.

Catechin content of 18 teas and a green tea extract supplement correlates with the antioxidant capacity.

Henning SM, Fajardo-Lira C, Lee HW, Youssefian AA, Go VL, Heber D.

UCLA Center for Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, Warren Hall 14-166, 900 Veteran Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Our literature review of currently available data in the area of tea and cancer prevention demonstrated that there is more conclusive evidence for the chemopreventive effect of green tea compared with black tea. We suggest that this is due to a large variation of the flavanol content in tea, which is not taken into consideration in most of the epidemiological studies. It was the purpose of this study to determine the flavanol content of various teas and tea products and to correlate it with their radical scavenging activity. A modified oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay at pH 5.5 was utilized. The total flavavol content varied from 21.2 to 103.2 mg/g for regular teas and from 4.6 to 39.0 mg/g for decaffeinated teas. The ORAC value varied from 728 to 1686 trolox equivalents/g tea for regular teas and from 507 to 845 trolox equivalents/g for decaffeinated teas. There was a significant correlation of flavanol content to ORAC value (r = 0.79, P = 0.0001) for the teas and green tea extract. The large variation in flavanol content and ORAC value among various brands and types of tea provides critical information for investigators using tea in studies of nutrition and cancer prevention.

23. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003 May;37(3):171-3.

[Study on the protective effect of green tea on gastric, liver and esophageal cancers]

[Article in Chinese]

Mu LN, Zhou XF, Ding BG, Wang RH, Zhang ZF, Jiang QW, Yu SZ.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the protective effect of drinking green tea on the development of gastric, liver and esophageal cancers. METHODS: A population based study was conducted in Taixing, Jiangsu province, including 206, 204, 218 cases, respectively, and 415 population controls. RESULTS: Green tea decreased the development of gastric cancer risk by 40%. Dose-response relationships were observed between the length of time, concentration and quantity of green tea drinking and its protective effects on gastric cancer. For individuals who drink green tea for more than 250 g per month, the risk of gastric cancer reduced about 60%. Green tea might have protective effect on liver cancer. However, no protective effect of green tea was observed on esophageal cancer. CONCLUSION: Green tea drinking might be a protective factor for gastric cancer. However, the protective effects of green tea on liver and esophageal cancer were not obvious.

24. Drugs Aging. 2003;20(10):711-21.

Potential therapeutic properties of green tea polyphenols in Parkinson's disease.

Pan T, Jankovic J, Le W.

Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Tea is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. It is rich in polyphenols, a group of compounds that exhibit numerous biochemical activities. Green tea is not fermented and contains more catechins than black tea or oolong tea. Although clinical evidence is still limited, the circumstantial data from several recent studies suggest that green tea polyphenols may promote health and reduce disease occurrence, and possibly protect against Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.Green tea polyphenols have demonstrated neuroprotectant activity in cell cultures and animal models, such as the prevention of neurotoxin-induced cell injury. The biological properties of green tea polyphenols reported in the literature include antioxidant actions, free radical scavenging, iron-chelating properties, (3)H-dopamine and (3)H-methyl-4-phenylpyridine uptake inhibition, catechol-O-methyltransferase activity reduction, protein kinase C or extracellular signal-regulated kinases signal pathway activation, and cell survival/cell cycle gene modulation. All of these biological effects may benefit patients with Parkinson's disease.Despite numerous studies in recent years, the understanding of the biological activities and health benefits of green tea polyphenols is still very limited. Further in-depth studies are needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of green tea in humans and to determine the different mechanisms of green tea in neuroprotection.

25. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2003 Sep;3(3):234-42.

Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

Katiyar SK.

Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers formation, which are considered to be mediators of UVB-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. The in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies suggest that green tea polyphenols are photoprotective in nature, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders including photoaging, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers after more clinical trials in humans.

26. Chem Res Toxicol. 2003 Jul;16(7):865-72.

Identification of potential aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists in green tea.

Palermo CM, Hernando JI, Dertinger SD, Kende AS, Gasiewicz TA.

Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

Previous investigations have implicated green tea to exert chemopreventive effects in animal models of chemical carcinogenesis, including polycyclic aryl hydrocarbon-induced cancers. In an effort to understand the compound(s) responsible for this protection, the effects of green tea extracts (GTE) and individual green tea catechins on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene induction were determined. Green tea (GT) was organically extracted and subsequently fractionated by column chromatography. The chemical composition of each fraction was determined by NMR. Several fractions inhibited tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced transcription of a dioxin responsive element-dependent luciferase reporter in stably transfected mouse hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. To determine the GT component(s) responsible for the observed effects, individual catechins were tested in the luciferase reporter system at concentrations found within the active fractions. Of the catechins tested, epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most potent antagonists, with IC(50) values of 60 and 100 microM, respectively. Re-creation of the active fractions using commercially available catechins further confirmed the identification of EGCG and EGC as the active AhR antagonists in green tea. These data suggest that EGCG and EGC are capable of altering AhR transcription and are responsible for most, if not all, of the AhR antagonist activity of GTE.

27. Life Sci. 2003 Aug 8;73(12):1479-89.

Action of green tea catechin on bone metabolic disorder in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats.

Choi JH, Rhee IK, Park KY, Park KY, Kim JK, Rhee SJ.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu, 712-702, South Korea.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on bone metabolic disorders and its mechanism in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100+/-10 g were randomly assigned to one control group and three cadmium-poisoned groups. The cadmium groups included a catechin free diet (Cd-0C) group, a 0.25% catechin diet (Cd-0.25C) group and a 0.5% catechin diet (Cd-0.5C) group according to their respective levels of catechin supplement. After 20 weeks, the deoxypyridinoline and crosslink values measured in urine were significantly increased in the Cd-0C group. Cadmium intoxication seemed to lead to an increase in bone resorption. In the catechin supplemented group (Cd-0.5C group), these urinary bone resorption marks, were decreased. The serum osteocalcin content in the cadmium-poisoned group was significantly increased as compared with the control group. In the catechin supplemented group serum osteocalcin content values were lower than the control group. The cadmium-intoxicated group (Cd-0C group), had lower bone mineral density than the control group (total body, vertebra, pelvis, tibia and femur). The catechin supplement increased bone mineral density to about the same as the control group. Bone mineral content showed a similar trend to total bone mineral density. Therefore, the bone mineral content of the Cd-0C group at the 20th week was significantly lower than the control group. The catechin supplemented group (Cd-0.5C group) was about the same as the control group. The cause of decreasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content by cadmium poisoning was due to the fast bone turnover rate, where bone resorption occurred at a higher rate than bone formation. The green tea catechin aided in normalizing bone metabolic disorders in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone calcium content caused by chronic cadmium intoxication.

28. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 May;993:351-61; discussion 387-93.

Gene and protein expression profiles of anti- and pro-apoptotic actions of dopamine, R-apomorphine, green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechine-3-gallate, and melatonin.

Weinreb O, Mandel S, Youdim MB.

Eve Topf, Haifa, Israel.

Significant evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that oxidant stress may be responsible for degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine (DA), R-apomorphine (R-APO), green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechine-3-gallate (EGCG), and melatonin are neuroprotective and radical scavenger compounds. The aim of this study was to establish the mechanism of the concentration-dependent neuroprotective and pro-apoptotic action of these drugs via gene expression and protein determination. cDNA microarrays provide new prospects to study and identify various mechanisms of drug action. We employed this technique for the study reported in this paper. Total RNA was extracted from SH-SY5Y cells exposed to low neuroprotective and high toxic concentrations of the drugs, followed by synthesis of cDNA, and hybridization to a microarray membrane related to apoptosis, survival, and cell cycle pathways. We demonstrated a concentration and time-dependent correlation between R-APO, DA, EGCG, and melatonin in modulation of cell survival/cell death-related gene pathways. The results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and protein profiles. Unlike the effects of low concentrations (1-10 micro M), where an antiapoptotic response was manifest, a proapoptotic pattern of gene expression was observed at high toxic concentrations (50-500 micro M) of the antioxidants (e.g., increase in caspases, fas, and gadd45). Our results have provided novel insights into the gene mechanisms involved in both the neuroprotective and proapoptotic activities of neuroprotective drugs. We have shown that DA, R-APO, EGCG, and melatonin exhibit similar gene expression and protein profiles.

29. Life Sci. 2003 Aug 1;73(11):1383-92.

Stimulatory effect of oral administration of green tea and caffeine on locomotor activity in SKH-1 mice.

Michna L, Lu YP, Lou YR, Wagner GC, Conney AH.

Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Administration of green tea or caffeine was shown previously to inhibit ultraviolet B light-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice, and this effect was associated with a reduction in dermal fat. In the present study, oral administration of 0.6% green tea (6 mg tea solids/ml) or 0.04% caffeine (0.4 mg/ml; equivalent to the amount of caffeine in 0.6% green tea) as the sole source of drinking fluid to SKH-1 mice for 15 weeks increased total 24 hr locomotor activity by 47 and 24%, respectively (p<0.0001). Oral administration of 0.6% decaffeinated green tea (6 mg tea solids/ml) for 15 weeks increased locomotor activity by 9% (p<0.05). The small increase in locomotor activity observed in mice treated with decaffeinated green tea may have resulted from the small amounts of caffeine still remaining in decaffeinated green tea solutions (0.047 mg/ml). The stimulatory effects of orally administered green tea and caffeine on locomotor activity were paralleled by a 38 and 23% increase, respectively, in the dermal muscle layer thickness. In addition, treatment of the mice with 0.6% green tea or 0.04% caffeine for 15 weeks decreased the weight of the parametrial fat pad by 29 and 43%, respectively, and the thickness of the dermal fat layer was decreased by 51 and 47%, respectively. These results indicate that oral administration of green tea or caffeine to SKH-1 mice increases locomotor activity and muscle mass and decreases fat stores. The stimulatory effect of green tea and caffeine administration on locomotor activity described here may contribute to the effects of green tea and caffeine to decrease fat stores and to inhibit carcinogenesis induced by UVB in SKH-1 mice.

30. Life Sci. 2003 Jul 25;73(10):1299-313.

Green tea extract inhibits angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells through reduction of expression of VEGF receptors.

Kojima-Yuasa A, Hua JJ, Kennedy DO, Matsui-Yuasa I.

Department of Food and Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.

Epidemiological and animal studies have indicated that consumption of green tea is associated with a reduced risk of developing certain forms of cancer. However, the inhibitory mechanism of green tea in angiogenesis, an important process in tumor growth, has not been well established. In the present study, green tea extract (GTE) was tested for its ability to inhibit cell viability, cell proliferation, cell cycle dynamics, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and expression of VEGF receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt-1) and fetal liver kinase-1/Kinase insert domain containing receptor (Flk-1/KDR) in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). GTE in culture media did not affect cell viability but significantly reduced cell proliferation dose-dependently and caused a dose-dependent accumulation of cells in the G1 phase. The decrease of the expression of Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1 in HUVEC by GTE was detected with immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods. These results suggest that GTE may have preventive effects on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis through reduction of expression of VEGF receptors.

31. Int J Cancer. 2003 Sep 10;106(4):574-9.

Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

Wu AH, Yu MC, Tseng CC, Hankin J, Pike MC.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low soy consumers. Similarly, the protective effect of soy was primarily observed among subjects who were nondrinkers of green tea. In summary, our results point to an important role of both green tea and soy intake in relation to breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

32. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2417S-2424S.

Molecular targets for green tea in prostate cancer prevention.

Adhami VM, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H.

Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American males. For these reasons, it is necessary to intensify our efforts for better understanding and development of novel treatment and chemopreventive approaches for this disease. In recent years, green tea has gained considerable attention as an agent that could reduce the risk of several cancer types. The cancer-chemopreventive effects of green tea appear to be mediated by the polyphenolic constituents present therein. Based on geographical observations that suggest that the incidence of PCa is lower in Japanese and Chinese populations that consume green tea on a regular basis, we hypothesized that green tea and/or its constituents could be effective for chemoprevention of PCa. To investigate this hypothesis, we initiated a program for the chemoprevention of PCa by green tea. In cell-culture systems that employ human PCa cells DU145 (androgen insensitive) and LNCaP (androgen sensitive), we found that the major polyphenolic constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) of green tea induces 1) apoptosis, 2) cell-growth inhibition, and 3) cyclin kinase inhibitor WAF-1/p21-mediated cell-cycle dysregulation. More recently, using a cDNA microarray, we found that EGCG treatment of LNCaP cells results in 1) induction of genes that functionally exhibit growth-inhibitory effects, and 2) repression of genes that belong to the G-protein signaling network. In animal studies that employ a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP), which is a model that mimics progressive forms of human prostatic disease, we observed that oral infusion of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) at a human achievable dose (equivalent to 6 cups of green tea/d) significantly inhibits PCa development and metastasis. We extended these studies and more recently observed increased expression of genes related to angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and those related to metastasis such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in prostate cancer of TRAMP mice. Oral feeding of GTP as the sole source of drinking fluid to TRAMP mice results in significant inhibition of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9. These data suggest that there are multiple targets for PCa chemoprevention by green tea and highlight the need for further studies to identify novel pathways that may be modulated by green tea or its polyphenolic constituents that could be further exploited for prevention and/or treatment of PCa.

33. FEBS Lett. 2003 Jul 10;546(2-3):265-70.

Complex effects of different green tea catechins on human platelets.

Lill G, Voit S, Schror K, Weber AA.

Institut fur Pharmakologie und Klinische Pharmakologie, Universitatsklinikum Dusseldorf, Moorenstr 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been previously shown to inhibit platelet aggregation. The effects of other green tea catechins on platelet function are not known. Pre-incubation with EGCG concentration-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced aggregation and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2. In contrast EGCG stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins, including Syk and SLP-76 but inhibited phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Other catechins did not inhibit platelet aggregation. Interestingly, when EGCG was added to stirred platelets, a tyrosine kinase-dependent stimulation of platelet aggregation was observed. The two other catechins containing a galloyl group in the 3' position (catechin gallate, epicatechin gallate) also stimulated platelet aggregation, while catechins without a galloyl group (catechin, epicatechin) or the catechin with a galloyl group in the 2' position (epigallocatechin) did not.

34. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jun 23;163(12):1448-53.

Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial.

Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao J. Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

BACKGROUND: Tea consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, but potential mechanisms of benefit are ill-defined. While epidemiologic studies suggest that drinking multiple cups of tea per day lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), previous trials of tea drinking and administration of green tea extract have failed to show any impact on lipids and lipoproteins in humans. Our objective was to study the impact of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract on the lipids and lipoproteins of subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial set in outpatient clinics in 6 urban hospitals in China. A total of 240 men and women 18 years or older on a low-fat diet with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to receive a daily capsule containing theaflavin-enriched green tea extract (375 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures were mean percentage changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels compared with baseline. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, the mean +/- SEM changes from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride levels were -11.3% +/- 0.9% (P =.01), -16.4% +/- 1.1% (P =.01), 2.3% +/- 2.1% (P =.27), and 2.6% +/- 3.5% (P =.47), respectively, in the tea extract group. The mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides did not change significantly in the placebo group. No significant adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: The theaflavin-enriched green tea extract we studied is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated.

35. Anticancer Res. 2003 Mar-Apr;23(2B):1533-9.

Green tea polyphenol targets the mitochondria in tumor cells inducing caspase 3-dependent apoptosis.

Hsu S, Lewis J, Singh B, Schoenlein P, Osaki T, Athar M, Porter AG, Schuster G.

Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, AD1443. Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-1126, USA.

Induction of apoptosis by green tea polyphenols has been observed in various tumor cell systems, but whether green tea polyphenol-induced apoptosis requires caspase 3 for execution has not been confirmed. We previously reported that green tea polyphenol-induced apoptosis involved Apaf-1 accumulation and caspase 3 activation in the cytosol. In the current study, tumor cells either with deleted caspase 3 gene or expressing wild-type caspase 3 were treated with increasing concentrations of green tea polyphenol(s), followed by morphological analysis and caspase 3 activity assay. The caspase 3 null parental cell line was further examined in comparison with a well-characterized, caspase 3 wild type oral carcinoma cell line by MTT assay and BrdU incorporation assay. The results demonstrated that, while the mitochondrial function gradually declined to insignificant levels, caspase 3 null cells did not undergo apoptosis, which suggested that green tea polyphenol-induced apoptosis is a mitochondria-targeted, caspase 3-executed mechanism.

36. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003 Mar;24(3):192-5.

[A case-control study on drinking green tea and decreasing risk of cancers in the alimentary canal among cigarette smokers and alcohol drinkers]

[Article in Chinese]

Mu LN, Zhou XF, Ding BG, Wang RH, Zhang ZF, Chen CW, Wei GR, Zhou XM, Jiang QW, Yu SZ.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of green tea in decreasing the risks of gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer among alcohol drinkers or cigarette smokers. METHODS: A population based case-control study was conducted in Taixing, Jiangsu province. RESULTS: In Taixing city, identified cases of stomach, liver and esophageal cancers were chosen with informed consent. The numbers were 206, 204, 218 respectively. Controls were chosen from normal population having lived in the area for longer than 10 years, also with informed consent. Green tea drinking seemed to have decreased 81%, 78%, 39% risk for the development of gastric cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer among alcohol drinkers. It might also have decreased 16%, 43%, 31% on the risks of developing the three kinds of cancers among cigarette smokers. Interaction assessment showed that drinking green tea could significantly decrease the risk of gastric cancer and liver cancer among alcohol drinkers, with ORs of interaction item 0.23 (95% CI: 0.10 - 0.55) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11 - 0.57) respectively. CONCLUSION: Habit of drinking green tea seemed to have significant protective effects on the development of both gastric and liver cancer among alcohol drinkers while, green tea also having some protective effect on esophageal cancer among alcohol drinkers and on three kinds of cancers among cigarette smokers.

37. Arch Dermatol Res. 2003 Jul;295(3):112-6. Epub 2003 Jun 13.

Comparative effects of polyphenols from green tea (EGCG) and soybean (genistein) on VEGF and IL-8 release from normal human keratinocytes stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha.

Trompezinski S, Denis A, Schmitt D, Viac J.

INSERM U 346, Clinique Dermatologique, Hopital E. Herriot, 69437 Lyon, France.

In skin inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and IL-8 play an important role and are produced by activated keratinocytes. Recently, some polyphenols have been reported to exhibit antiinflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. We therefore evaluated the effects of green tea, its major component epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and an isoflavone derived from soybean (genistein) on the release of VEGF and IL-8 by activated normal human keratinocytes (NHK). NHK cultured in defined medium were stimulated for 48 h with the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha with the addition or not of different concentrations of polyphenols. Levels of VEGF and IL-8 were measured in cell supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The different constituents tested inhibited keratinocyte proliferation without inducing apoptosis. They reduced in a dose-dependent manner the basal release and the upregulation of VEGF in NHK. Green tea and EGCG were also potent inhibitors of IL-8 release by TNFalpha-stimulated NHK, whereas genistein exerted only minor effects. These results underline the divergent pathways involved in the downregulation of VEGF and IL-8 by polyphenols in activated keratinocytes. They also suggest that polyphenols may contribute to moderate inflammatory processes in skin diseases associated with angiogenesis.

38. Carcinogenesis. 2003 Jun;24(6):1105-9. Epub 2003 Apr 24.

Prevention of dual promoting effects of pentachlorophenol, an environmental pollutant, on diethylnitrosamine-induced hepato- and cholangiocarcinogenesis in mice by green tea infusion.

Umemura T, Kai S, Hasegawa R, Kanki K, Kitamura Y, Nishikawa A, Hirose M.

Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan.

In order to explore a possibility that the custom of drinking green tea infusion is efficacious for reducing the carcinogenic risk of environmental exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP), we examined the effects in a hepato- and cholangiocarcinogenesis model in mice exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN). In the first experiment, groups of 15 male mice were initially treated with DEN at a dose of 20 p.p.m. in the drinking water for the first 8 weeks followed by a 4 week recovery interval by PCP at concentrations of 0 (basal diet), 300 or 600 p.p.m. in the diet for 23 weeks. Further groups of animals were treated with DEN and PCP in the same manner and received 2% green tea infusion (GT) instead of the drinking water from week 10 until death. PCP exposure at the high dose promoted DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and also caused progression of cystic hyperplasias of the intrahepatic bile ducts to cholangiocellular tumors. Co-administration of GT was able to prevent the increases of incidences and multiplicities of DEN-induced hepatocellular tumors and also arrest the progression of cholangiocellular tumors. In the second experiment, co-treatment with GT in the drinking water from 1 week before 300 or 600 p.p.m. PCP treatment in the diet to the end of the experiment at week 3 in B6C3F1 male mice suppressed increases of serum ALT activities, 8-oxodeoxyguanosine levels in liver DNA and bromodeoxyuridine labeling indices of hepatocytes and intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells induced by PCP. These findings suggest that regular intake of green tea may reduce the carcinogenic risk posed by an environmental pollutant, PCP, presumably due to effects on oxidative stress.

39. DNA Cell Biol. 2003 Mar;22(3):217-24.

A major constituent of green tea, EGCG, inhibits the growth of a human cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells, through apoptosis, G(1) arrest, and regulation of gene expression.

Ahn WS, Huh SW, Bae SM, Lee IP, Lee JM, Namkoong SE, Kim CK, Sin JI.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

A constituent of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been known to possess antiproliferative properties. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EGCG in human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 associated cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells. The growth inhibitory mechanism(s) and regulation of gene expression by EGCG were also evaluated. EGCG showed growth inhibitory effects in CaSki cells in a dose-dependent fashion, with an inhibitory dose (ID)(50) of approximately 35 microM. When CaSki cells were further tested for EGCG-induced apoptosis, apoptotic cells were significantly observed after 24 h at 100 microM EGCG. In contrast, an insignificant induction of apoptotic cells was observed at 35 microM EGCG. However, cell cycles at the G1 phase were arrested at 35 microM EGCG, suggesting that cell cycle arrests might precede apoptosis. When CaSki cells were tested for their gene expression using 384 cDNA microarray, an alteration in the gene expression was observed by EGCG treatment. EGCG downregulated the expression of 16 genes over time more than twofold. In contrast, EGCG upregulated the expression of four genes more than twofold, suggesting a possible gene regulatory role of EGCG. This data supports that EGCG can inhibit cervical cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as regulation of gene expression in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo antitumor effects of EGCG were also observed. Thus, EGCG likely provides an additional option for a new and potential drug approach for cervical cancer patients.

40. J Biochem (Tokyo). 2003 May;133(5):571-6.

Inhibitory effects of green tea catechins on the activity of human matrix metalloproteinase 7 (matrilysin).

Oneda H, Shiihara M, Inouye K.

Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Inhibitory effects of green tea catechins and their derivatives on the matrilysin-catalyzed hydrolysis of a synthetic substrate, (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetyl-L-Pro-L-Leu-Gly-L-Leu-[N(3)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-L -2,3-diamino-propionyl]-L-Ala-L-Arg-NH(2) [MOCAc-PLGL(Dpa)AR], were examined. The 10 catechins examined were classified into three groups according to their inhibition potency. Catechins with a galloyl group at the 3 position, including a major component of green tea catechin, (-)-epigallo-3-catechin gallate [(-)-EGCG], were the most potent inhibitors and inhibited matrilysin in a non-competitive manner with K(i) values of 0.47-1.65 micro M. The inhibitory potency of (-)-EGCG was not influenced by the presence of an inhibitor, ZnCl(2), suggesting that the inhibitions of matrilysin by (-)-EGCG and by ZnCl(2) might be independent of each other. The inhibitory effects of green tea catechins suggest that a high intake of green tea might be effective for the prevention of tumor metastasis and invasion in which matrilysin is concerned.

41. Nutrition. 2003 Jun;19(6):536-40.

Effect of green tea in the prevention and reversal of fasting-induced intestinal mucosal damage.

Asfar S, Abdeen S, Dashti H, Khoursheed M, Al-Sayer H, Mathew T, Al-Bader A.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait.

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that high consumption of green tea protects against the development of chronic active gastritis and decreases the risk of stomach cancer. The effect of green tea on the intestinal mucosa was not studied previously, so we examined the effects of green tea on the intestinal mucosa of fasting rats in a controlled experimental setting. METHODS: Two sets of experiments were performed. In the recovery set, rats were fasted for 3 d, after which they were allowed free access to water, black tea, green tea, or vitamin E for 7 d. On day 8, the animals were killed, and small bowels were removed for histologic examination. In the pretreatment set, rats were allowed a normal diet, but the water supply was replaced with green tea, black tea, or vitamin E for 14 d. They were subsequently fasted for 3 d. On day 4, the rats were killed, and small bowels were removed for histologic examination. RESULTS: In the recovery set, fasting for 3 d caused shortening of villi, atrophy, and fragmentation of mucosal villous architecture, with a significant (P < 0.0001) reduction in the length and surface area of the villi. Ingestion of green tea and, to a lesser extent, vitamin E for 7 d helped in the recovery of villi to normal. In the pretreatment set, drinking green tea, black tea, or vitamin E for 14 d before fasting protected intestinal mucosa from damage. CONCLUSION: The mucosal and villous atrophy induced by fasting was reverted to normal by the ingestion of green tea and, to a lesser extent, vitamin E. Black tea ingestion had no effect. In addition, ingestion of black tea, green tea, and vitamin E before fasting protected the intestinal mucosa against atrophy.

42. Carcinogenesis. 2003 May;24(5):927-36.

Treatment of green tea polyphenols in hydrophilic cream prevents UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins, depletion of antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation of MAPK proteins in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.

Vayalil PK, Elmets CA, Katiyar SK.

Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Blvd, Volker Hall 557, 35294, USA.

The use of botanical supplements has received immense interest in recent years to protect human skin from adverse biological effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The polyphenols from green tea are one of them and have been shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis in animal models but their mechanism of photoprotection is not well understood. To determine the mechanism of photoprotection in in vivo mouse model, topical treatment of polyphenols from green tea (GTP) or its most chemopreventive constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (1 mg/cm(2) skin area) in hydrophilic ointment USP before single (180 mJ/cm(2)) or multiple UVB exposures (180 mJ/cm(2), daily for 10 days) resulted in significant prevention of UVB-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (78-100%, P < 0.005-0.001), catalase (51-92%, P < 0.001) and glutathione level (87-100%, P < 0.005). Treatment of EGCG or GTP also inhibited UVB-induced oxidative stress when measured in terms of lipid peroxidation (76-95%, P < 0.001), and protein oxidation (67-75%, P > 0.001). Further, to delineate the inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative stress with cell signaling pathways, treatment of EGCG to mouse skin resulted in marked inhibition of a single UVB irradiation-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (16-95%), JNK (46-100%) and p38 (100%) proteins of MAPK family in a time-dependent manner. Identical photoprotective effects of EGCG or GTP were also observed against multiple UVB irradiation-induced phosphorylation of the proteins of MAPK family in vivo mouse skin. Photoprotective efficacy of GTP given in drinking water (d.w.) (0.2%, w/v) was also determined and compared with that of topical treatment of EGCG and GTP. Treatment of GTP in d.w. also significantly prevented single or multiple UVB irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes (44-61%, P < 0.01-0.001), oxidative stress (33-71%, P < 0.01) and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 proteins of MAPK family but the photoprotective efficacy was comparatively less than that of topical treatments of EGCG and GTP. Lesser photoprotective efficacy of GTP in d.w. in comparison with topical application may be due to its less bioavailability in skin target cells. Together, for the first time a cream based formulation of green tea polyphenols was tested in this study to explore the possibility of its use for the humans, and the data obtained from this in vivo study further suggest that GTP could be useful in attenuation of solar UVB light-induced oxidative stress-mediated and MAPK-caused skin disorders in humans.

43. Exp Mol Med. 2003 Apr 30;35(2):136-9.

Epigallocatechin gallate, a constituent of green tea, suppresses cytokine-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage.

Han MK.

Department of Microbiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Institute for Medical Sciences, Jeonju 560-756, Korea.

Cytokines produced by immune cells infiltrating pancreatic islets have been implicated as one of the important mediators of beta-cell destruction in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this study, the protective effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on cytokine-induced beta-cell destruction were investigated. EGCG effectively protected IL-1beta and IFN-gamma-mediated cytotoxicity in insulinoma cell line (RINm5F). EGCG induced a significant reduction in IL-1beta and IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and reduced levels of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein levels on RINm5F cells. The molecular mechanism by which EGCG inhibited iNOS gene expression appeared to involve the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. These findings revealed EGCG as a possible therapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes mellitus progression.

44. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003 Jun;18(3):192-5.

Inhibitory effects of green tea catechins on protein tyrosine phosphatase in Prevotella intermedia.

Okamoto M, Leung KP, Ansai T, Sugimoto A, Maeda N.

Department of Oral Bacteriology, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Members of the Prevotella intermedia group possess protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of catechin derivatives from Japanese green tea on the activity of PTPase in P. intermedia and related organisms. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of alkaline phosphatase derived from P. intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella pallens and Porphyromonas gingivalis revealed a species-specific migration pattern. Among the tea catechin derivatives tested, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), similar to orthovanadate, a specific inhibitor for PTPase, was effective in inhibiting the PTPase activity in P. intermedia at 0.5 microm, and related species at 5 microm. The results suggested that the inhibitory effect observed is due to the presence of galloyl moiety in the structure. In contrast, neither the green tea catechins nor orthovanadate inhibited the phosphatase activity in P. gingivalis, suggesting that this organism possessed a different family of alkaline phosphatase.

45. Phytother Res. 2003 May;17(5):566-7.

Superoxide dismutase activity enhanced by green tea inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

Mori M, Hasegawa N.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Nagoya Bunri College, Nagoya, Japan.

We studied the effect of powdered green tea on intracellular superoxide dismutase activity in the adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. By the 14 days of culture with insulin, the triglyceride concentration was increased. When powdered green tea and insulin were added simultaneously, the increased triglyceride content was decreased (p < 0.05), and the superoxide dismutase activities were significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). These data suggest that green tea may have an antilipogenic activity due to its radical scavenging activity mechanism. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

46. Phytother Res. 2003 May;17(5):477-80.

Powdered green tea has antilipogenic effect on Zucker rats fed a high-fat diet.

Hasegawa N, Yamda N, Mori M.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Nagoya Bunri College, Nagoya, Japan.

The effect of powdered green tea on the lipid metabolism was studied in male Zucker rats fed a 50% sucrose diet containing 15% butter. The oral treatment of 130 mg powdered green tea per day depressed body weight increase and various adipose tissue weights but food intake was unaffected. The treatment also slightly increased the plasma triglycerides. These effects were likely mediated by the inhibition of lipogenesis in the adipose tissues. The experimental group had a higher concentration of liver total lipid, triglycerides and plasma protein, and lower liver weights than the controls. This may be due to lipid deposition in the liver because of the reduction in adipose tissue weights. It was found that powdered green tea lowered the plasma total cholesterol but liver total cholesterol was unaffected. The results indicate that the hypocholesterolemic activity of powdered green tea might be due to the inhibition of the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

47. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 May 21;51(11):3379-81.

Effect of selenium on the yield and quality of green tea leaves harvested in early spring.

Hu Q, Xu J, Pang G.

Laboratory of Food Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China.

Foliar applications of a fertilizer of selenite or selenate were carried out to determine the influence of selenium on the yield and quality of green tea leaves harvested in early spring. Numbers of sprouts and the yield were significantly increased by the application of selenium. The sweetness and aroma of green tea leaves were also significantly enhanced, and bitterness was significantly decreased by the application of selenium. However, no significant differences were found in sweetness, bitterness, and aroma between tea leaves fertilized with selenite and selenate. Se concentration was significantly increased by selenium fertilization, and tea enriched by sodium selenate had a significantly higher selenium content than did tea enriched by sodium selenite. Total amino acid and vitamin C contents were significantly enhanced by the application of selenium. Tea polyphenol contents were significantly decreased by fertilization with selenium. The marked difference of tea polyphenols was also found between applications of selenite and selenate.

48. Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr;58(2):167-73.

Inhibition of adenovirus infection and adenain by green tea catechins.

Weber JM, Ruzindana-Umunyana A, Imbeault L, Sircar S.

Departement de Microbiologie et d'Infectiologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Que, Sherbrooke, Canada J1H 5N4.

Green tea catechins have been reported to inhibit proteases involved in cancer metastasis and infection by influenza virus and HIV. To date there are no effective anti-adenoviral therapies. Consequently, we studied the effect of green tea catechins, and particularly the predominant component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on adenovirus infection and the viral protease adenain, in cell culture. Adding EGCG (100 microM) to the medium of infected cells reduced virus yield by two orders of magnitude, giving and IC(50) of 25 microM and a therapeutic index of 22 in Hep2 cells. The agent was the most effective when added to the cells during the transition from the early to the late phase of viral infection suggesting that EGCG inhibits one or more late steps in virus infection. One of these steps appears to be virus assembly because the titer of infectious virus and the production of physical particles was much more affected than the synthesis of virus proteins. Another step might be the maturation cleavages carried out by adenain. Of the four catechins tested on adenain, EGCG was the most inhibitory with an IC(50) of 109 microM, compared with an IC(50) of 714 microM for PCMB, a standard cysteine protease inhibitor. EGCG and different green teas inactivated purified adenovirions with IC(50) of 250 and 245-3095, respectively. We conclude that the anti-adenoviral activity of EGCG manifests itself through several mechanisms, both outside and inside the cell, but at effective drug concentrations well above that reported in the serum of green tea drinkers.

49. Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Mar;26(3):214-23.

Comparison of green tea extract and epigallocatechin gallate on blood pressure and contractile responses of vascular smooth muscle of rats.

Lim DY, Lee ES, Park HG, Kim BC, Hong SP, Lee EB.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759, Korea.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on arteral blood pressure and contractile responses of isolated aortic strips of the normotensive rats and to establish the mechanism of action. The phenylephrine (10(-8) approximately 10(-5) M)-induced contractile responses were greatly inhibited in the presence of GTE (0.3 approximately 1.2 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent fashion. Also, high potassium (3.5 x 10(-2) approximately 5.6 x 10(-2) M)-induced contractile responses were depressed in the presence of 0.6 approximately 1.2 mg/mL of GTE, but not affected in low concentration of GTE (0.3 mg/mL). However, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, 4 approximately 12 microg/mL) did not affect the contractile responses evoked by phenylephrine and high K+. GTE (5 approximately 20 mg/kg) given into a femoral vein of the normotensive rat produced a dose-dependent depressor response, which is transient. Interestingly, the infusion of a moderate dose of GTE (10 mg/kg/30 min) made a significant reduction in pressor responses induced by intravenous norepinephrine. However, EGCG (1 mg/kg/30 min) did not affect them. Collectively, these results obtained from the present study demonstrate that intravenous GTE causes a dose-dependent depressor action in the anesthetized rat at least partly through the blockade of adrenergic alpha1-receptors. GTE also causes the relaxation in the isolated aortic strips of the rat via the blockade of adrenergic alpha1-receptors, in addition to the unknown direct mechanism. It seems that there is a big difference in the vascular effect between GTE and EGCG.

50. Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):358-63.

DNA degradation by water extract of green tea in the presence of copper ions: implications for anticancer properties.

Malik A, Azam S, Hadi N, Hadi SM.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, AMU, Aligarh, India.

In recent years a number of reports have documented the chemopreventive effect of green tea consumption on various types of cancers such as those of bladder, prostate, esophagus and stomach. This property is attributed to the presence in green tea of polyphenols known as catechins. These include epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin. In addition to their antioxidant properties plant derived polyphenolics are also capable of oxidative DNA damage particularly in the presence of transition metal ions. We have recently proposed a mechanism for cytotoxic action of plant-derived polyphenols against cancer cells that involves mobilization of endogenous copper and consequent prooxidant action. In partial support of the idea, in the present paper we show that water extract of green tea is considerably more efficient than black tea extract in DNA cleavage in the presence of copper ions. Green tea extract also shows a higher rate of Cu(II) reduction and consequent hydroxyl radical formation. Cu(II) reduction is presumably accompanied by the formation of 'oxidized species' of tea polyphenols, which in turn also appear to catalyze the reduction of Cu(II) leading to redox cycling of copper ions. The results are discussed in relation to the structural differences between polyphenols of green and black tea. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

51. Thromb Haemost. 2003 May;89(5):866-74.

Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits platelet signalling pathways triggered by both proteolytic and non-proteolytic agonists.

Deana R, Turetta L, Donella-Deana A, Dona M, Maria Brunati A, De Michiel L, Garbisa S.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Institute of the Neuroscience of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), University of Padova, Italy, E-mail:

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, inhibits human platelet aggregation and cytosolic [Ca(2+)](c) increases more strongly when these processes are induced by thrombin than by the non-proteolytic thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP), thromboxane mimetic U46619, or fluoroaluminate. In line with the previously demonstrated EGCG anti-proteolytic activity, a marked inhibition on aggregation is obtained by pre-incubation of thrombin with EGCG prior to addition to cellular suspension. The catechin also reduces cellular Ca(2+) influx following thapsigargin-induced calcium emptying of endoplasmic reticulum, and the agonist-promoted cellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Both tyrosine kinases Syk and Lyn, immuno-precipitated from stimulated platelets, are greatly inhibited upon cellular pre-incubation with EGCG, which also inhibits the in vitro auto-phosphorylation and exogenous activity of these two enzymes purified from rat spleen. Both thrombin-induced aggregation and [Ca(2+)](c) increase are reduced in platelets from rats that drank green tea solutions. It is concluded that EGCG inhibits platelet activation, by hindering the thrombin proteolytic activity, and by reducing the agonist-induced [Ca(2+)](c) increase through inhibition of Syk and Lyn activities.

52. J Immunol. 2003 Apr 15;170(8):4335-41.

Neutrophil restraint by green tea: inhibition of inflammation, associated angiogenesis, and pulmonary fibrosis.

Dona M, Dell'Aica I, Calabrese F, Benelli R, Morini M, Albini A, Garbisa S.

Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, Medical School of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense and inflammation, but the latter may trigger and sustain the pathogenesis of a range of acute and chronic diseases. Green tea has been claimed to exert anti-inflammatory properties through unknown molecular mechanisms. We have previously shown that the most abundant catechin of green tea, (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), strongly inhibits neutrophil elastase. Here we show that 1) micromolar EGCG represses reactive oxygen species activity and inhibits apoptosis of activated neutrophils, and 2) dramatically inhibits chemokine-induced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro; 3) both oral EGCG and green tea extract block neutrophil-mediated angiogenesis in vivo in an inflammatory angiogenesis model, and 4) oral administration of green tea extract enhances resolution in a pulmonary inflammation model, significantly reducing consequent fibrosis. These results provide molecular and cellular insights into the claimed beneficial properties of green tea and indicate that EGCG is a potent anti-inflammatory compound with therapeutic potential.

53. Curr Med Chem Anti-Canc Agents. 2002 Jul;2(4):441-63.

Green tea catechins as novel antitumor and antiangiogenic compounds.

Demeule M, Michaud-Levesque J, Annabi B, Gingras D, Boivin D, Jodoin J, Lamy S, Bertrand Y, Beliveau R.

Laboratoire de Medecine Moleculaire, UQAM-Hocric;pital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

The concept of cancer prevention by use of naturally occuring substances that could be included in the diet is under investigation as a practical approach towards reducing cancer incidence, and therefore the mortality and morbidity associated with this disease. Tea, which is the most popularly consumed beverage aside from water, has been particularly associated with decreased risk of various proliferative diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis in humans. Various studies have provided evidence that polyphenols are the strongest biologically active agents in green tea. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) mainly consist of catechins (3-flavanols), of which (-)-epigallocatechin gallate is the most abundant and the most extensively studied. Recent observations have raised the possibility that green tea catechins, in addition to their antioxidative properties, also affect the molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, regulation of cell death and multidrug resistance. This article will review the effects and the biological activities of green tea catechins in relation to these mechanisms, each of which plays a crucial role in the development of cancer in humans. The extraction of polyphenols from green tea, as well as their bioavailability, are also discussed since these two important parameters affect blood and tissue levels of the GTPs and consequently their biological activities. In addition, general perspectives on the application of dietary GTPs as novel antiangiogenic and antitumor compounds are also presented.

54. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1785-90.

Effect of green tea extract on cardiac hypertrophy following 5/6 nephrectomy in the rat.

Priyadarshi S, Valentine B, Han C, Fedorova OV, Bagrov AY, Liu J, Periyasamy SM, Kennedy D, Malhotra D, Xie Z, Shapiro JI.

The Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio 43614, USA.

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy commonly complicates chronic renal failure. We have observed that at least one pathway of left ventricular hypertrophy appears to involve signaling through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Green tea is a substance that appears to have substantial antioxidant activity, yet is safe and is currently widely used. We, therefore, studied whether green tea supplementation could attenuate the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in an animal model of chronic renal failure. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham or remnant kidney surgery and given green tea extract (0.1% and 0.25%) or plain drinking water for the next 4 weeks. Heart weight, body weight, and cardiac Na-K-ATPase activity were measured at the end of this period. To further test our hypothesis, we performed studies in cardiac myocytes isolated from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We measured the generation of ROS using the oxidant sensitive dye dichlorofluorescein (DCF) as well as (3H)phenylalanine incorporation following exposure to cardiac glycosides with and without green tea extract. RESULTS: Administration of green tea extract at 0.25% resulted in attenuation of left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertension, and preserved cardiac Na-K-ATPase activity in rats subjected to remnant kidney surgery (all P < 0.01). In subsequent studies performed in isolated cardiac myocytes, both ouabain and marinobufagenin (MBG) were both found to increase ROS production and (3H)phenylalanine incorporation at concentrations substantially below their inhibitor concentration (IC) 50 for the sodium pump. Addition of green tea extract prevented increases in ROS production as well as (3H)phenylalanine incorporation in these isolated cardiac myocytes. CONCLUSION: Green tea extract appears to block the development of cardiac hypertrophy in experimental renal failure. Some of this effect may be related to the attenuation of hypertension, but a direct effect on cardiac myocyte ROS production and growth was also identified. Clinical studies of green tea extract in chronic renal failure patients may be warranted.

55. Phytother Res. 2003 Mar;17(3):206-9.

Protective effect of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and other antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in gerbil brain homogenates.

Lee SR, Im KJ, Suh SI, Jung JG.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Keimyung University, Taegu, South Korea.

The aim of this study was to compare the protective effects of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and other well-known antioxidants on the lipid peroxidation in gerbil brain homogenates. Oxidative stress was induced by H2O2 (10 mM) or ferrous ammonium sulfate (5 microM) and lipid peroxidation was studied. Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions are capable of oxidizing a wide range of substrates and causing biological damage. The reaction, referred to as the Fenton process, is complex and can generate both hydroxyl radicals and higher oxidation states of the iron. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were used as a marker of lipid peroxidation. EGCG, trolox, lipoic acid, and melatonin reduced H2O2- or ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. In reducing the H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation, IC50 values of antioxidants were as follows: EGCG (0.66 microM), trolox (37.08 microM), lipoic acid (7.88 mM), and melatonin (19.11 mM). In reducing the ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation, IC50 values of antioxidants were as follows: EGCG (3.32 microM), trolox (75.65 microM), lipoic acid (7.63 mM), and melatonin (15.48 mM). Under the in vitro conditions of this experiment, EGCG was the most potent antioxidant in inhibiting H2O2 or ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation in the gerbil brain homogenates. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

56. FASEB J. 2003 May;17(8):952-4. Epub 2003 Mar 28.

Neuroprotection and neurorescue against Abeta toxicity and PKC-dependent release of nonamyloidogenic soluble precursor protein by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

Levites Y, Amit T, Mandel S, Youdim MB.

Eve Topf and USA National Parkinson Foundation, Centers of Excellence for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel.

Green tea extract and its main polyphenol constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) possess potent neuroprotective activity in cell culture and mice model of Parkinson's disease. The central hypothesis guiding this study is that EGCG may play an important role in amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretion and protection against toxicity induced by beta-amyloid (Abeta). The present study shows that EGCG enhances (approximately 6-fold) the release of the non-amyloidogenic soluble form of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) into the conditioned media of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. sAPPalpha release was blocked by the hydroxamic acid-based metalloprotease inhibitor Ro31-9790, which indicated mediation via alpha-secretase activity. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with the inhibitor GF109203X, or by down-regulation of PKC, blocked the EGCG-induced sAPPalpha secretion, suggesting the involvement of PKC. Indeed, EGCG induced the phosphorylation of PKC, thus identifying a novel PKC-dependent mechanism of EGCG action by activation of the non-amyloidogenic pathway. EGCG is not only able to protect, but it can rescue PC12 cells against the beta-amyloid (Abeta) toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, administration of EGCG (2 mg/kg) to mice for 7 or 14 days significantly decreased membrane-bound holoprotein APP levels, with a concomitant increase in sAPPalpha levels in the hippocampus. Consistently, EGCG markedly increased PKCalpha and PKC in the membrane and the cytosolic fractions of mice hippocampus. Thus, EGCG has protective effects against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity and regulates secretory processing of non-amyloidogenic APP via PKC pathway.

57. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Apr 9;51(8):2421-5.

Influence of green tea polyphenol in rats with arginine-induced renal failure.

Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Nakagawa T.

Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.

To determine whether green tea polyphenol ameliorates the pathological conditions induced by excessive dietary arginine, green tea polyphenol was administered to rats at a daily dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight for 30 days with a 2% w/w arginine diet. In arginine-fed control rats, urinary and/or serum levels of guanidino compounds, nitric oxide (NO), urea, protein, and glucose increased significantly, while the renal activities of the oxygen species-scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased, compared with casein-fed rats. However, rats given green tea polyphenol showed significant and dose-dependent decreases in serum levels of creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen and urinary excretion of Cr, and they exerted a slight reduction of nitrite plus nitrate, indicating that green tea polyphenol reduced the production of uremic toxins and NO. In addition, in arginine-fed rats the urinary urea, protein, and glucose level increases were reversed by the administration of green tea polyphenol. Moreover, in rats given green tea polyphenol the SOD and catalase activities suppressed by excessive arginine administration increased dose-dependently, implying the biological defense system was augmented as a result of free radical scavenging. These results suggest that green tea polyphenol would ameliorate renal failure induced by excessive dietary arginine by decreasing uremic toxin, and NO production and increasing radical-scavenging enzyme activity.

58. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jul;306(1):29-34. Epub 2003 Mar 27.

Green tea polyphenols induce differentiation and proliferation in epidermal keratinocytes.

Hsu S, Bollag WB, Lewis J, Huang Q, Singh B, Sharawy M, Yamamoto T, Schuster G.

Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, AD1443. Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-1126, USA.

The most abundant green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), was found to induce differential effects between tumor cells and normal cells. Nevertheless, how normal epithelial cells respond to the polyphenol at concentrations for which tumor cells undergo apoptosis is undefined. The current study tested exponentially growing and aged primary human epidermal keratinocytes in response to EGCG or a mixture of the four major green tea polyphenols. EGCG elicited cell differentiation with associated induction of p57/KIP2 within 24 h in growing keratinocytes, measured by the expression of keratin 1, filaggrin, and transglutaminase activity. Aged keratinocytes, which exhibited low basal cellular activities after culturing in growth medium for up to 25 days, renewed DNA synthesis and activated succinate dehydrogenase up to 37-fold upon exposure to either EGCG or the polyphenols. These results suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for treatment of wounds or certain skin conditions characterized by altered cellular activities or metabolism.

59. Mutat Res. 2003 Feb-Mar;523-524:33-41.

Anticlastogenic, antigenotoxic and apoptotic activity of epigallocatechin gallate: a green tea polyphenol.

Roy M, Chakrabarty S, Sinha D, Bhattacharya RK, Siddiqi M.

Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37 SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, India.

Modulation of events characteristic of carcinogenesis or of cancer cells is being emphasized as a rational strategy to control cancer. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to be highly active as a cancer chemopreventive agent. Certain cellular and molecular events relevant to carcinogenesis are also modified by EGCG. The present investigation was carried out to examine the effects of EGCG on the cytogenetic change and DNA damage induced by toxicant H(2)O(2) and carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Chinese hamster V-79 cells in culture. Cytogenetic change as evident by the formation of micronuclei and DNA damage in the form of comet tail length during single cell gel electrophoresis was found to be significantly suppressed by EGCG in a dose dependent manner. Cells preincubated with EGCG were protected from subsequent damage by the genotoxic agents. Apoptosis, a highly organized physiological mechanism to eliminate injured or abnormal cells, is also implicated in multistage carcinogenesis. Initiated cells, cells at promotional stage or fully transformed cells can be eliminated through apoptosis. It was observed that EGCG suppressed growth and proliferation of K-562 cells derived from human chronic myelogenic leukemia. Morphological features of treated cells and characteristic DNA fragmentation revealed that the cytotoxicity was due to induction of apoptosis. This was mediated by activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8. Results show that EGCG not only protects normal cells against genotoxic hazard but also eliminate cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

60. Cancer. 2003 Mar 15;97(6):1442-6.

A phase II trial of green tea in the treatment of patients with androgen independent metastatic prostate carcinoma.

Jatoi A, Ellison N, Burch PA, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Novotny P, Tan W, Fitch TR, Rowland KM, Young CY, Flynn PJ.

Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

BACKGROUND: Recent laboratory and epidemiologic studies have suggested that green tea has antitumor effects in patients with prostate carcinoma. This Phase II trial explored green tea's antineoplastic effects in patients with androgen independent prostate carcinoma. METHODS: This study, which was conducted by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group, evaluated 42 patients who were asymptomatic and had manifested, progressive prostate specific antigen (PSA) elevation with hormone therapy. Continued use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist was permitted; however, patients were ineligible if they had received other treatments for their disease in the preceding 4 weeks or if they had received a long-acting antiandrogen therapy in the preceding 6 weeks. Patients were instructed to take 6 grams of green tea per day orally in 6 divided doses. Each dose contained 100 calories and 46 mg of caffeine. Patients were monitored monthly for response and toxicity. RESULTS: Tumor response, defined as a decline >/= 50% in the baseline PSA value, occurred in a single patient, or 2% of the cohort (95% confidence interval, 1-14%). This one response was not sustained beyond 2 months. At the end of the first month, the median change in the PSA value from baseline for the cohort increased by 43%. Green tea toxicity, usually Grade 1 or 2, occurred in 69% of patients and included nausea, emesis, insomnia, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and confusion. However, six episodes of Grade 3 toxicity and one episode of Grade 4 toxicity also occurred, with the latter manifesting as severe confusion. CONCLUSIONS: Green tea carries limited antineoplastic activity, as defined by a decline in PSA levels, among patients with androgen independent prostate carcinoma. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11200

61. Int J Urol. 2003 Mar;10(3):160-6.

Preventive effects of urinary bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine in rat by green tea leaves.

Sato D, Matsushima M.

Second Department of Urology, Toho University of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Recently, the anticarcinogenic effects of green tea have been studied in sites other than the urinary tract. Although the incidence of bladder cancer has increased, responses to therapy have been limited. The present work examined the preventive effects of green tea against bladder tumors induced in rats by the carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine(BBN). METHODS: From week 5 to week 9, all the groups were exposed to 0.05% BBN in the drinking water for 5 weeks. Rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was fed a CE-2 diet and tap water for the entire experimental period and served as the control group. Group 2 was fed the green tea leaves after carcinogen exposure. Groups 3 and 4 received green tea leaves before carcinogen exposure. All rats were killed and examined at 44 weeks. RESULTS: Green tea leaves prevented the growth of BBN-induced urinary bladder tumors when given before the carcinogen. CONCLUSION: Green tea may inhibit tumor initiation in the bladder.

62. J Biomed Sci. 2003 Mar-Apr;10(2):219-27.

Green Tea Constituent (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Hep G2 Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis through p53-Dependent and Fas-Mediated Pathways.

Kuo PL, Lin CC.

Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyphenolic compound found in green tea. It has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, and is one of the most promising chemopreventive agents for cancer. To provide a better understanding of the preventive effect of EGCG on liver cancer, we examined EGCG for its effect on proliferation and cell cycle progression in a human liver cancer cell line, Hep G2. The results showed that EGCG inhibited the proliferation of Hep G2 by inducing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle progression in the G1 phase. ELISA showed that EGCG significantly increased the expression of p53 and p21/WAF1 protein, and this contributed to cell cycle arrest. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and its two form ligands, membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), as well as Bax protein, was responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by EGCG. Taken together, our study suggests that the induction of p53 and the activity of the Fas/FasL apoptotic system play major roles in the antiproliferative activity of EGCG in Hep G2 cells. Copyright 2003 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

63. Oncogene. 2003 Feb 20;22(7):1035-44.

Inhibition of ultraviolet B-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappaB in normal human epidermal keratinocytes by green tea Constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

Afaq F, Adhami VM, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H.

Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent of green tea, possesses significant anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. Studies have shown the photochemopreventive effects of green tea and EGCG in cell culture, animal models, and human skin. The molecular mechanism(s) of photochemopreventive effects of EGCG are incompletely understood. We recently showed that EGCG treatment of the normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) inhibits ultraviolet (UV)B-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we evaluated the effect of EGCG on UVB-mediated modulation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway, which is known to play a critical role in a variety of physiological functions and is involved in inflammation and development of cancer. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the treatment of NHEK with EGCG (10-40 microM) for 24 h resulted in a significant inhibition of UVB (40 mJ/cm(2))-mediated degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and activation of IKKalpha, in a dose-dependent manner. UVB-mediated degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and activation of IKKalpha was also observed in a time-dependent protocol (15 and 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 h post-UVB exposure). Employing immunoblot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gel shift assay, we demonstrate that EGCG treatment of the cells resulted in a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of UVB-mediated activation and nuclear translocation of a NF-kappaB/p65. Our data suggest that EGCG protects against the adverse effects of UV radiation via modulations in NF-kappaB pathway, and provide a molecular basis for the photochemopreventive effect of EGCG.

64. FASEB J. 2003 Apr;17(6):702-4. Epub 2003 Feb 05.

Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3 gallate induces apoptosis of proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells via activation of p53.

Hofmann CS, Sonenshein GE.

Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

Green tea polyphenols (GTPs), which possess antioxidant properties, have been shown to inhibit the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant GTP, displays antiproliferative effects in a variety of cell types. Here, we examined the effects of GTPs on aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Treatment with a GTP mixture or EGCG at a dose of 40 to 50 microg/ml slowed SMC growth, while at a higher dose of 80 microg/ml EGCG also induced cell death as judged by TUNEL assay. Apoptosis was mainly observed in proliferating SMCs in subconfluent cultures; whereas at higher confluency, cell viability was largely unaffected. Treatment with 80 microg/ml EGCG induced the tumor suppressor p53, which was functional as judged by activation of the target cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21CIP1. Inhibition of p53 activity with a dominant negative mutant reduced cell death. The increase in p53 protein was due to increased stability. EGCG also induced functional nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) complexes, and inhibition of this activity reduced the extent of cell death. Thus, EGCG inhibits growth and induces death of SMCs in a p53- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner. These results provide evidence for a new molecular mechanism whereby green tea polyphenols inhibit SMC proliferation and function to prevent the development of atherosclerosis.

65. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2000 Sep;16(3):194-8.

Growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis by green tea constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells.

Huang W, Li S, Zeng J, Liu Y, Wu M, Zhang M.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510060, China.

PURPOSE: To evaluate effect of green tea extract (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells in order to pave a new way to postcapsular opacity (PCO) prevention. METHODS: Cell survival rate was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) coloimetric assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by electron microscopy, Hochest 33258 stain and flow cytometer. DNA fragment was detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULT: Proliferation of the cultured rabbit lens epithelia cells was inhibited by EGCG in a dose and time dependent manner. Morphologic study showed that the cells became shrunk, round shaped with their nuclei condensed and broken. Apoptotic bodies were also seen under electron microscope and in Hochest 33258 stain assay 24 hours after EGCG was added to the medium. DNA ladders were shown in agarose gel electrophoresis. In flow cytometry assay, apoptosis peak was also evident. CONCLUSION: Green Tea Constituent(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate could inhibit cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells proliferation by inducing their apoptosis in the concentration used by us, which indicates that it is possible to prevent PCO by using herb extract.

66. Anticancer Res. 2002 Nov-Dec;22(6C):4115-20.

Induction of p57 is required for cell survival when exposed to green tea polyphenols.

Hsu S, Yu FS, Lewis J, Singh B, Borke J, Osaki T, Athar M, Schuster G.

Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, AD1443, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-1126, USA.

Green tea polyphenols (catechins) are known to induce cell death in many types of tumor cells, but how normal epithelial cells survive in the presence of polyphenols is unknown. We recently reported that green tea polyphenols potently induced a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p57/(KIP2), only in normal human epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the correlation between p57 expression and survival/apoptosis by Western blot analysis, caspase 3 assays and morphological analysis. It was demonstrated that, in the cells that lack p57 induction, green tea polyphenols induced Apaf-1 expression along with caspase 3 activation, leading to apoptosis. In contrast, cells with polyphenol-inducible p57 maintained constant levels of Apaf-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), with basal caspase 3 activity. Retroviral-transfected, p57-expressing oral carcinoma cells showed significant resistance to green tea polyphenol-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that p57/KIP2 is a determinant pro-survival factor for cell protection from green tea polyphenol-induced apoptosis.

67. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jan 31;36(1):66-77.

Signal transduction pathways: targets for green and black tea polyphenols.

Park AM, Dong Z.

The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912, USA.

Tea is one of the most popular beverages consumed in the world and has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity in animal models. Research findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate found primarily in green tea, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, a major component of black tea, are the two most effective anti-cancer factors found in tea. Several mechanisms to explain the chemopreventive effects of tea have been presented but others and we suggest that tea components target specific cell-signaling pathways responsible for regulating cellular proliferation or apoptosis. These pathways include signal transduction pathways leading to activator protein-1 (AP-1) and/or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). AP-1 and NF-kappaB are transcription factors that are known to be extremely important in tumor promoterinduced cell transformation and tumor promotion, and both are influenced differentially by the MAP kinase pathways. The purpose of this brief review is to present recent research data from other and our laboratory focusing on the tea-induced cellular signal transduction events associated with the MAP kinase, AP-1, and NF-kappaB pathways.

68. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003 Jan-Feb;30(1-2):88-95.

Green tea catechins evoke a phasic contraction in rat aorta via H2O2-mediated multiple-signalling pathways.

Shen JZ, Zheng XF, Wei EQ, Kwan CY.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hubin Campus, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

1. The contractile effects of tea polyphenols (TP) and its four principle catechins, namely (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on rat aorta contractility were investigated using the isometric tension recording technique. 2. At concentrations of 5-100 mg/L, TP evoked phasic contraction of rat aorta in a concentration-dependent but endothelium-independent manner. Of the four catechins tested, EGCG and EGC (3-300 micromol/L), but not EC and ECG, mimicked the contractile response to TP, suggesting that the epigallol moiety in the B ring may be associated with the contractile effect. 3. Contractions in response to EGCG and EGC were not affected by several endogenous vasoconstrictor receptor antagonists, but could be abolished by 10 micro mol/L BAPTA-AM, a membrane-permeable Ca2+ chelator, or attenuated by removal of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting the involvement of both intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ in evoking the contraction. 4. Pretreatment with non-selective Ca2+ channel antagonists mefenamic acid (10 micro mol/L), tetrandrine (30 micro mol/L) and SKF 96365 (30 micromol/L), but not nifedipine (1 micromol/L), the selective inhibitor of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, inhibited the contractile responses to EGC and EGCG, indicating the involvement of Ca2+ influx via non-voltage dependent Ca2+ channels. 5. Several intracellular Ca2+ channel modulators, including procaine (5 mmol/L), dantrolene (30 micromol/L) and 2-amino ethoxydiphenyl borate (50 micromol/L; an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibitor), also inhibited EGCG- and EGC-induced contractions, thus suggesting a role of intracellular Ca2+ release in these contractions. 6. Both EGCG- and EGC-induced contractions were depressed, to different degrees, by inhibitors of several receptor-coupled enzymes, including phospholipase C, protein kinase C, phospholipase A2 and tyrosine kinase. Furthermore, both EGCG- and EGC-induced contractions were completely abolished by catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase or mannitol/dimethyl sulphoxide. 7. Taken together, these data show, for the first time, that TP and its related catechins that contain an epigallol structure in the B ring, as in EGCG and EGC, exert direct contractile effects on rat aortic smooth muscle via a H2O2-mediated pathway.

69. Anticancer Res. 2002 Nov-Dec;22(6A):3373-8.

Induction of apoptosis by the green tea flavonol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human endothelial ECV 304 cells.

Yoo HG, Shin BA, Park JC, Kim HS, Kim WJ, Chay KO, Ahn BW, Park RK, Ellis LM, Jung YD.

Chonnam University Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju, Korea.

We have previously shown that treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited vascularity and tumor growth in human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice (Jung et al: Br J Cancer 84, 2001). In this study, we examined whether endothelial cell death by EGCG is mediated by apoptosis and which molecular mechanisms are involved in this process. EGCG was found to suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis largely through mitochondrial depolarization, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of DNA fragmentation factor-45 in human endothelial ECV 304 cells. The induction of apoptosis by EGCG was confirmed by cleaved and condensed nuclear chromatin and DNA hypoploidy. These results suggest that EGCG may exert at least part of its anticancer effect by inhibiting angiogenesis through inducing endothelial apoptosis.

70. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26(6):411-8.

Modification of lung cancer susceptibility by green tea extract as measured by the comet assay.

Zhang H, Spitz MR, Tomlinson GE, Schabath MB, Minna JD, Wu X.

Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Box 189 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Green tea is widely consumed throughout the world and is known to possess various beneficial properties that may affect carcinogen metabolism, free radical scavenging, or formation of DNA adducts. Therefore, it is plausible that green tea extract may modify BPDE-induced DNA damage. In this report, we utilized the comet assay to (1) evaluate BPDE-induced DNA damage as a potential marker of cancer susceptibility and (2) assess the ability of green tea to modify BPDE-induced DNA damage. DNA damage in individual comet cells was quantified by (1) visually measuring the proportion of cells exhibiting migration versus those without and (2) the length of damaged DNA migration (comet tail). We detected a dose-response between BDPE concentration and mean comet tail length in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastiod (lymphoid) cell lines. As the concentration of BPDE increased from 0.5 to 3 microM, the length of the mean comet tail length increased proportionally in the 3590P (derived from a healthy subject) and 3640P (derived from a patient with head and neck cancer) cell lines. In separate experiments using lymphoid cells from 21 lung cancer cases and 12 healthy subjects, the mean comet tail length was significantly higher in the lung cancer cases (80.19 +/- 15.55) versus the healthy subjects (59.94 +/- 14.23) (P < 0.01). Similar findings were observed when analyzing the mean percentage of comet induced cells (84.57 +/- 8.85 and 69.04 +/- 12.50, respectively) (P < 0.01). When green tea extract was added in conjunction with BPDE, there was a notable reduction of the mean comet tail length (13.29 +/- 0.97) as compared to BPDE treatment alone (80.19 +/- 15.55) (P < 0.01) in lung cancer cases. There were no statistical differences between the baseline (no treatments) (12.74 +/- 0.63) and the green tea extract treatment (13.06 +/- 0.97) (P = 0.21). These data suggest the modification of lung cancer susceptibility by the green tea extract. Similar results were observed for the percentage of induced comet cells and the statistical trends were similar for the 12 healthy subjects. This preliminary study demonstrated that the detection of BPDE-induced DNA damage via the comet assay may be a useful biologic marker of lung cancer susceptibility. The differential effects in BPDE-induced DNA damage between lung cancer cases and healthy subjects suggests predisposed cancer susceptibility to lung cancer risk. This reports also demonstrated the chemopreventive effects of green tea extract on BPDE-induced DNA damage. These observations provide further support for the application of the comet assay in molecular epidemiologic studies.

71. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Dec;25(12):1513-8.

Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins.

Kakuda T.

Central Research Institute, Itoen, Ltd, Shuzuoka, Japan.

The neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea are discussed. Although the death of cultured rat cortical neurons was induced by the application of glutamic acid, this neuronal death was suppressed with exposure to theanine. The death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons caused by transient forebrain ischemia in the gerbil was inhibited with the ventricular preadministration of theanine. The neuronal death of the hippocampal CA3 region by kainate was also prevented by the administration of theanine. Theanine has a higher binding capacity for the AMPA/kainate receptors than for NMDA receptors, although the binding capacity in all cases is markedly less than that of glutamic acid. The results of the present study suggest that the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of theanine is related not only to the glutamate receptor but also to other mechanisms such as the glutamate transporter, although further studies are needed. One of the onset mechanisms for arteriosclerosis, a major factor in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, is probably the oxidative alteration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by active oxygen species. The oxidative alterations of LDL were shown to be prevented by tea catechins. Scavenging of *O(2)(-) was also exhibited by tea catechins. The neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea are a focus of considerable attention, and further studies are warranted.

72. Life Sci. 2003 Jan 17;72(9):1073-83.

Effects of green tea polyphenols on dopamine uptake and on MPP+ -induced dopamine neuron injury.

Pan T, Fei J, Zhou X, Jankovic J, Le W.

Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

As antioxidants, polyphenols are considered to be potentially useful in preventing chronic diseases in man, including Parkinson's disease (PD), a disease involving dopamine (DA) neurons. Our studies have demonstrated that polyphenols extracted from green tea (GT) can inhibit the uptake of 3H-dopamine (3H-DA) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) by DA transporters (DAT) and partially protect embryonic rat mesencephalic dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons from MPP(+)-induced injury. The inhibitory effects of GT polyphenols on 3H-DA uptake were determined in DAT-pCDNA3-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary (DAT-CHO) cells and in striatal synaptosomes of C57BL/6 mice in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effects on 3H-MPP(+) uptake were determined in primary cultures of embryonic rat mesencephalic DAergic cells. Inhibition of uptake for both 3H-DA and 3H-MPP(+) was dose-dependent in the presence of polyphenols. Incubation with 50 microM MPP(+) resulted in a significant loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in the primary embryonic mesencephalic cultures, while pretreatment with polyphenols (10 to 30 microg/ml) or mazindol (10 microM), a classical DAT inhibitor, significantly attenuated MPP(+)-induced loss of TH-positive cells. These results suggest that GT polyphenols have inhibitory effects on DAT, through which they block MPP(+) uptake and protect DAergic neurons against MPP(+)-induced injury.

73. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(4):292-7.

Effect of green tea catechin on arachidonic acid cascade in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats.

Choi JH, Chang HW, Rhee SJ.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyongsan-si, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea catechin on the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal and three cadmium-poisoned groups. The cadmium groups were classified as catechin-free diet group (Cd-0C), 0.25% catechin diet group (Cd-0.25C) and 0.5% catechin diet group (Cd-0.5C), in accordance with the level of catechin supplement. The phospholipase A2 activity was remarkably increased 117% in the Cd-0C group and 60% in the Cd-0.25C group compared with the normal group, and the level in the Cd-0.5C group was the same as the normal group. Activity of platelet cyclooxygenase increased 284% in the Cd-0C group, 147% in the Cd-0.25C group and 193% in the Cd-0.5C group. The synthesis of platelet thromboxane A2 (TXA2) increased 157% in the Cd-0C group and 105% in the Cd-0.25C group, compared with the normal group. The Cd-0.5C group showed the same level as the normal group. Prostacyclin (PGI2) formation in the aorta decreased 24% in the Cd-0C group and 18% in the Cd-0.25C group. The ratio of PGI2/TXA2, the thrombocyte synthesis index, decreased 70% in the Cd-0C group and 59% in the Cd-0.25C group. The activity of 5'-lipoxygenase in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte was increased 40% in the Cd-0C group as compared with the normal group. Catechin-supplemented Cd-0.25C and Cd-0.5C groups showed the level of the normal group. In this study, the observed content of leukotriene B4, which induces the inflammatory process, increased 54% in the Cd-0C group, and in catechin-supplemented groups, showed the same level as in the normal group. The serum peroxide value increased 60% in the Cd-0C group compared with the normal group; but in the Cd-0.5C group, it showed the level of the normal group. These results indicate that chronic cadmium poisoning in rats accelerates arachidonic acid metabolism. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism due to catechin supplementation, however, decreases platelet aggregation and inflammatory action. In conclusion, it would appear that green tea catechin supplementation in chronic cadmium-poisoned rats inhibits the arachidonic acid cascade by regulating the activity of phospholipase A2.

74. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2002 Jul;13(4):223-9.

Antiviral properties of prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate from green tea leaf.

Cheng HY, Lin CC, Lin TC.

Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Prodelphinidin B-2 3-O-gallate, a proanthocyanidin gallate isolated from green tea leaf, was investigated for its anti-herpes simplex virus type 2 properties in vitro. Prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate exhibited antiviral activity with IC50 of 5.0 +/-1.0 microM and 1.6 +/-0.3 pM for XTT and plaque reduction (PRA) assays, respectively. Cytotoxicity assay had shown that prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate possessed cytotoxic effect toward Vero cell at concentration higher than its IC50. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC50) was 33.3 +/- 3.7 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of IC50 to CC50) for XTT assay and PRA was 6.7 and 20.8, respectively. Prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate significantly reduced viral infectivity at concentrations 10 microM or more. Result of time-of-addition studies suggested that prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate affected the late stage of HSV-2 infection. In addition, it was also shown to inhibit the virus from attaching and penetrating into the cell. Thus, prodelphinidin B-2 3'-O-gallate was concluded to possess antiviral activity with mechanism of inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and disturbing the late stage of viral infection.

75. Atherosclerosis. 2003 Jan;166(1):23-30.

Green tea catechins inhibit the cultured smooth muscle cell invasion through the basement barrier.

Maeda K, Kuzuya M, Cheng XW, Asai T, Kanda S, Tamaya-Mori N, Sasaki T, Shibata T, Iguchi A.

Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsuruma-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

Epidemiological studies suggest that green tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Antioxidative properties of green tea flavonoids, catechins, have been believed to be involved in the antiatherogenic effect of green tea, since catechins inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation. The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the tunica media to the subendothelial region is a key event in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty vascular remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in these processes of SMC migration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of catechins on the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 that was derived from cultured bovine aortic SMCs. We also investigated the effect of catechins on the SMC invasion through the reconstituted basement membrane barrier. A major constituent of green tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), inhibited the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced pro-MMP-2 activation without the influence of membrane-type MMP expression in SMCs. EGCG also inhibited the SMC invasion through the basement membrane barrier in a concentration-dependent manner without any influence of SMC migration across the basement membrane protein thin-coated filter. The antagonistic effects of other catechins, namely (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), on gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2, ConA-induced pro-MMP-2 activation, or PDGF-BB-directed SMC invasion were much less pronounced than those of EGCG. Also, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin failed to show any effect. These findings may suggest that the anti-invasive and anti-metalloproteinase activities involve at least part of the anti-atherogenic action of catechin in accordance with the antioxidant properties of catechin.

76. J Periodontal Res. 2002 Dec;37(6):433-8.

Improvement of periodontal status by green tea catechin using a local delivery system: a clinical pilot study.

Hirasawa M, Takada K, Makimura M, Otake S.

Department of Microbiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba Japan.

The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of green tea catechin for the improvement of periodontal disease. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and bactericidal activity of green tea catechin against black-pigmented, Gram-negative anaerobic rods (BPR) were measured. Hydroxypropylcellulose strips containing green tea catechin as a slow release local delivery system were applied in pockets in patients once a week for 8 weeks. The clinical, enzymatic and microbiological effects of the catechin were determined. Green tea catechin showed a bactericidal effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella spp. in vitro with an MIC of 1.0 mg/ml. In the in vivo experiment, the pocket depth (PD) and the proportion of BPR were markedly decreased in the catechin group with mechanical treatment at week 8 compared with the baseline with significant difference. In contrast, PD and BPR were similar to the baseline and the value at the end of the experimental period in the placebo sites of scaled groups. The peptidase activities in the gingival fluid were maintained at lower levels during the experimental period in the test sites, while it reached 70% of that at baseline in the placebo sites. No morbidity was observed in the placebo and catechin groups without mechanical treatment. Green tea catechin showed a bactericidal effect against BPR and the combined use of mechanical treatment and the application of green tea catechin using a slow release local delivery system was effective in improving periodontal status.

77. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002 Dec;76(3):195-201.

(-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) of green tea induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells but not of their normal counterparts.

Vergote D, Cren-Olive C, Chopin V, Toillon RA, Rolando C, Hondermarck H, Le Bourhis X.

Laboratoire de Biologic du Developpement (UPRES-EA 1033), Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

(-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC), one of green tea polyphenols, has been shown to inhibit growth of cancer cells. However its mechanism of action is poorly known. We show here that EGC strongly inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) but not that of normal breast epithelial cells. The inhibition of breast cancer cell growth was due to an induction of apoptosis, without any change in cell cycle progression. MCF-7 cells are known to express a wild-type p53 whereas MDA-MB-231 cells express a mutated p53. The fact that EGC induced apoptosis in both these cell lines suggests that the EGC-triggered apoptosis is independent of p53 status. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies against the death receptor Fas and inhibitors of caspases, such as caspase-8 and -10, efficiently inhibited the EGC-triggered apoptosis. In addition, immunoblotting revealed that EGC treatment was correlated with a decrease in Bcl-2 and an increase in Bax level. These results suggest that EGC-triggered apoptosis in breast cancer cells requires Fas signaling.

78. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2002 Nov;122(11):995-9.

[Glutamate transporter mediated increase of antitumor activity by theanine, an amino acid in green tea]

[Article in Japanese]

Sadzuka Y, Yamashita Y, Kishimoto S, Fukushima S, Takeuchi Y, Sonobe T.

University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

We have confirmed that theanine, a major amino acid in green tea, enhances the antitumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX) without an increase in DOX-induced side effects. We believe that the action of theanine is due to decreases in glutamate uptake via inhibition of the glutamate transporter, intracellular glutathione (GSH) synthesis, GS-DOX conjugate level, and subsequent extracellular transport of GS-DOX by the MRP5/GS-X pump. To increase the clinical usefulness of theanine, we examined its effects on the antitumor activity of cisplatin and irinotecan (CPT-11), which a known to be transported by the efflux system related to MRP. Cisplatin decreased tumor volume in M5076 tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, the combination of theanine with cisplatin increased the decrease in tumor volume as compared with the cisplatin-alone group. Tumor volume in the CPT-11-alone group did not show a decrease, but the combination of theanine with CPT-11 significantly reduced tumor volume. The concentration of cisplatin in the tumor was significantly increased by combination with theanine, and thus we assume that it correlated with the enhancement on the antitumor activity of theanine. On the other hand, changes in drug concentrations with theanine were not observed in normal tissues, but rather it is indicated that theanine tends to reduce their concentrations. Therefore theanine enhances the antitumor activity not only of DOX but also of cisplatin or CPT-11.

79. Int J Cancer. 2002 Dec 10;102(5):439-44.

The green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, protects against the oxidative cellular and genotoxic damage of UVA radiation.

Tobi SE, Gilbert M, Paul N, McMillan TJ.

Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.

A number of biological activities have been ascribed to the major green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to explain its chemopreventive properties. Its antioxidant properties emerge as a potentially important mode of action. We have examined the effect of EGCG treatment on the damaging oxidative effects of UVA radiation in a human keratinocyte line (HaCaT). Using the ROS-sensitive probes dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), we detected a reduction in fluorescence in UVA-irradiated (100 kJ/m(2)) cells in the case of the former but not the latter probe after a 24-hr treatment with EGCG (e.g., 14%, [p < 0.05] after 10 microM EGCG). In the absence of UVA, however, both DHR and DCFH detected a pro-oxidant effect of EGCG at the highest concentration used of 50 microM. Measurements of DNA damage in UVA-exposed cells using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) also showed the protective effects of EGCG. A concentration of 10 microM EGCG decreased the level of DNA single strand breaks and alkali-labile sites to 62% of the level observed in non-EGCG, irradiated cells (p < 0.001) with a 5-fold higher concentration producing little further effect. Correspondingly, EGCG ablated the mutagenic effects of UVA (500 kJ/m(2)) reducing an induced hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutant frequency of (3.39 +/- 0.73) x 10(-6) to spontaneous levels (1.09 +/- 0.19) x 10(-6). Despite having an antiproliferative effect in the absence of UVA, EGCG also served to protect against the cytotoxic effects of UVA radiation. Our data demonstrate the ability of EGCG to modify endpoints directly relevant to the carcinogenic process in skin. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

80. Int J Oncol. 2002 Dec;21(6):1307-15.

Bioactivity of well-defined green tea extracts in multicellular tumor spheroids.

Mueller-Klieser W, Schreiber-Klais S, Walenta S, Kreuter MH.

Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany.

The effect of green tea extracts (GTE) of a reproducible, well-defined composition on cellular viability, proliferation, and antioxidant defense was investigated in multicellular spheroids derived from WiDr human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The maximum GTE concentration investigated, i.e. 100 micro g GTE/ml, was equivalent to the plasma concentration commonly measured in humans drinking 6-10 cups of green tea per day. This GTE concentration lead to a substantial retardation of spheroid volume growth with diameters reaching only half the size of untreated aggregates. Flow cytometric analysis and immunocytochemistry showed an enhanced accumulation of cells in G2/M and in the non-proliferating compartment, respectively. The emergence of central necrosis occurred at larger spheroid diameters compared to control conditions leading to a significant increase (p<0.05) in the thickness of the viable cell rim (mean +/- SD) from 240+/-49.9 micro m to 294+/-69.5 micro m. This was associated with an elevation of the intracellular GSH concentration and, thus, of cellular antioxidant defense, as shown by HPLC analysis. A considerable toxicity, however, was found at these GTE levels in single cells. Cells did not adhere to culture dishes nor did they aggregate to form spheroids when plated as a suspension with GTE already in the culture medium. The findings show that green tea constituents interfere with early phases of tumorigenesis at a cellular level, e.g., by reducing cell-substratum and cell-cell interaction, enhancing G2/M arrest, and retarding spheroid volume growth. The differences in GTE effects between single cells and cell spheroids underline the importance of inclusion of spheroids in pharmaco-/toxicological testing.

81. Life Sci. 2002 Dec 6;72(3):257-68.

Anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities of the green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cell line.

Lung HL, Ip WK, Wong CK, Mak NK, Chen ZY, Leung KN.

Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, China.

A novel approach for the treatment of leukemia is the differentiation therapy in which immature leukemia cells are induced to attain a mature phenotype when exposed to differentiation inducers, either alone or in combinations with other chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive drugs. Over the past decade, numerous studies indicated that green tea catechins (GTC) could suppress the growth and induce apoptosis on a number of human cancer cell lines. However, the differentiation-inducing activity of GTC on human tumors remains poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of the major GTC epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and differentiation of a human eosinophilc leukemic cell line, EoL-1, was examined. Our results showed that EGCG suppressed the proliferation of the EoL-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an estimated IC(50) value of 31.5 microM. On the other hand, EGCG at a concentration of 40 microM could trigger the EoL-1 cells to undergo morphological differentiation into mature eosinophil-like cells. Using RT-PCR and flow cytometry, it was found that EGCG upregulated the gene and protein expression of two eosinophil-specific granule proteins, the major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), in EoL-1 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that EGCG can exhibit anti-leukemic activity on a human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1 by suppressing the proliferation and by inducing the differentiation of the leukemia cells.

82. Chem Phys Lipids. 2002 Dec;120(1-2):109-17.

Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated peroxidation of rat liver microsomes.

Cai YJ, Ma LP, Hou LF, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL.

National Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Gansu 730000, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China

Antioxidative effects of the principal polyphenolic components extracted from green tea leaves, i.e. (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and gallic acid (GA), against free radical initiated peroxidation of rat liver microsomes were studied. The peroxidation was initiated by a water-soluble azo compound 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride (AAPH). The reaction kinetics was monitored by oxygen uptake and formation of malondialdehyde (MDA). Kinetic analysis of the antioxidation process demonstrates that these green tea polyphenols (GOHs), especially EC and ECG which bear ortho-dihydroxyl functionality, are good antioxidants for microsomal peroxidation. The antioxidant synergism of these GOHs with the endogenous alpha-tocopherol (TOH) (vitamin E) is also discussed.

83. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Dec;40(12):1745-50.

Direct scavenging of nitric oxide and superoxide by green tea.

Nakagawa T, Yokozawa T.

Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Japan.

In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects of green tea extract and green tea tannin mixture and its components using a nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) generating system in vitro. Green tea extract showed direct scavenging activity against NO and O(2)(-) and green tea tannin mixture, at the same concentration, showed high scavenging activity. Comparison of the activities of seven pure compounds isolated from green tea tannin mixture showed that (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg) and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg) had higher scavenging activities than (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (C), showing the importance of the structure of flavan-3-ol linked to gallic acid for this activity. Among the gallate-free tannins, EGC and GC were more effective O(2)(-) scavengers than EC and C, indicating the O-trihydroxy structure in the B ring is an important determinant of such activity. However, this structure did not affect the NO scavenging activity. These findings confirm that green tea tannin has excellent antioxidant properties, which may be involved in the beneficial effect of this compound.

84. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov;83(1-2):109-16.

Anti-diabetic activity of green tea polyphenols and their role in reducing oxidative stress in experimental diabetes.

M C S, K S, Kuttan R.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar,Trichur 680 553, Kerala, India.

An aqueous solution of green tea polyphenols (GTP) was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation (LP), scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition of superoxide, hydroxyl and LP radicals were 10, 52.5 and 136 micro g/ml, respectively. Administration of GTP (500 mg/kg b.wt.) to normal rats increased glucose tolerance significantly (P<0.005) at 60 min. GTP was also found to reduce serum glucose level in alloxan diabetic rats significantly at a dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt. Continued daily administration (15 days) of the extract 50, 100 mg/kg b.wt. produced 29 and 44% reduction in the elevated serum glucose level produced by alloxan administration. Elevated hepatic and renal enzymes produced by alloxan were found to be reduced (P<0.001) by GTP. The serum LP levels which was increased by alloxan and was reduced by significantly (P<0.001) by the administration of 100 mg/kg b.wt. of GTP. Decreased liver glycogen, after alloxan administration showed a significant (P<0.001) increase after GTP treatment. GTP treated group showed increased antioxidant potential as seen from improvements in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. However catalase, LP and glutathione peroxidase levels were unchanged. These results indicate that alterations in the glucose utilizing system and oxidation status in rats increased by alloxan were partially reversed by the administration of the glutamate pyruvate transaminase.

85. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002 Jul;36(4):243-6.

[Green tea extracts protected against carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver damage and cirrhosis]

[Article in Chinese]

Xiao J, Lu R, Shen X, Wu M.

Department of Hutyition and Food Hygiene, School of Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

OBJECTIVE: Using the carbon tetrachloride liver cirrhosis rat model, the protective effect of the green tea extractive (GTE) on the liver cirrhosis was studied. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, GTE group and cirrhosis group. The GTE group and the cirrhosis group were injected subcutanuously 2 times/wk over 9 weeks with 40% CCl(4). In the second and the ninth week, the rats were sacrificed to measure MDA and hydroxyproline concentrations and TGF-beta(1) mRNA expression in liver tissue, as well as to conduct histological examination on various organs. RESULTS: Compared with the cirrhosis group, the MDA and the hydroxyproline concentrations in the GTE group were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The liver necrosis and cirrhosis were extenuated in the GTE group by means of histologic examination. The expression of the TGF-beta(1) mRNA was reduced significantly in the GTE group. CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation of GTE can protect against CCl(4)-induced liver damage and cirrhosis in rats.

86. Cancer Lett. 2002 Dec 15;188(1-2):163-70.

Lack of inhibitory effects of green tea catechins in 1,2-dimetylhydrazine-induced rat intestinal carcinogenesis model: comparison of the different formulations, administration routes and doses.

Hirose M, Yamaguchi T, Mizoguchi Y, Akagi K, Futakuchi M, Shirai T.

Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, 158-8501, Tokyo, Japan.

Differences in the modifying effects of green tea catechins (GTC) on intestinal carcinogenesis by different formulations, doses and administration routes were investigated in male rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). One hundred and eighty nine F344 male rats received subcutaneous injections of DMH at 40 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 3 weeks. Three days after completion of the carcinogen treatment, they were divided into nine groups. Each was administered a different source of 0.1% or 0.01% of GTC (Mitsui Norin Co. (M) or Taiyo Kagaku Co. (T)) either in the diet (D) or the drinking water (W), or basal diet and tap water alone without GTC for 33 weeks and then killed for autopsy. The survival rate tended to be lower with 0.01% MGTC (W) group than in the other groups. In the large intestine, although the multiplicity and/or incidences of adenomas showed tendencies for dose-dependent decrease in all GTC groups, and the average volumes of tumors tended to be decrease dose-dependently in the MGTC (W) and TGTC (W) groups, the multiplicity of carcinomas did not show such a trend, rather being significantly increased in the 0.01% MGTC (D) and 0.1% TGTC (W) groups. In the small intestine, the incidence and the multiplicity of tumors in all GTC treated groups had a tendency to decrease. On the other hand, the volume of tumors was increased with statistical significance in the 0.01% MGTC (W) and 0.1% TGTC (W) groups. Thus it can be concluded that GTC does not exert chemopreventive effects on intestinal carcinogenesis irrespective of its formulation, dose or route of administration.

87. Cancer Lett. 2002 Dec 15;188(1-2):9-13.

Green tea: cancer preventive beverage and/or drug.

Fujiki H, Suganuma M, Imai K, Nakachi K.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, 770-8514, Tokushima, Japan.

Green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are now acknowledged cancer preventives in Japan and has made it possible for us to establish the concept of a cancer preventive beverage. For the general population, we recommend 10 cups of green tea daily supplemented with green tea tablets. For cancer patients following treatment, we here present new evidence that green tea and a cancer preventive drug, sulindac, have synergistic preventive effects. An approach to develop green tea capsules as a cancer preventive drug in the US is discussed, aiming at taking full advantage of this cancer preventive beverage.

88. Amino Acids. 2002;22(2):131-43.

The specific anti-cancer activity of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).

Wang YC, Bachrach U.

Department of Molecular Biology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

The effect of the green tea polyphenol-(-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was tested in cultures of normal and transformed NIH-pATM ras fibroblasts. In this system transformation can be induced at will by the addition of dexamethasone, which induces the expression of H- ras by activating the mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) promoter. This facilitates a reliable comparison of the susceptibility of normal and transformed cells to EGCG. It has been shown that EGCG inhibited the growth of transformed but not of the normal fibroblasts. In an attempt to elucidate the mode of the preferential inhibitory activity of EGCG, its effect on growth promoting factors has been examined. The level of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC, which is a signal for cellular proliferation, was reduced by EGCG in the transformed but not in the normal cells. EGCG also showed strong inhibition of tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, without affecting the kinases in the normal cells. Similarly, EGCG also preferentially decreased the levels of the oncogenes Ras and Jun in transformed cell. EGCG preferentially induced apoptosis in the transformed fibroblasts. In vitro chemosensitivity tests demonstrated that EGCG inhibited the proliferation of leukemic cells. These findings suggest that EGCG has a therapeutic potential in the combat against cancer.

89. Mol Med. 2002 Jul;8(7):382-92.

Synthetic analogs of green tea polyphenols as proteasome inhibitors.

Smith DM, Wang Z, Kazi A, Li LH, Chan TH, Dou QP.

Drug Discovery Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Departments of Interdisciplinary Oncology and Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, College of Medicine,University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612-9497, USA.

BACKGROUND: Animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor activity of pharmacological proteasome inhibitors and the cancer-preventive effects of green tea consumption. Previously, one of our laboratories reported that natural ester bond-containing green tea polyphenols (GTPs), such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(-)-EGCG] and (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate [(-)-GCG], are potent and specific proteasome inhibitors. Another of our groups, for the first time, was able to enantioselectively synthesize (-)-EGCG as well as other analogs of this natural GTP. Our interest in designing and developing novel synthetic GTPs as proteasome inhibitors and potential cancer-preventive agents prompted our current study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GTP analogs, (+)-EGCG, (+)-GCG, and a fully benzyl-protected (+)-EGCG [Bn-(+)-EGCG], were prepared by enantioselective synthesis. Inhibition of the proteasome or calpain (as a control) activities under cell-free conditions were measured by fluorogenic substrate assay. Inhibition of intact tumor cell proteasome activity was measured by accumulation of some proteasome target proteins (p27, I kappa B-alpha and Bax) using Western blot analysis. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by synthetic GTPs were determined by G(1) arrest and caspase activation, respectively. Finally, inhibition of the transforming activity of human prostate cancer cells by synthetic GTPs was measured by a colony formation assay. RESULTS: (+)-EGCG and (+)-GCG potently and specifically inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and the 26S proteasome in tumor cell lysates, while Bn-(+)-EGCG does not. Treatment of leukemic Jurkat T or prostate cancer LNCaP cells with either (+)-EGCG or (+)-GCG accumulated p27 and IkappaB-alpha proteins, associated with an increased G(1) population. (+)-EGCG treatment also accumulated the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells expressing high basal levels of Bax, but not prostate cancer DU-145 cells with low Bax expression. Finally, synthetic GTPs significantly inhibited colony formation by LNCaP cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Enantiomeric analogs of natural GTPs, (+)-EGCG and (+)-GCG, are able to potently and specifically inhibit the proteasome both, in vitro and in vivo, while protection of the hydroxyl groups on (+)-EGCG renders the compound completely inactive.

90. Neurotoxicology. 2002 Sep;23(3):289-300.

Differential modulation of growth and glutathione metabolism in cultured rat astrocytes by 4-hydroxynonenal and green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

Ahmed I, John A, Vijayasarathy C, Robin MA, Raza H.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Apoptosis and cell cycle deregulation appear to be the mode of cell death in these disorders. Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to be a potent antiinflammatory, apoptotic and cancer chemopreventive agent. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation (LPO), has been reported to induce apoptosis and inhibit growth in many cell systems including neuroglial cultures. We have studied both the dose and time dependent effects of HNE and EGCG on the viability of primary astrocyte cell cultures prepared from neonatal rats. HNE was found to be cytotoxic at a higher dose (0.1 mM) and markedly reduced (up to 80%) the astrocyte viability while EGCG did not appear to be cytotoxic under similar conditions. In addition, we have also studied the alterations in glutathione (GSH) and LPO levels and the activities of GSH metabolizing enzymes after treatment with HNE and EGCG. A 40% decrease in GSH level and a moderate increase in LPO were observed in HNE treated cells suggesting an increase in oxidative stress. HNE treatment caused a 50% decrease in GSH reductase and a 35% increase in GSH peroxidase activities. Although HNE treatment did not lead to any significant alterations in GSH-S-transferase (GST) activity, an increased expression of GST isoenzymes was seen following the exposure to HNE. EGCG treatment caused a significant increase in LPO even in the presence of elevated GSH content. In contrast to HNE, EGCG treatment resulted in a significant decrease (50%) in the activity and expression of GSTs. Treatment of astrocyte cultures with HNE, resulted in a severe impairment in mitochondrial respiration as measured by MTT exclusion assay, while treatment with EGCG had no effect on mitochondrial respiratory activity. Both HNE and EGCG were found to initiate apoptosis in astrocytes as measured by DNA fragmentation assay. However, HNE seems to be a stronger apoptotic and cytotoxic agent than EGCG. These results suggest that HNE and EGCG differentially modulate oxidative stress and regulate the growth and survival of astrocytes.

91. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Nov;30(11):1246-9.

Contribution of presystemic hepatic extraction to the low oral bioavailability of green tea catechins in rats.

Cai Y, Anavy ND, Chow HH.

College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA.

Green tea and green tea catechins have been shown to possess potent cancer-preventive activities in rodent cancer models. At present, epidemiological evidence of the protective effect of green tea consumption against the development of human cancers is not conclusive. Oral bioavailability of green tea catechins has been shown to be low in animals and possibly in humans. This study is designed to determine the contribution of first-pass hepatic elimination to the low oral bioavailability of green tea catechins. Green tea catechin mixture was dosed to rats by intravenous or intraportal infusion. Blood samples were collected after dosing and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with the coulometric electrode array detection system. The systemic clearance of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC) was 8.9, 6.3, and 9.4 ml/min, respectively. The steady state volume of distribution (V(ss)) of EGCG, EGC, and EC was 432, 220, and 187 ml, respectively. We found that high percentage of green tea catechins escaped first-pass hepatic elimination, with 87.0, 108.3, and 94.9% of EGCG, EGC, and EC, respectively, available in the systemic blood following intraportal infusion. Our results suggest that factors within the gastrointestinal tract such as limited membrane permeability, transporter mediated intestinal secretion, or gut wall metabolism may contribute more significantly to the low oral bioavailability of green tea catechins.

92. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Oct;11(10 Pt 1):1025-32.

Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability.

Lee MJ, Maliakal P, Chen L, Meng X, Bondoc FY, Prabhu S, Lambert G, Mohr S, Yang CS.

Laboratory for Cancer Research, College of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8020, USA.

Green tea and tea polyphenols have been studied extensively as cancer chemopreventive agents in recent years. The bioavailability and metabolic fate of tea polyphenols in humans, however, are not clearly understood. In this report, the pharmacokinetic parameters of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were analyzed after administration of a single oral dose of green tea or decaffeinated green tea (20 mg tea solids/kg) or EGCG (2 mg/kg) to eight subjects. The plasma and urine levels of total EGCG, EGC, and EC (free plus conjugated forms) were quantified by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The plasma concentration time curves of the catechins were fitted in a one-compartment model. The maximum plasma concentrations of EGCG, EGC, and EC in the three repeated experiments with green tea were 77.9 +/- 22.2, 223.4 +/- 35.2, and 124.03 +/- 7.86 ng/ml, respectively, and the corresponding AUC values were 508.2 +/- 227, 945.4 +/- 438.4, and 529.5 +/- 244.4 ng x h x ml(-1), respectively. The time needed to reach the peak concentrations was in the range of 1.3-1.6 h. The elimination half-lives were 3.4 +/- 0.3, 1.7 +/- 0.4, and 2.0 +/- 0.4 h, respectively. Considerable interindividual differences and variations between repeated experiments in the pharmacokinetic parameters were noted. Significant differences in these pharmacokinetic parameters were not observed when EGCG was given in decaffeinated green tea or in pure form. In the plasma, EGCG was mostly present in the free form, whereas EGC and EC were mostly in the conjugated form. Over 90% of the total urinary EGC and EC, almost all in the conjugated forms, were excreted between 0 and 8 h. Substantial amounts of 4'-O-methyl EGC, at levels higher than EGC, were detected in the urine and plasma. The plasma level of 4'-O-methyl EGC peaked at 1.7 +/- 0.5 h with a half life of 4.4 +/- 1.1 h. Two ring-fission metabolites, (-)-5-(3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone (M4) and (-)-5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-valerolactone (M6), appeared in significant amounts after 3 h and peaked at 8-15 h in the urine as well as in the plasma. These results may be useful for designing the dose and dose frequency in intervention studies with tea and for development of biomarkers of tea consumption.

93. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Oct 15;33(8):1097-105.

Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the IL-1 beta-induced activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human chondrocytes.

Ahmed S, Rahman A, Hasnain A, Lalonde M, Goldberg VM, Haqqi TM.

Department of Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-4946, USA.

We have previously shown that green tea polyphenols inhibit the onset and severity of collagen II-induced arthritis in mice. In the present study, we report the pharmacological effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-induced expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage. Stimulation of human chondrocytes with IL-1 beta (5 ng/ml) for 24 h resulted in significantly enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) when compared to untreated controls (p <.001). Pretreament of human chondrocytes with EGCG showed a dose-dependent inhibition in the production of NO and PGE(2) by 48% and 24%, respectively, and correlated with the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 activities (p <.005). In addition, IL-1 beta-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 was also markedly inhibited in human chondrocytes pretreated with EGCG (p <.001). Parallel to these findings, EGCG also inhibited the IL-1 beta-induced LDH release in chondrocytes cultures. Overall, the study suggests that EGCG affords protection against IL-1 beta-induced production of catabolic mediators NO and PGE(2) in human chondrocytes by regulating the expression and catalytic activity of their respective enzymes. Furthermore, our results also indicate that ECGC may be of potential therapeutic value for inhibiting cartilage resorption in arthritic joints.

94. Ophthalmic Res. 2002 Jul-Aug;34(4):258-63.

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) protects against selenite-induced oxidative stress in experimental cataractogenesis.

Gupta SK, Halder N, Srivastava S, Trivedi D, Joshi S, Varma SD.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is a multifactorial disease primarily associated with oxidative stress produced by free radicals. The protection offered by various antioxidants in cataract development is well established. Polyphenolic compounds present in green tea (Camellia sinensis) are reported to possess antioxidant property in various pathological conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anticataract potential of green tea leaf (GTL) extract in the development of lens opacification. Enucleated rat lenses were randomly divided into normal, control and treated groups and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Oxidative stress was induced by sodium selenite in the culture medium of the two groups (except the normal group). The medium of the treated group was additionally supplemented with GTL extract. After incubation, lenses were subjected to glutathione and malondialdehyde estimation. Enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was also measured in different sets of the experiment. In vivo cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups of both control and treated groups by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite. The treated pups were injected GTL extract intraperitoneally prior to selenite challenge and continued for 2 consecutive days thereafter. Cataract incidence was evaluated on 16th postnatal day by slit lamp examination. There was positive modulation of biochemical parameters in the organ culture study. Green tea was also found to reduce the incidence of selenite cataract in vivo. The results suggest that green tea possesses significant anticataract potential and acts primarily by preserving the antioxidant defense system. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

95. Inflammation. 2002 Oct;26(5):233-41.

A green tea-derived polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits IkappaB kinase activation and IL-8 gene expression in respiratory epithelium.

Chen PC, Wheeler DS, Malhotra V, Odoms K, Denenberg AG, Wong HR.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH 45244, USA.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a principle neutrophil chemoattractant and activator in humans. There is interest in developing novel pharmacological inhibitors of IL-8 gene expression as a means for modulating inflammation in disease states such as acute lung injury. Herein we determined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea-derived polyphenol, on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-mediated expression of the IL-8 gene in A549 cells. EGCG inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated IL-8 gene expression in a dose response manner, as measured by ELISA and Northern blot analysis. This effect appears to primarily involve inhibition of IL-8 transcription because EGCG inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated activation of the IL-8 promoter in cells transiently transfected with an IL-8 promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid. In addition, EGCG inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated activation of IkappaB kinase and subsequent activation of the IkappaB alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. We conclude that EGCG is a potent inhibitor of IL-8 gene expression in vitro. The proximal mechanism of this effect involves, in part, inhibition of IkappaB kinase activation.

96. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Sep 20;297(2):412-8.

Elevation of P-glycoprotein function by a catechin in green tea.

Wang EJ, Barecki-Roach M, Johnson WW.

Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Lafayette, NJ 07848, USA.

The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) exerts a critical role in the systemic disposition of and exposure to lipophilic and amphipathic drugs, carcinogens, toxins, and other xenobiotics. The ability of P-gp to transfer a wide variety of structurally unrelated compounds from the cell interior across the membrane bilayer remains intriguing. Since dietary chemicals in green tea (and several other foods) appear to exert anticarcinogenic effects by an unknown mechanism, the constituents are frequently studied for interactions with various biomacromolecules as well as cytotoxins or isolated cells. We characterized several green tea catechins for their interaction with P-gp and their specific effects on P-gp export activity of several marker substrates. Some of these compounds inhibit the active efflux of the fluorescent markers LDS-751 (LDS) and rhodamine 123 (Rho) with low potency. Remarkably, others of these catechins facilitate the P-gp-mediated transport of LDS without affecting daunorubicin (DNR) transport or Rho. Moreover, (-)epicatechin, though an inhibitor of Rho transport, can significantly enhance the active net transport of another P-gp marker substrate, LDS. This result indicates that (-)epicatechin may bind to and activate an allosteric site that enhances P-gp overall function or efficiency. Such a mechanism of heterotropic allosteric enhancement of P-gp could serve as chemoprotective to many cells and contribute to the purported anticarcinogenic effect of green tea consumption.

97. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(3):232-6.

Effects of green tea catechin on prostaglandin synthesis of renal glomerular and renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Rhee SJ, Kim MJ, Kwag OG.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyungsan-si, Gyungbuk, Korea.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on prostaglandin synthesis of renal glomerular and renal dysfunction in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal group and three groups with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The diabetic groups were classified to a catechin-free diet (DM group), a 0.25% catechin diet (DM-0.25C group) and a 0.5% catechin diet (DM-0.5C group) according to the levels of catechin supplement in their diet. The animals were maintained on an experimental diet for 4 weeks. At this point, they were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. They were killed on the sixth day. The catechin supplementation groups (DM-0.25C, DM-0.SC groups) showed a decrease in thromboxane A2 synthesis but an increase in prostacyclin synthesis, compared to the DM group. The ratio of prostacyclin/thromboxane A2 was 53.3% and 38.1% lower in the DM and DM-0.25C groups, respectively, than in the normal group. The ratio in the DM-0.5C group did not differ from that in the normal group. The glomerular filtration rate in catechin feeding groups (DM-0.25C and DM-0.5C groups) was maintained at the normal level. The urinary beta2-microglobulin content in the DM-0.5C group was significantly lower than that in the normal group. On the sixth day after induction of diabetes, the urinary microalbumin content in the DM, DM-0.25C and DM-0.5C groups had increased 5.40, 4.02, 3.87 times, respectively, compared with the normal group. In conclusion, kidney function appears to be improved by green tea catechin supplementation due to its antithrombotic action, which in turn controls the arachidonic acid cascade system.

98. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1238-40.

Activity-guided fractionation of green tea extract with antiproliferative activity against human stomach cancer cells.

Kinjo J, Nagao T, Tanaka T, Nonaka G, Okawa M, Nohara T, Okabe H.

Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea provides protection against stomach cancer. Fractionation of green tea extract, guided by antiproliferative activity against human stomach cancer (MK-1) cells, has resulted in the isolation of six active flavan-3-ols, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), gallocatechin (GC), epicatechin gallate (ECg), gallocatechin gallate (GCg), together with inactive glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Among the six active flavan-3-ols, EGCg and GCg showed the highest activity, EGC, GC, ECg followed next, and the activity of EC was lowest. These data suggest that the presence of the three adjacent hydroxyl groups (pyrogallol or galloyl group) in the molecule would be a key factor for enhancing the activity. Since reactive oxygen species play an important role in cell death induction, radical scavenging activity was evaluated using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical. The order of scavenging activity was ECg > or = EGCg > or = EGC > or = GC > or = EC. The compounds having a galloyl moiety showed more potent activity. The contribution of the pyrogallol moiety in the B-ring to the scavenging activity seemed to be less than that of the galloyl moiety.

99. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Oct;283(4):G957-64.

Prevention of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by green tea extract.

Zhong Z, Froh M, Connor HD, Li X, Conzelmann LO, Mason RP, Lemasters JJ, Thurman RG.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA.

These experiments were designed to determine whether green tea extract (GTE), which contains polyphenolic free radical scavengers, prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver. Rats were fed a powdered diet containing 0-0.3% GTE starting 5 days before hepatic warm ischemia and reperfusion. Free radicals in bile were trapped with the spin-trapping reagent alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) and measured using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion increased transaminase release and caused pathological changes including focal necrosis and hepatic leukocyte infiltration in the liver. Transaminase release was diminished by over 85% and pathological changes were almost totally blocked by 0.1% dietary GTE. Ischemia-reperfusion increased 4-POBN/radical adducts in bile nearly twofold, an effect largely blocked by GTE. Epicatechin, one of the major green tea polyphenols, gave similar protection as GTE. In addition, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion activated NF-kappa B and increased TNF-alpha mRNA and protein expression. These effects were all blocked by GTE. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GTE scavenges free radicals in the liver after ischemiareoxygenation, thus preventing formation of toxic cytokines. Therefore, GTE could prove to be effective in decreasing hepatic injury in disease states where ischemia-reperfusion occurs.

100. Mutat Res. 2002 Sep;512(1):37-65.

Comparative antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of green tea and black tea: a review.

Gupta S, Saha B, Giri AK.

Division of Human Genetics and Genomics, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032, India.

Tea is the most popular beverage next to water, consumed by over two-thirds of the world's population. It is processed in different ways in different parts of the world to give green, black or oolong tea. Experimental studies have demonstrated the significant antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of both green and black tea and its polyphenols in multiple mutational assays. In the present review, we have attempted to evaluate and update the comparative antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of green tea, black tea and their polyphenols in different test systems, based on available literature. Existing reports have suggested that the protective effects of black tea is as good as green tea, however, more studies on black tea and its polyphenols are needed before a final conclusion can be made.