126. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2001 Jul-Sep;2(3):215-224. A Study of Various Sociodemographic Factors and Plasma Vitamin Levels in Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer in Gujarat, India.
Patel PS, Raval GN, Patel DD, Sainger RN, Shah MH, Shah JS, Patel MM, Dutta SJ, Patel BP.
This study suggests that tobacco plays a role in decreasing levels of Vitamin A and E, increasing cancer risk Lower levels of Vitamin E and beta carotene were observed in tobacco users versus non users in Gujarat, India. High levels of serum beta carotene and vitamin E were associated with decreased risk in cancer and cancer development. Blood levels of these nutrients were lower in cancer versus non cancer persons.
127. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 May;87(5):526-30.
Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in Ethiopia.
Kello AB, Gilbert C.
This study in a school for the blind in Ethiopia concludes that 68% of cases of blindness were avoidable through prevention of vitamin A deficiency and prevention of measles.
128. Nutrition. 2003 May;19(5):405-8.
Vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency, and anemia among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
Palafox NA, Gamble MV, Dancheck B, Ricks MO, Briand K, Semba RD.
This study evaluates serum Vitamin A, hemoglobin and iron in ages one to five year old children in the Marshall Islands, and finds that over half of the children have vitamin A and iron deficiencies, and 36.4% have anemia, and 23.8% have both iron deficiency and anemia.
129. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 1999 Sep 30;28(5):312-3. Evaluation on the nutritional status of carotenoid in healthy elder people.
Gu X, Yin S, Ferreira AL, Gao X.
Increased carotenoids in blood serum showed correlation in elderly people with such disease indicators as decreased levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, body mass index, and diastolic pressure.
130. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Aug;285(2):G424-32. Epub 2003 Apr 23.
Vitamin A deficiency inhibits intestinal adaptation by modulating apoptosis, proliferation, and enterocyte migration.
Swartz-Basile DA, Wang L, Tang Y, Pitt HA, Rubin DC, Levin MS.
In rats with resected bowels, dietary vitamin A deficient rats showed decrease in healing factors, including significant increase in cell death (apoptosis), decrease in enterocyte migration factors, and decrease in immunoreactive collagen IV.
131. Dev Biol. 2003 May 1;257(1):14-29.
Vitamin A deficiency in the late gastrula stage rat embryo results in a one to two vertebral anteriorization that extends throughout the axial skeleton.
Kaiser ME, Merrill RA, Stein AC, Breburda E, Clagett-Dame M.
This paper demonstrates that vitamin A is necessary for normal skeletal development in the rat embryo.
132. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92(2):162-4.
Vitamin A and sudden infant death syndrome in Scandinavia 1992-1995.
Alm B, Wennergren G, Norvenius SG, Skjaerven R, Lagercrantz H, Helweg-Larsen K, Irgens LM; Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study.
A Significant difference in preventing sudden infant death was found in Sweden and Norway when children were supplemented with vitamin A and D in their first year of life.
133. Cancer Sci. 2003 Jan;94(1):57-63.
Serum carotenoids and mortality from lung cancer: a case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study.
Ito Y, Wakai K, Suzuki K, Tamakoshi A, Seki N, Ando M, Nishino Y, Kondo T, Watanabe Y, Ozasa K, Ohno Y; JACC Study Group.
Controlled study of blood serum levels of carotenoids, tocopherols, and folic acid in 147 people who died of lung cancer indicates that high serum levels of alpha and beta carotene, lycopene, beta cryptoxanthin , and cathoxanthin correlate with the lowest risk of lung cancer.
134. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2003 Jan;67(1):41-53
Regulation of AP-2 and apoptosis in developing eye in a vitamin A-deficiency model.
Zhou J, Kochhar DM.
Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107
The blocking of retinolic acid receptor (RAR) function can lead to eye abnormalities as aspects of vitamin A-deficiency syndrome. The researchers concluded that deficiency of Vitamin A during gestation is associated with the increased incidence of eye abnormalities in the newborn.
135. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2003 Mar-Apr;14(2):81-9.
Dietary Markers of Hypertension Associated With Pulse Pressure and Arterial Compliance in Black South African Children: The THUSA Bana Study.
Schutte AE, Van Rooyen JM, Huisman HW, Kruger HS, Malan NT, De Ridder JH.
Dietary intake below recommended levels for various nutrients were found to be risk markers in the development of hypertension in black children, ages 10-15 years. Researchers concluded that there were strong associations between low level of protein, polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, nicotinic acid, vitamin B(12), biotin and phosphorus with the rate of hypertension in black South African children.
136. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003 Apr;13(3):281-6.
Changes In Blood Antioxidants and Several Lipid Peroxidation Products In Women With Age-related Macular Degeneration.
Nowak M, Swietochowska E, Wielkoszynski T, Marek B, Karpe J, Gorski J, Glogowska-Szelag J, Kos-Kudla B, Ostrowska Z.
In a study of women with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) researchers concluded that high concentrations of iron might be one of the protective mechanisms in oxidation stress. There were also indications that vitamins A, C, E and glutathione had an important role to play in reducing oxidation stress.
137. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003 Mar;73(2):95-100.
Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin.
Sies H, Stahl W.
Researchers found that increasing lycopene and other carotenoid intake through daily consumption of tomato paste over a period of ten weeks provides protection against UV damage to skin and eyes and is associated with a lowered risk for age-related macular degeneration, a disease with increasing incidence in the elderly.
138. Acta Trop. 2003 May;86(2-3):197-214.
Impact of Mass Chemotherapy On the Morbidity Cue to Soil-Transmitted Nematodes.
de Silva NR.
Researchers concluded that in areas with Vitamin A deficiency and endemic ascariasis (worm infection), the worms may interfere with Vitamin A uptake by reducing fat absorption.
139. Arch Intern Med. 2003 May 12;163(9):1064-8.
Use of Medications and Dietary Supplements In Later Years Among Male Former Top-Level Athletes.
Kujala UM, Sarna S, Kaprio J.
A group of male athletes (2, 026) who had represented Finland in international events from 1920 through 1965 were compared with control subjects (1,401) who had been classified healthy at the age of 20 years to determine relative use of medications and dietary supplements.
Researchers found that male athletes initiated much less medication for cardiac insufficiency, coronary heart disease, and asthma compared to the control group. It was also found that the male athletes used few nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antacids, but used much more vitamin A, B, C, selenium, and iron supplements. The authors concluded that the need for long-term therapy for cardiac disease and asthma as well as for treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antacids is reduced among former top-level athletes, but the use of dietary supplements is increased.
140. J Nutr Biochem. 2003 Mar;14(3):147-153.
Low Zinc Intake Decreases the Lymphatic Output of Retinol in Rats Infused Intraduodenally With beta-Carotene.
Noh SK, Koo SI.
In prior studies it has been shown that retinol is significantly decreased in rats fed a low zinc diet. This study was conducted to determine whether the absorption of beta-carotene also is altered in zinc-deficient male rats. This study suggests that zinc status is an important factor determining the intestinal absorption of beta-carotene and hence the nutritional status of vitamin A.
141. Public Health Nutr. 2003 May;6(3):233-44.
National Immunisation Days and Vitamin A Distribution in Mali: Has the Vitamin A Status of Pre-School Children Improved?
Schemann JF, Banou A, Malvy D, Guindo A, Traore L, Momo G.
The change in prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was examined in pre-school children in Mali when vitamin A distribution was coupled with national immunization days (NIDs).
The researchers concluded that mass distribution of vitamin A appears to reduce the occurrence of xerophthalmia and would seem to be associated with a decrease in other related illnesses. Vitamin A supplementation during NIDs should be given a high priority when vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem.
142. Ecotoxicology. 2003 Feb-Aug;12(1-4):183-97.
Biological Effects of Marine PCB Contamination on Black Guillemot Nestlings at Saglek, Labrador: Liver Biomarkers.
Kuzyk ZZ, Burgess NM, Stow JP, Fox GA.
Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) in Saglek Bay, Labrador have elevated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations due to marine sediment contamination around a former military site. Associations between liver biomarkers and organochlorine exposure in fish-eating birds are well documented, typically exposures involve multiple contaminants and there is uncertainty about specific PCB effects. For example, in this study, liver retinol concentrations were reduced by 47% and retinyl palmitate concentrations were reduced 50% but only among female nestlings. The findings of this study indicate that liver biomarkers respond to relatively low PCB exposures in guillemots.
143. Microbes Infect. 2003 Apr;5(5):405-11.
Vitamin A Deficiency Leads to Severe Functional Disturbance of the Intestinal Epithelium Enzymes Associated With Diarrhoea and Increased Bacterial Translocation in Gnotobiotic Rats.
Kozakova H, Hanson LA, Stepankova R, Kahu H, Dahlgren UI, Wiedermann U.
The study indicated that vitamin A deficiency led to a strong reduction in enterocyte enzymatic activities, associated with diarrhea and increased bacterial translocation, , suggesting that the composition of the bacterial flora has a srtong influence on triggering the severity of the functional disturbances of the intestinal epithelium and ads to the clinical manifestations of vitamin A deficiency.
144. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(1):96-103.
Current Status of Vitamin A Deficiency and the National Vitamin A Control Program in Nepal: Results of the 1998 National Micronutrient Status Survey.
Gorstein J, Shreshtra RK, Pandey S, Adhikari RK, Pradhan A.
The authors examined the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among pre-school children in Nepal, the affect of vitamin A on night-blindness and Bitot’s spots, and the results of outreach and coverage of the National Vitamin A Supplementation activity. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of clinical vitamin A deficiency in Nepal, particularly when Vitamin A was made available during National Immunization Day (NID).
The prevalence of both Bitot's spots and night-blindness among preschool children decreased from levels observed in the previous twenty years.
145. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(1):73-9.
The Relationships Between Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Vitamin A and E Concentrations and Lipid Profiles in Overweight and Obese Subjects.
Viroonudomphol D, Pongpaew P, Tungtrongchitr R, Changbumrung S, Tungtrongchitr A, Phonrat B, Vudhivai N, Schelp FP.
The weight, height, body mass index profiles of 16 overweight Thai males and 56 overweight females, were compared with 14 males and 58 females in a control group.
Researchers found that as weight, body mass index, and hip circumference went up, serum retinol levels went down in both the overweight and obese subjects.
146. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(1):38-44.
Pacific Pandanus Fruit: On Ethnographic Approach to Understanding An Overlooked Source of Provitamin A Carotenoids.
Englberger L, Fitzgerald MH, Marks GC.
Unfortunately, availability of high carotid content foods has decreased substantially in recent years due to the increased consumption of imported foods and general neglect of indigenous foods. This study concluded that high-carotenoid pandanus fruit should be promoted to the local population for health benefits as well as general enjoyment.
147. Can J Urol. 1997 Jun;4(2 Supp 1):22-27.
Diet, Micronutrients and Prostate Cancer: a Review of the Evidence.
Gallagher RP, Kutynec CL.
Prostate cancer is the most common life threatening cancer in males in Canada, however, relatively little is known about it etiology. Recent popular interest has focused on the role of diet. Evidence from studies examining the relationship of beta-carotene and Vitamin A to prostate cancer is ambiguous with some investigations showing a direct association with risk and others showing no association. Researchers concluded that more research is urgently needed on the topic of dietary correlate of prostate cancer.
148. Nutr Cancer. 2002;44(2):104-26.
Diet and Oral, Pharyngeal, and Esophageal Cancer.
Cancers of the upper digestive tract, including those arising in the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, present a significant public health problem worldwide. These cancers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and identification of protective factors is very important. The results of 35 epidemiological studies were examined to determine the protective role of dietary components against development of oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. It was concluded that there is sufficient evidence to point to a preventive role of vegetable intake, including green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and yellow vegetables, total fruit intake, and citrus fruit intake. Yellow fruits are likely to be protective. Carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E are protective, most likely in combination with each other and other micronutrients.
149. Curr Womens Health Rep. 2003 Jun;3(3):187-92.
Bones and Nutrition: Common Sense Spplementation for Osteoporosis.
Advani S, Wimalawansa SJ.
As diet has been identified as one of the most important factor in risk for osteoporosis, particularly the roles of calcium and vitamin D, this study is devoted to reviewing of the roles of diet and supplementation, including vitamin A, in the prevention of Osteoporosis,
150. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Mar;77(3):651-7.
Redistribution of vitamin A after iron supplementation in Indonesian infants.
Wieringa FT, Dijkhuizen MA, West CE, Thurnham DI, Muhilal, Van der Meer JW.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation trial, 387 Indonesian infants aged 4 months were supplemented 5 days per week for 6 month with 10 mg iron, 10 mg zinc, 2.4 mg beta-carotene, 10 mg each of Fe and Zn, 10 mg Zn + 2.4 mg beta-carotene, or placebo. It was found that if the infants had marginal vitamin A levels then their plasma vitamin A levels went abnormally low if given iron supplements without extra vitamin A supplementation. The authors concluded that any iron supplementation in infants also include vitamin A supplementation.
151. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2003;35(1):15-20.
Vitamin A supplementation and health outcomes for children in Nepal.
Grubesic RB, Selwyn BJ.
Children aged 6-60 months were examined for indications of vitamin A deficiency and their mothers were questioned about the children’s health status and degree of vitamin supplementation. The results indicated that children who received vitamin A supplements had fewer incidents of malnutrition, diarrhea, and respiratory infection than children who did not receive supplements. Researchers concluded that vitamin A supplementation twice annually provides more protection to children than one dose of vitamin A a year.
152. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Jan;54(1):57-75. Intake of nutrients associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in a Spanish population.
Capita R, Alonso-Calleja C.
Average caloric intake was measured in 24 males and 76 females. The study reported that both men and women consumed more than the recommended levels of sodium, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and advised increasing the amounts of dietary fiber and vitamins A and E.
153. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2003 Jan-Feb;66(1):60-3.
The role of liver antioxidant system in predisposition of rats to hepatotoxic effect of ethanol
Bushma MI, Zimatkin SM, Ambrushkevich I, Legon'kova LF, Karaedova LM, Bushma TV, Khomich TI, Sheibak VM.
When ethanol was administered to rats with the purpose of measuring the toxiticity to the liver, rats with low levels of glutathione and retinols (vitamin A derivative) in the liver are more vulnerable to liver damage.
154. J Nutr Health Aging. 2003;7(2):121-8
Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern U.S. African-american and caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.
Lewis SM, Mayhugh MA, Freni SC, Thorn B, Cardoso S, Buffington C, Jairaj K, Feuers RJ.
The daily vitamin intake of 259 women living on low incomes was examined using the RDA (recommended daily allowance) and EAR (estimated average requirement) measures. Women consumed less than the EAR of vitamin E although vitamin A consumption was within recommended values. However, the vitamin precursors, -carotene (for vitamin A) and a-tocopherol, (for vitamin E) were significantly below recommended values. Overall, the intake of antioxidant vitamins and minerals inadequate and supplementation of nutrients was recommended to decrease health risks.
155. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;88(4):1523-7.
Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: results of a cross-sectional study.
Maggio D, Barabani M, Pierandrei M, Polidori MC, Catani M, Mecocci P, Senin U, Pacifici R, Cherubini A.
The plasma of 75 osteoporotic women was measured for vitamins C, E and A and compared to a control group of 75 women. Antioxidant levels were found to be lower in the women with osteoporosis, a factor that warrants further study.
156. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2003;22(1):17-28.
Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant mechanisms, and serum cytokine levels in cancer patients: impact of an antioxidant treatment.
Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Mura L, Massa E, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Murgia V, Camboni P, Ferreli L.
Twenty-eight advanced cancer patients were treated with 5 different antioxidants, including a combination of vitamins A, C and E, for ten days. The subjects responded favorably having beneficial results on several measures of immune function.
157. Ai Zheng. 2003 Feb;22(2):202-5.
Effect of Retinoic Acid (RA) on the T-lymphocyte Subsets and T-cell Colony of Patients with Colorectal Cancer
Wei HB, Wang JF, Chen GH.
The authors of this study note that retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A can inhibit carcinogenesis and reduce the morbidity of experimental colorectal cancer in animal models. They test this finding on a group of 20 cancer patients matched with 20 controls. They found that giving retinoic acid subsequent to the radical procedure of colorectal carcinoma surgery promoted cellular and humoral immunity and improved immune status and helped recovery in patients with colorectal cancer.
158. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Mar;87(3):263-5.
Childhood blindness in India: a population based perspective.
Dandona R, Dandona L.
In this study 6935 children up to15 years of age participated. The prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.17%. Treatable refractive error caused 33.3% of the blindness, followed by 16.6% due to preventable causes (8.3% each due to vitamin A deficiency and amblyopia after cataract surgery).
159. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Aug;40(8):874-81.
Retinoic acid--a player that rules the game of life and death in neutrophils.
Retinoids (Vitamin A and analogues), in general, and specifically all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), play a crucial role during differentiation of white blood cells. The author summarizes evidence on involvement of retinoic acid-mediated events in the formation of white blood cell neutrophils.
160. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002 Dec;72(6):375-82.
Seasonal variation of food consumption and selected nutrient intake in Linxian, a high risk area for esophageal cancer in China.
Zou XN, Taylor PR, Mark SD, Chao A, Wang W, Dawsey SM, Wu YP, Qiao YL, Zheng SF.
Nutrition Intervention Trials were conducted in Linxian, China from 1985 through 1991. In the group receiving beta-carotene, selenium, and alpha-tocopherol there was a reduction in total cancer. This present survey was to investigate food patterns, nutrient intakes, and seasonal variations in the diet in 1996 in 104 households. One of the lowest levels of nutrients was vitamin A at only 25% of the RDA. The authors concluded that the nutrient intake in Linxian is inadequate including nutrients known to be associated with esophageal cancer.
161. Bioessays. 2003 Mar;25(3):212-20.
Kidney development and the fetal programming of adult disease.
Moritz KM, Dodic M, Wintour EM.
This review comments on the factors that can affect fetal renal development. They include exposure to excess glucocorticoids, insufficient vitamin A, protein/calorie malnutrition (in rats) and alterations in the intrarenal renin angiotensinogen system). All these risks can produce hypertension in the adult animal. These can occur at the very earliest stages of kidney development and can lead to hypertension and renal disease.
162. Cell Tissue Res. 2003 Feb;311(2):251-8. Epub 2002 Dec 14.
Vitamin A prevents the irreversible proliferation of vaginal epithelium induced by neonatal injection of keratinocyte growth factor in mice.
Masui F, Matsuda M, Mori T.
This study shows that concurrent vitamin A treatment can block abnormal and irreversible keratinization of vaginal mucusa in adulthood, caused by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period.
163. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2002 Nov;53(6):465-74.
Vitamin A deficiency among preschool children in a rural area of Egypt: the results of dietary assessment and biochemical assay.
el-Arab AE, Khalil F, Hussein L.
In this survey children from the higher socio-economic class had significantly higher vitamin A intake compared with poor children. After a 10-week vitamin A intervention trial using there was significant increase in growth of the treated group.
164. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2002 Nov;53(6):445-53.
In vitro accessibility of carotenes from green leafy vegetables cooked with sunflower oil or red palm oil.
Hedren E, Mulokozi G, Svanberg U.
This study showed that by eating vegetable relishes with added red palm oil daily recipients should be able to achieve the daily recommended level of vitamin A.
165. Public Health Nutr. 2003 Feb;6(1):5-17.
Insights on food and nutrition in the Federated States of Micronesia: a review of the literature.
Englberger L, Marks GC, Fitzgerald MH.
This study comments on the serious problem of nutrition-related disorders, including vitamin A deficiency and chronic diseases, in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The authors remark that these disorders are thought to be new problems related to dietary and lifestyle changes. They blame imported foods, such as white rice, flour, sugar, refined foods and fatty meats, in the past four decades, that have gradually replaced local foods in the diet. In the conclusion of this review the authors called for improvement of the Micronesian diet based on more use of local foods.
166. J Hum Hypertens. 2003 Jan;17(1):29-35.
Dietary risk markers that contribute to the aetiology of hypertension in black South African children: the THUSA BANA study.
Schutte AE, van Rooyen JM, Huisman HW, Kruger HS, Malan NT, De Ridder JH; Transition and Health During Urbanisation in South Africa in Children; Bana: Children
Among a group of 373 black females low vitamin A intake was significantly associated with high blood Dietary intakes of all nutrients studied were well below the recommended daily allowance.
167. Curr Drug Metab. 2003 Feb;4(1):1-10.
Retinoic acid metabolism and mechanism of action: a review.
Marill J, Idres N, Capron CC, Nguyen E, Chabot GG.
The authors acknowledge that retinoids are essential for normal embryo development and epithelial differentiation. Retinoids are also being used in chemoprevention for some cancers. The authors review the literature and conclude that although use of retinoids for cancer is still in the early stages but it should be useful in the management of several cancers in the future.
168. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002 Nov;91(5):232-44.
Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat II: Clinical observations and toxicological parameters.
Stern N, Oberg M, Casabona H, Trossvik C, Manzoor E, Johansson N, Lind M, Orberg J, Feinstein R, Johansson A, Chu I, Poon R, Yagminas A, Brouwer A, Jones B, Hakansson H.
This study measures the low levels of vitamin A as a response to chemical toxicity in the rat.
169. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 18;100(4):1763-8. Epub 2003 Jan 31.
Decreased embryonic retinoic acid synthesis results in a DiGeorge syndrome phenotype in newborn mice.
Vermot J, Niederreither K, Garnier JM, Chambon P, Dolle P.
Mice used as a model for the human DiGeorge syndrome expressed more disease symptoms when they had deficiency of vitamin A.
170.: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2001 Nov;30(6):343-6. Related Articles, Links
[Effect of folic acid and supplemented with vitamin A and vitamin E on depressing teratogenesis induced by cyclophosphamide]
[Article in Chinese]
Ma A, Xu H, Du W, Liu Y.
We know that folic acid can prevent birth defects and stunted fetal due to cyclophosphamide exposure during pregnancy . however, this study showed that the combined effect using vitamin A and vitamin E together with folic acid was superior to using folic acid alone.
171. Dev Dyn. 2003 Feb;226(2):237-44.
Retinoic acid, a regeneration-inducing molecule.
Maden M, Hind M.
Retinoic acid (RA) is the biologically active metabolite of vitamin A. This low molecular weight, lipophilic molecule acts on the nucleus of a cell to induce gene transcription. This paper reviews the ability of retinoic acid to induce tissue regeneration in amphibians and mammals. Even in tissues that normally don’t regenerate, such as the lung in adult mammals, RA induces the complete regeneration of alveoli that have been destroyed by various noxious treatments. In recent experiments, the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), which is another tissue that cannot regenerate, can be induced to form new neuritis when RA receptors are introduced in vitro. The authors suggest that the same gene pathways are probably used for both development and regeneration.
172. J Neurobiol. 2003 Mar;54(4):539-54.
Vitamin A deficiency leads to increased cell proliferation in olfactory epithelium of mature rats.
Asson-Batres MA, Zeng MS, Savchenko V, Aderoju A, McKanna J.
Previously these authors have shown that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) leads to the decreased expression of gene products that are created by mature neurons in the epithelium of the eye of adult rats. They conclude in this paper that deficiency of vitamin A derivatives, such as retinoic acid, leads to a loss of control over proliferation, hyperplasia, and increased numbers of pro-neural cells in vivo in the developing eye.
173. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002 Nov;85 Suppl 4:S1219-23.
Vitamin A status in premature infants.
Feungpean B, Suthutvoravut U, Supapannachart S, Rakthai S, Chatvuttinun S.
In this paper the authors suggested that otherwise healthy premature infants were prone to subclinical vitamin A deficiency during the first week of life. Knowing that is is the case in prematurity they felt these infants could be routinely treated by adequate enteral feeding and routine multivitamin supplementation.
174. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003 Mar;64(3):261-9.
Expression of retinol-binding protein and cellular retinol-binding protein in the bovine ovary.
Brown JA, Eberhardt DM, Schrick FN, Roberts MP, Godkin JD.
Retinol (vitamin A) is essential for reproduction. In this study the authors found that retinoids play a specific and distinct role in ovarian function.
175. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;57(1):177-85.
Impact of 'Mad Cow Disease' publicity on trends in meat and total vitamin A consumption in Geneva between 1993 and 2000.
Sorenson AW, Delhumeau C, Bernstein MS, Costanza MC, Morabia A.
Because of the mad cow disease scare there has been a decrease in beef and liver consumption since late 1996. Measurements for retinol and total vitamin A in over 9,000 men and women showed lower vitamin levels in meat abstainers.
176. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003 Feb;68(2):171-9.
Recent advances in molecular cloning of fatty acid desaturase genes and the regulation of their expression by dietary vitamin A and retinoic acid.
Zolfaghari R, Ross AC.
This review cites recent studies in vivo and in cell lines, which have shown that vitamin A and its active metabolite, retinoic acid, regulate the expression of fatty acid desaturases including those involved in dietary essential fatty acids. These reaction products act on a wide variety of physiological processes which include fetal growth and development, reproduction, cell differentiation, immune and inflammatory responses.
177. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jan;27(1):60-9.
Up-regulation of muscle uncoupling protein 3 gene expression in mice following high fat diet, dietary vitamin A supplementation and acute retinoic acid-treatment.
Felipe F, Bonet ML, Ribot J, Palou A.
In this trial provided evidence of a stimulatory effect of retinoids on muscle expression in vivo.
178. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2002 Dec;22(4):321-4.
Serum and breast-milk vitamin A in women during lactation in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Panpanich R, Vitsupakorn K, Harper G, Brabin B.
In this study of 262 women breast-milk retinol levels decreased significantly from 4 to 12 months after delivery. The author concluded that this could increase the risk of vitamin A deficiency in children who were exclusively breastfed or did not receive vitamin a rich foods.
179. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 Nov-Dec;42(6):615-23.
Biochemical mechanisms of radiogenic cytogenetic and somatic disorders in children residing in regions polluted by radionuclides
Neifakh EA, Alimbekova AI, Suskov II.
The authors cite previous reports that children and adults affected by the Chernobyl accident suffer lipoperoxic stress associated with vitamin A and E deficiency. These biochemical disturbances are related to mutagenic and teratogenic outcomes caused by chronic low-dose irradiation. The authors concluded that polyvitamin therapy including vitamin A and E is proposed as the method of choice for prevention or normalization of revealed pathologies.
180. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003 Feb;14(2):133-44.
Tumouricidal activity of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) natural cytotoxic cells: the role played in vitro and in vivo by retinol acetate.
Cuesta A, Esteban MA, Meseguer J.
The authors studied a fish model and concluded that retinol acetate increases the beneficial and normal kidney leucocyte cytotoxic activity both in vitro and in vivo.
181. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Jan;103(1):61-6.
Nutritional status of the older adult is associated with dentition status.
Sahyoun NR, Lin CL, Krall E.
Impaired dentition was examined as a contributor to poor nutrition. Data was collected from the NHANES III study including 5,958 men and women 50 years and older. It was found that people with impaired dentition consumed fewer servings of fruits, and had lower serum values of beta carotene, vitamin A and ascorbic acid. These results show that dental health is an important aspect of nutritional status.
182. Med Clin (Barc). 2002 Dec 7;119(20):765-9.
Micronutrients in HIV-infection and the relationship with the inflammatory response.
Jimenez-Exposito MJ, Bullo Bonet M, Alonso-Villaverde C, Serrano P, Garcia-Lorda P, Garcia-Luna PP, Masana L, Salas-Salvado J.
In a group of 86 patients with HIV serum vitamin A levels were below the reference range in 36.4% patients but not in controls subjects. With increased severity of the disease the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency increased. AIDS patients with active opportunistic infection showed significantly lower serum concentrations of vitamin A.
183. Annu Rev Nutr. 2003 Jan 8
Rough and Rocky Road to the Retinoid Revolution.
A doctor from Western Europe describes discovery of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones and the molecular mechanism of action of retinoids, retinol, and retinoic acid, which led to studies on prematurely born human neonates and successful supplementation of these patients with vitamin A.
184. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003 Jan 10;140(1):67-73.
Retinoic acid involvement in the reciprocal neurotrophic interactions between newt spinal cord and limb blastemas in vitro.
Prince DJ, Carlone RL.
In an in vitro study when retinoic acid, a vitamin A metabolite, was added to the medium, it increased both the number and length of axons extending from spinal cord explants. The authors concluded that these results indicate a with a reciprocal interaction between blastema mesenchyme and nerves and suggest either a stimulatory or synergistic role for endogenous retinoic acid in blastema growth.
185. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;134(1):11-23.
Retinoid metabolism (LRAT, REH) in the yolk-sac membrane of Japanese quail eggs and effects of mono-ortho-PCBs.
Boily MH, Ndayibagira A, Spear PA.
Laboratory and field experiments suggest that retinoids, stored in avian eggs, are affected by environmental contaminants. These retinoids are essential for normal development. On exposure to toxic PCB chemicals yolk retinol concentration was lower in the exposed eggs.
186. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Oct;4(5A):1069-79.
The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey: vitamin intakes in 18-64-year-old adults
O'Brien MM, Kiely M, Harrington KE, Robson PJ, Strain JJ, Flynn A.
In a study of vitamin intake of 1379 men and women a relatively high proportion of men and women had inadequate intakes of vitamin A and the authors commented that the health significance of this deficiency should be investigated.
187. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul;132(1):19-26.
Use of vitamin supplements and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.
Kuzniarz M, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Flood VM.
This study was designed to investigate the association between vitamin supplements and the incidence of cataract. The authors studied 2873 people attending an eye clinic who completed a food diet diary. Specifically, they found that those patients who used vitamin A supplements had reduced incidence of nuclear cataract. They concluded that long-term use of multivitamins, B vitamins, and vitamin A was associated with lowered incidence of both nuclear or cortical cataract.
188. Conn Med. 1995 Oct;59(10):579-88.
Free radicals, oxidative stress, oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the heart: antioxidants and other strategies to limit cardiovascular damage.
Sinatra ST, DeMarco J.
Manchester Memorial Hospital, USA.
The antioxidant benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables has been established in other research. Also established is the heart’s responsiveness to nutritional and antioxidant treatment, namely carotenoids, beta-carotene, flavonoids, vitamins C and E. It can be concluded that a responsible cardiovascular health regime would include antioxidants as well as vitamin and mineral supplements.
189. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Oct;14(5):419-27.
Epidemiologic studies of antioxidants and cancer in humans.
Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Greenberg RS.
Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
This review of the literature from 1985-1993 assessed the association between three antioxidants and protection from seven types of cancer. Strong evidence supported the use of carotenoids for lung cancer risk. Ongoing research is recommended
190. Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1995;(52):75-91.
Cardiovascular disease and vitamins. Concurrent correction of 'suboptimal' plasma antioxidant levels may, as important part of 'optimal' nutrition, help to prevent early stages of cardiovascular disease and cancer, respectively.
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Berne, Switzerland.
Several studies concur that consuming optimal levels of antioxidant rich foods reduces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer. However consuming antioxidants at 25-30% below optimal levels doubles the risk of cancer and CVD. Antioxidants (vitamins A, C or E, and of beta-carotene) are found to have greater health benefits when there are optimal amounts of all antioxidants and the absence of one or more in the diet can increase the risk of CVD and cancer.
191. J Urol. 1994 Jan;151(1):21-6.
Megadose vitamins in bladder cancer: a double-blind clinical trial.
Lamm DL, Riggs DR, Shriver JS, vanGilder PF, Rach JF, DeHaven JI.
Department of Urology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown.
In this double-blind study, 65 patients with bladder cancer were given either the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of multivitamins, vitamins A, B6, C, E and zinc or megadoses of the same vitamins. After ten months, there was a significant reduction in the recurrence of tumors in the group of patients receiving the megadoses of vitamins with a 40 recurrence of tumors versus an 80% recurrence of tumors in patients taking the RDA dose of vitamins.
192. Int J Sport Nutr. 1993 Dec;3(4):356-75.
Exercise, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review.
Department of Biology, Ithaca College, NY 14850.
This review of literature explores the knowledge base regarding the benefits of nutritional supplements in combating the negative effects of free radicals. The authors even suggest that aerobic exercise for certain people under certain conditions may increase free radical production to the point of overcoming the body’s defense system. Nutrients such as beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E are able to neutralize such radical events.
HUMAN & ANIMAL RESEARCH
193. Cancer Detect Prev. 1984;7(3):147-58.
Micronutrients and cancer chemoprevention.
Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ, Willett W.
In this paper, the authors review animal and human studies examining the factors that may induce vitamins A, C and E, beta-carotene and selenium to inhibit cancer. The authors recommend that research be conducted on healthy individuals in placebo-controlled studies.
194. Toxicology. 2002 Nov 15;180(2):121-37
The influence of cigarette smoking on circulating concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients.
The author note that cigarette smoke is a significant source of oxidative stress. A literature search shows smokers have greater than 25% lower circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and cryptoxanthin (a carotenoid). Even in former smokers the concentration of these nutrients was 16-22% lower in former smokers compared with people who never smoked. Another literature search pooled studies showing intake of vitamin c was 16% lower in current smokers and 2% lower in former smokers than in never smokers; the corresponding figures for beta-carotene were 17 and 4%. However the author concludes that the differences observed between current smokers and nonsmokers seem to be due to an acute effect of smoking. And the associations observed with active smoking also appear to hold true for passive smoking, implying that even low-dose exposures to tobacco smoke can result in lowered circulating antioxidant micronutrient concentrations. The author conclude that smoking is independently associated with lowered circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid and provitamin A carotenoids.
195. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 17;91(6):547-56.
Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer.
Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Willett WC.
In this Nurses’ Health Study, data regarding 83,234 women was reviewed and 2,697 incidence of breast cancer were reported. Analysis of the long-term intake of vitamins C, A and E revealed a decline in breast cancer risk with the increase intake of vitamin C. Women with intake of 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables had a lower risk of breast cancer.
196. Eur Respir J. 1999 Jun;13(6):1439-46.
Modulation of the acute respiratory effects of winter air pollution by serum and dietary antioxidants: a panel study.
Grievink L, van der Zee SC, Hoek G, Boezen HM, van't Veer P, Brunekreef B.
The peak expiratory flow (PEF) levels were measured in 227 adults with chronic respiratory symptoms. Their intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene were also measured. The results indicated that vitamin C and beta-carotene might moderate decreases in PEF in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms.
197. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Oct;18(5):451-61.
Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Anderson JW, Gowri MS, Turner J, Nichols L, Diwadkar VA, Chow CK, Oeltgen PR.
Diabetic men were assessed for LDL oxidation levels and treated with vitamins C and E, and beta-carotene for 12 weeks. As a result, all factors of LDL oxidation were significantly decreased. This decreased risk of LDL oxidation can significantly decrease risk of coronary heart disease.
198. Vopr Pitan. 2000;69(1-2):44-6.
Biologically active food supplements in comprehensive therapy of patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension and the background of overweight
Rumiantseva OI, Tutel'ian VA, Pogozheva AV, Askol'zina SE, Lysenkova SL.
This brief article indicates that an anti-atherosclerotic diet rich in antioxidants including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and minerals resulted in lower cholesterol and triglycerides in 80 patients with hypertension.
199. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Feb;21(2):146-50.
Nutrition antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional basketball players: effects of a three compound antioxidative supplement.
Schroder H, Navarro E, Tramullas A, Mora J, Galiano D.
Professional basketball players were given either vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene or placebo for 32 days during competition season. Blood samples indicated that there was lower oxidative stress in the supplemented groups than in the control group. Also, the vitamin C concentration in the control group dropped significantly indicating increased oxidative stress. Thus, antioxidants including vitamin C are noted to decrease oxidative stress in competitive athletes.
200. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 May 15;151(10):975-81.
Antioxidant nutrients and pulmonary function: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
Hu G, Cassano PA.
This study looks at the function of antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and selenium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data from a national health survey was examined for 18,162 adults. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) of subjects was significantly better in subjects who consumed any of the tested antioxidants. The conclusion was that antioxidant supplementation improves lung function.
201. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2000;(6):41-3.
Ways of antioxidative prevention of complications in immediate postoperative period in children with nephroblastoma
Ordukhanian ZS, Gorozhanskaia EG, Saltanov AI.
Children with kidney tumors were given either small dose of vitamin C or larger dose of vitamins C and E and postoperative antioxidative system (AOS) function was measured. Reportedly, the larger dose of vitamins C and E was significant in preventing AOS.
202. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 6;92(23):1881-8.
Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-helicobacter pylori therapy.
Correa P, Fontham ET, Bravo JC, Bravo LE, Ruiz B, Zarama G, Realpe JL, Malcom GT, Li D, Johnson WD, Mera R.
Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, USA.
Patients with precancerous gastric lesions were treated with vitamin C or beta-carotene, with anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy and/or supplements, or placebos. The gastric biopsies showed that rates of regression were high with all interventions. Thus, treatment with vitamin C or beta-carotene was as effective as anti-Helicobacter pylori drug treatment.
203. Vopr Pitan. 2002;71(6):42-6.
[Evaluation of the effect of a medical-prophylactic product "Solnyshko" on the vitamin status in humans]
Litvinova EV, Durnev AD.
The Russian product Solnyshko which contains ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was found to improve the supply of these antioxidants.
204. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul;119(7):1009-19.
Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities.
Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, Hankinson SE, Khu PM, Rogers G, Friend J, Tung W, Wolfe JK, Padhye N, Willett WC, Taylor A.
Nuclear lens opacities, associated with the development of cataracts were measured in 478 nondiabetic women aged 53-73. Information about nutrition and vitamin supplementation was gathered over 13-15 years of the study. The finding indicated that those with the highest nutrient rating (vitamin C, vitamin E, riboflavin, folate, beta-carotene) had the lowest incidence of nuclear opacities.
205. Cancer Causes Control. 2001 Feb;12(2):163-72.
Dietary patterns, nutrient intake and gastric cancer in a high-risk area of Italy.
Palli D, Russo A, Decarli A.
In this study of 382 gastric cancer patients and 561 controls, the results indicated that the incidence of gastric cancer were lower in those who had high intakes of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene. Incidence of gastric cancer were higher in those subjects who had high intakes of protein, nitrite and sodium.
206. Can J Gastroenterol. 2000 Nov;14 Suppl D:51D-54D.
Nutrition and gastric cancer.
La Vecchia C, Franceschi S.
This author cites changes in diet as a rationale for the drop in stomach cancer. Studies support the increase in dietary fruits and vegetables and the supplementation of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and selenium. Studies of the effects of these supplements on cancer risk is warranted.
207. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15;38(6):1734-40.
Antioxidant vitamins attenuate oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
Shite J, Qin F, Mao W, Kawai H, Stevens SY, Liang C.
Cardiac disease was induced in rabbits and they were given either vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, vitamin E or a placebo for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was measured weekly. The results indicated that the combination antioxidants reduced myocardial oxidative stress, alleviated cardiac dysfunction. Vitamin E alone produced similar but less significant. The authors conclude that human congestive heart failure may be helped by antioxidants.
208. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15;38(6):1734-40.
Antioxidant vitamins attenuate oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
Shite J, Qin F, Mao W, Kawai H, Stevens SY, Liang C.
Cardiac disease was induced in rabbits and they were given either vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, vitamin E or a placebo for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was measured weekly. The results indicated that the combination antioxidants reduced myocardial oxidative stress, alleviated cardiac dysfunction. Vitamin E alone produced similar but less significant. The authors conclude that human congestive heart failure may be helped by antioxidants.
209. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Aug;285(2):H822-32. Epub 2003
Antioxidants attenuate myocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac function in CHF: association with changes in MAPK pathways.
Qin F, Shite J, Liang CS.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) was brought about in rabbits who were given either a placebo, vitamin E, or antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene) for 8 weeks. They were compared with a control group and the CHF animals had high levels of oxidative stress which was alleviated with the antioxidant and with the vitamin E. cardiac dysfunction was also alleviated with the antioxidant combination and with vitamin E.
212. Soz Praventivmed. 1989;34(2):75-7.
Vitamins and cancer: results of a Basel study
This nutrition survey of 2974 men, 204 of whom died of cancer in the 12-year study revealed that there was a decrease in the number of all cancer deaths in proportion to the intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene and vitamin A. The study confirmed the relationship between antioxidant vitamins and death from cancer.
210. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Apr 15;133(8):766-75.
Plasma antioxidant vitamins and subsequent cancer mortality in the 12-year follow-up of the prospective Basel Study.
Stahelin HB, Gey KF, Eichholzer M, Ludin E, Bernasconi F, Thurneysen J, Brubacher G.
This 12-year follow-up study of 2,974 men saw 204 deaths from cancer. Overall deaths from cancer were attributed to low levels of vitamin C and carotene. Those with stomach cancer had lower levels of vitamin C and vitamin A than survivors and in fact it was found that low levels of vitamin C increased the risk of stomach cancer. In general, low levels of antioxidants were associated with higher risk of death from cancer.
211. Ital J Gastroenterol. 1991 Sep-Oct;23(7):429-35.
Gastric cancer in Italy.
Cipriani F, Buiatti E, Palli D.
Of dietary factors studied as related to gastric cancer in Italy, traditional foods (meats, salted foods, cheeses and nitrites) were seen as risk factors. However, vitamin C, fresh fruit and vegetables, garlic olive oil and beta-carotene were seen as protective factors.
212. EXS. 1992;62:398-410.
Inverse correlation between essential antioxidants in plasma and subsequent risk to develop cancer, ischemic heart disease and stroke respectively: 12-year follow-up of the Prospective Basel Study.
Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF.
This 12-year follow-up study of 2,974 participants saw 204 cancer cases, 132 deaths from heart disease and 31 deaths from cerebral vascular disease. The data showed that overall deaths from cancer were connected to low levels of vitamin C and carotene. Deaths from stomach cancer and cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease were both associated with low levels of vitamin C.
213. Nutr Rev. 1994 Mar;52(3):75-83.
Diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, food preservation and gastric cancer risk: are there new roles for preventative factors?
Hwang H, Dwyer J, Russell RM.
Risk factors for gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori infection, consumption of nitrites, alcohol, salted, pickled, fermented and smoked foods. Conversely, the increase of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in the diet through fruits and vegetables may be crucial to risk reduction of gastric cancers.
214. Int J Cancer. 1994 Mar 1;56(5):650-4.
Serum micronutrients in relation to pre-cancerous gastric lesions.
Zhang L, Blot WJ, You WC, Chang YS, Liu XQ, Kneller RW, Zhao L, Liu WD, Li JY, Jin ML, et al.
The blood levels of 600 adults with precancerous gastric lesions was measured for levels of vitamins C, E, A, beta-carotene and minerals. Levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene were significantly lower in subjects with intestinal metaplasia (IM) (a precursor to cancer). Chronic atropic gastritis (CAG) is another precursor to cancer and it can develop into IM. However, the likelihood of CAG developing into IM was 1/6 as high in subjects with high levels of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene than those with lower levels of these nutrients. The authors conclude that nutrients like vitamin C and beta-carotene have a significant impact on risk prevention in gastric cancers.
215. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar 1;139(5):466-73.
Nutritional factors and gastric cancer in Spain.
Gonzalez CA, Riboli E, Badosa J, Batiste E, Cardona T, Pita S, Sanz JM, Torrent M, Agudo A.
Foods high in nitrites pose a risk to gastric cancer. In this study of 354 of gasric cancer patients and 354 controls, it was determined that those with gastric cancer reported high level of consumption of nitrites, fats and cholesterol. However, cancer risk was reduced with higher intake of vitamin C and carotene. In fact, high levels of vitamin C appeared to reduce the negative effects of the high nitrite diet. The authors support the increase of fruits and vegetables in the diet.
216. Int J Cancer. 1994 Jun 1;57(5):638-44.
Nutrients and gastric cancer risk. A population-based case-control study in Sweden.
Hansson LE, Nyren O, Bergstrom R, Wolk A, Lindgren A, Baron J, Adami HO.
Interviews about dietetic history and vitamin supplement intake were conducted with 338 subjects and 679 controls. The results indicated that ascorbic acid and beta-carotene protected against risk of gastric cancer as did vitamin E and nitrate. ascorbic acid was the most significant factor in risk prevention of gastric cancer.
217. Int J Cancer. 1995 Mar 16;60(6):748-52.
Attributable risks for stomach cancer in northern Italy.
La Vecchia C, D'Avanzo B, Negri E, Decarli A, Benichou J.
Risks for gastric cancer including the low intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene were measured in 746 gastric cancer cases and 2,053 controls. Low intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene and high intake of traditional Italian foods account for 73% of the cases of gastric cancer. The authors conclude that increase intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene and a reduction in consumption of traditional foods would result in a significant decline in mortality from stomach cancer.
218. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995 Jul;29(4):198-201
Relationship between serum micronutrients and precancerous gastric lesions
Zhang L, Zhao L, Ma J.
Six hundred subjects living in a high risk area for gastric cancer were measured for blood levels of nutrients vitamin C, A, E, beta-carotene and selenium. The results indicated that a high level of vitamin C or beta-carotene was associated with lower odds of developing intestinal dysplasia and metaplasia. The increase of both vitamin C and beta-carotene further reduced the odds. The authors concluded that vitamin C and beta-carotene play a significant role in protecting precancerous cells from developing into cancer.
219. Cad Saude Publica. 1996 Jan;12(1):53-59.
Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study.
Sichieri R, Everhart JE, Mendonca GA.
In this review of mortality rates from the most common cancers and diet, some correlations are described. Negative correlations indicate that the presence of certain nutrients inhibits cancers. There was a negative correlation between stomach cancer and the consumption of vitamin C, A and fruits. There was a negative correlation between prostate cancer and vitamin C.
220. Int J Cancer. 1996 Apr 10;66(2):145-50
Prediction of male cancer mortality by plasma levels of interacting vitamins: 17-year follow-up of the prospective Basel study.
Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF, Ludin E, Bernasconi F.
In 1971-1973, the plasma values of 2,974 men were measured for vitamins C, E and A and carotene. In 1990 the status of participants was evaluated and 290 men had died of cancer during this time. Death from cancer was linked to low levels of vitamin C and carotene. Deficiency in vitamin C and E, A and carotene were linked to increased risk of and death from lung cancer.
221. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1997 Dec;98(12):674-7.
Precancerous conditions and carcinomas of the stomach and colorectum--blood levels of selected micronutrients
Beno I, Ondreicka R, Magalova T, Brtkova A, Grancicova E.
The blood levels of vitamins A, C and E, beta-carotene, zinc and selenium in 249 patients with precancerous stomach and colorectal polyps was compared with 96 patients with stomach or colorectal cancer and with 130 control subjects. Precancerous patients had diminished levels of vitamins C E and A, selenium and beta-carotene. All patients with cancer had diminished levels of vitamins C E and A and beta-carotene. The conclusion is that these nutrients are essential to the prevention of these cancers and the recommendation is increased amounts of fruits and vegetables.
222. Cancer Lett. 1999 Feb 8;136(1):89-93
Serum antioxidative vitamin levels and lipid peroxidation in gastric carcinoma patients.
Choi MA, Kim BS, Yu R.
Vitamin C, E, beta-carotene and retinal were measured in the blood from the stomach of gastric cancer patients. the results were compared with a control group. Those with stomach cancer had significantly low levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene in their blood; less that 1/5 the amount of the control group. Low levels of vitamins C and E were also found in patients with a preference for spicy and salty foods. The authors conclude that vitamins A and E and beta-carotene act as antioxidants in combating gastric cancer.
223. Int J Cancer. 1998 Nov 9;78(4):415-20.
Nutrient intake patterns and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in Belgium.
Kaaks R, Tuyns AJ, Haelterman M, Riboli E.
Dietary assessments were undertaken on 301 Belgian men and women with stomach tumors. Those at increase risk had a diet rich in mono- and disaccharides. Those with low gastric cancer risk had high intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamins B1, B3 and B6. These findings were consistent with those of colon and rectum cancer studies.
224. Ann Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;10(2):125-34.
Design of Physicians' Health Study II--a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials.
Christen WG, Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH.
The authors of the Physicians' Health Study II call for large scale randomized studies of the effects of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and multivitamins on cancer, cardiovascular disease and eye disease. The authors acknowledge that PHS II is the only primary prevention trial in apparently healthy men to test the balance of benefits and risks of vitamin C, multivitamins, as well as any single antioxidant vitamin, alone and in combination, on cancer, CVD, and eye diseases. Finally, PHS II is the only trial testing the hypotheses that beta-carotene and vitamin E may reduce the risks of prostate cancer.
225. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Oct;10(10):1055-62.
Nutrient intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer.
Mayne ST, Risch HA, Dubrow R, Chow WH, Gammon MD, Vaughan TL, Farrow DC, Schoenberg JB, Stanford JL, Ahsan H, West AB, Rotterdam H, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr.
Patients with four types of esophagus and gastric cancer and a control group were interviewed about their diets to determine the relationship between intake of vitamin C, B6, folate, beta-carotene and fiber and cancer risk. There was an inverse relationship between the intake of these vitamins and cancer risk. Supplementation of vitamin C was linked to a lower risk of gastric cancer.
226. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2002 Jul;8(7):438-41.
Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori.
Heliocobacter pylori bacteria results in the production of free radicals which are linked to chronic disease. Studies have indicated that vitamin C and carotenoids have acted as antioxidants and have had antimicrobial properties against the bacteria. The authors suggest that further research be initiated to ascertain the effect of antioxidants on the Heliocobacter pylori bacteria.
227. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993 Aug;12(4):426-32
Antioxidants and cardiovascular disease: a review.
Manson JE, Gaziano JM, Jonas MA, Hennekens CH.
This review attests to the capacity of antioxidants to hinder the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. There are more studies of men than of women and the author cites a study in progress of 40,000 women and the effects of antioxidant vitamins vitamin C, E and beta-carotene.
228. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Aug;30(2):392-9.
Antioxidant nutrient supplementation reduces the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease.
Mosca L, Rubenfire M, Mandel C, Rock C, Tarshis T, Tsai A, Pearson T.
In this 12-week, double-blind placebo control study, 45 patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) took either a placebo, a mid-dose of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene or a high dose of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene. The results indicated a higher level of vitamin C and beta-carotene present in the blood in the mid and high dose subjects. High doses of the combination of antioxidants may be a preventative in the recurrence of CVD.
229. Biofactors. 1998;7(1-2):113-74.
Vitamins E plus C and interacting conutrients required for optimal health. A critical and constructive review of epidemiology and supplementation data regarding cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Low levels of vitamins C, E and carotenoids are correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Conversely, vitamin E is seen as being the most beneficial risk factor with vitamin C being the second. The author concludes that a combination of the nutrients vitamins C, E and carotenoids are necessary for optimal health.
230. Acta Cardiol. 1994;49(5):453-67.
Diet, antioxidant vitamins, oxidative stress and risk of coronary artery disease: the Peerzada Prospective Study.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Bishnoi I, Sharma JP, Gupta S, Rastogi SS, Singh R, Begum R, Chibo H, Shoumin Z.
This randomized study compared the blood antioxidant levels of 152 Indian males and females with Indian immigrants to the U.K. and a U.K. control group. The findings indicated that subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) had lower levels of vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene compared to healthy subjects, and their intake of dietary antioxidants was lower. Also the levels of vitamins C and E were very low in subjects who were smokers or who were diabetic. The study concludes that the subjects in India would benefit from a high dietary intake of vitamins C, E and beta-carotene.
231. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Oct;4(5A):1089-97.
The efficacy and safety of nutritional supplement use in a representative sample of adults in the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey.
Kiely M, Flynn A, Harrington KE, Robson PJ, O'Connor N, Hannon EM, O'Brien MM, Bell S, Strain JJ.
This study set out to describe the current use of nutritional supplements and assess risk. Food and supplement intake data were collected in 1379 adults (662 male and 717 female) using a 7-day food diary. Twenty-three per cent of respondents regularly used nutritional supplements and twice as many women used supplements as men. The authors concluded that supplementation appears to be beneficial in promoting adequate intakes of some micronutrients, particularly iron and folate in women aged 18-50 years and vitamin A in men and there appears to be little risk involved.
232. Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Oct;38(5):450-37.
Anti-oxidant vitamins and steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome in Indian children.
Mathew JL, Kabi BC, Rath B.
The authors acknowledge that nephrotic syndrome may be a consequence of an imbalance between oxidant and anti-oxidant activity. In the present study, the levels of micronutrient anti-oxidant vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin C, carotene and riboflavin) in 30 Indian children with steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome were investigated and 30 sibling controls. The authors found that mean vitamin E, vitamin C and carotene were significantly lower during the proteinuric phase of the disease, and there was decreased erythrocyte riboflavin activity. The vitamin levels improved during hospitalization but did not become normal. The authors concluded that these vitamins were active in performing their anti-oxidant function, as indicated by significant depression in their levels during the acute (proteinuric) phase, followed by partial recovery during remission. They conclude that steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome in children is associated with oxidative stress.
233. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Oct;56(10):1004-10.
Validation of the Italian food composition database of the European institute of oncology.
Fidanza F, Perriello G.
This survey compared nutrient intakes obtained by chemical analysis of food composite or duplicate portion of diets with those obtained by weighed record method using the database of the European Institute of Oncology (EIO). The authors found significant differences between analysis and calculation with EIO database for fat, retinol, beta-carotene and riboflavin intakes in different areas of Italy. They agreed with previous research and concluded that food composition tables and databases, such as the EIO database, cannot be considered a reliable method to determine nutrient intakes, particularly for some vitamins.
234. Nutr Hosp. 2002 Nov-Dec;17(6):290-5.
Anthropometric assessment and vitamin intake by a group of elderly institucionalized individuals in the province of Leon (Spain)
Villarino Rodriguez A, Garcia-Linares Mdel C, Garcia-Arias MT, Garcia-Fernandez Mdel C.
This is a survey of nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients in 124 elderly persons (60 males and 64 females), aged between 65 and 98, who were living in five old age institutions.
Inadequate levels of folic acid, vitamin A, riboflavin and vitamin B12 were found in important segments of this population. Even lower results were found in vitamin B6, vitamin D and vitamin E). Compared to recommended values the results were: (93.5% vs 67.8% for vitamin B6, 84.5% vs 84.6% for vitamin D, and 88.3% vs 92.2% for vitamin E, for men and women, respectively).
235. Am J Cardiol. 1995 Dec 15;76(17):1233-8.
Dietary intake, plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, and oxidative stress in relation to coronary artery disease in elderly subjects.
Singh RB, Ghosh S, Niaz MA, Singh R, Beegum R, Chibo H, Shoumin Z, Postiglione A.
A survey of 595 elderly subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) indicated that the blood levels of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene) were low.
236. Clin Chim Acta. 1998 Nov;278(1):55-60
Antioxidant vitamins and coronary artery disease risk in South African males.
Delport R, Ubbink JB, Human JA, Becker PJ, Myburgh DP, Vermaak WJ.
Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) had significantly lower blood levels of vitamins E, C and A compared with healthy control group.
237. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;9(1):49-80.
The Roche European American Cataract Trial (REACT): a randomized clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of an oral antioxidant micronutrient mixture to slow progression of age-related cataract.
An antioxidant combination of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene was administered to 445 cataract patients from the U.S. and the U.K. to determine whether the supplement would hinder the progression of cataracts. After 3 years, a small positive effect was evident in the U.S. group indicating that the antioxidant mixture could hinder growth of cataracts.
238. J Nutr. 2002 Apr;132(4):756-61.
A dietary oxidative balance score of vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron intakes and mortality risk in male smoking Belgians.
Van Hoydonck PG, Temme EH, Schouten EG.
This study compared the dietary antioxidants (vitamin C and beta-carotene) of 2,814 male smokers with mortality rates in that group. Those with a high intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene and low intake of iron had a lower relative risk of cancer than those men with a low intake of antioxidants.
239. Nutr Cancer. 2001;39(2):284-91
Antioxidants prevent the lymphocyte DNA damage induced by PMA-stimulated monocytes.
Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Rosignoli P, Morozzi G.
White blood cell DNA damage was measured again the use of several antioxidants. All compounds tested were able to protect the white blood cells to a certain degree. There was 41% protection with ascorbic acid, 55% protection with alpha-tocopherol, 50% protection with -carotene, and 56% protection with quercetin. The authors concluded that this "ex vivo model," more closely related to physiological conditions, could be used to test the antioxidant activity of different compounds.
240. Z Rheumatol. 1988 May-Jun;47(3):166-72.
Effect of riboflavin (vitamin B2) on spontaneous gonarthrosis in the mouse
Wilhelmi G, Tanner K.
The authors acknowledge that riboflavin is known to promote regenerative processes on osteoarthritis. In this study a group of mice given supplemental riboflavin. The incidence of gonarthrosis was less than half that found in the controls, the number of mice with bilateral gonarthrosis was considerably smaller, and the severity of the lesions less marked. Other drugs that stimulate wound healing were studied e.g. flavonoids, tribenoside, and zinc sulfate. These substances were also found to exert a similar inhibitory effect on spontaneous gonarthrosis in the mouse.
241. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002 Feb;10(2):119-26.
Dietary vitamins and selenium diminish the development of mechanically induced osteoarthritis and increase the expression of antioxidative enzymes in the knee joint of STR/1N mice.
Kurz B, Jost B, Schunke M.
This study assessed the effect of dietary vitamins and selenium on mechanically-induced osteoarthritis (OA) over a 12 month period in a group of mice. Their special diet was supplemented with the vitamins E, C, A, B6, B2, and selenium). The authors found that a diet supplemented with vitamins/selenium might be important in prevention or therapy of mechanically induced OA. They hypothesize that free oxygen radical species might be involved in the mechanical induction of OA.
242. N Z Med J. 1996 Nov 22;109(1034):435-8.
Nutrient intakes of Tongan and Tokelauan children living in New Zealand.
Bell AC, Parnell WR.
The authors, using a 24-hour diet record, wanted to measure the nutrient intakes of 10- to 13-year-old Tongan and Tokelauan children living in New Zealand and to compare them with non-Pacific Islands children of the same age. A total of 162 children (68 boys and 94 girls) were interviewed. Micronutrient intakes were generally lower for Tongan and Tokelauan children with intakes of calcium, riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, folate and vitamin A being significantly lower for both sexes. Vitamin C was also significantly lower for girls (p < 0.05).
The reason for the deficiencies in Tongan and Tokelauan children were that they obtain most of their nutrients from meat, bakery products, fast foods and dairy products. Fruit and vegetables were not significant in their diet.
243. Vopr Pitan. 2001;70(1):12-4.
Effects of biologically active supplements on the antioxidant and vitamin status of patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease.
Tutel'ian VA, Pogozheva AV, Rumiantseva OI, Akol'zina SE, Lysikova SL, Kodentsova VM, Mal'tsev GIu.
In this study patients of 91 patients with heart disease were treated with an anti-arteriosclerotic diet and vitamins C, E, B2, B6, beta-carotene, zinc, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and calcium. After 4 weeks the author noted improvement in clinical symptoms, lowering of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increasing levels of vitamins A, E, C, B2, and B6.
244. J Med Assoc Thai. 1993 Oct;76 Suppl 2:138-45.
Effects of multivitamin supplementation for improvement of thiamin, riboflavin, and retinol nutrition in pediatric patients.
Angkatavanich J, Suthutvoravut U, Panijpan B, Tontisirin K.
This study assesses the effect of multivitamin supplementation on thiamin, riboflavin and retinol nutrition in ten chronically ill boys. A multiple vitamin was given for ten days and the preceding ten days served as control. Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and dietary assessments were performed. Initial biochemical assessments of vitamin nutrition showed multiple vitamin deficiencies yet no clinical manifestations. Most patients showed subclinical vitamin deficiencies. The authors noted that improvement of vitamin nutrition was clearly shown in most patients after supplementation. The authors concluded that multiple vitamin supplements should be routinely prescribed in high-risk patients since there was no definite pattern of vitamin deficiencies in various diseases and early detection of vitamin deficiency was difficult to perform as evidenced by the fact that none of the patients appeared to show any clinical signs of vitamin deficiency. They recommend a daily dosage between 1-2 times of the RDA.
245. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;56(11):1119-25.
Diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India.
Venkaiah K, Damayanti K, Nayak MU, Vijayaraghavan K.
In this study the current diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India was surveyed in 20 households in 120 villages in each of nine states. Anthropometric and socio-economic information on 12,124 adolescent boys and girls and dietary information on 2579 individuals in 1996-1997 was used in this analysis. The authors found that the intake of micronutrients such as vitamin A and riboflavin were “woefully inadequate”. CONCLUSIONS: They concluded that the extent of undernutrition was high among all adolescents but higher among boys than girls. The authors also noted that adolescent girls in the rural areas could be at greater risk of nutritional stress because of early marriage and early conception before completion of their physical growth.
246. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;76(5):1082-90.
Effect of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-1-infected women.
Villamor E, Msamanga G, Spiegelman D, Antelman G, Peterson KE, Hunter DJ, Fawzi WW.
The authors acknowledge that the pattern of weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-infected women is largely unknown. What is known is that multivitamin supplementation is effective in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women. In this study the effects of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements on weight gain during the second and third trimesters of pregnant HIV women were assessed. A total of 1075 pregnant, HIV-1-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, entered a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The authors found that the risk of low rate of weight gain was significantly lower in women who received multivitamins than in women who did not. They concluded that multivitamins including vitamin A were protective against low weight gain during the second trimester compared with multivitamins alone.
247. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):211-4.
Regional variations of blood pressure in the United States are associated with regional variations in dietary intakes: the NHANES-III data.
Hajjar I, Kotchen T.
The authors acknowledge that the southern region of the United States has had the highest stroke mortality rate and a more prevalent and resistant hypertension. Using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES-III), nutritional variables were selected to determine an association with blood pressure. Of the 17,752 participants in the survey who were 18 y of age or older, the south had the highest systolic and diastolic blood pressures and reported the highest consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol and the least amount of fiber in the multivariate analysis. The south consumed the least potassium, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, copper, riboflavin, niacin, iron and vitamins A, C and B-6 (P < 0.005). The authors concluded that the "stroke belt" has dietary patterns that may contribute to the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
248. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 May 1;12(1):75-83.
Micronutrient profiles in HIV-1-infected heterosexual adults.
Skurnick JH, Bogden JD, Baker H, Kemp FW, Sheffet A, Quattrone G, Louria DB.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103-2714, USA.
There is compelling evidence that micronutrients can profoundly affect immunity. We surveyed vitamin supplement use and circulating concentrations of 22 nutrients and glutathione in 64 HIV-1 seropositive men and women and 33 seronegative controls participating in a study of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. We assayed antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E; total carotenes), vitamins B6 and B12, folate, thiamin, niacin, biotin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, free and total choline and carnitine, biopterin, inositol, copper, zinc, selenium, and magnesium. HIV-infected patients had lower mean circulating concentrations of magnesium (p < 0.0001), total carotenes (p = 0.009), total choline (p = 0.002), and glutathione (p = 0.045), and higher concentrations of niacin (p < 0.0001) than controls. Fifty-nine percent of HIV+ patients had low concentrations of magnesium, compared with 9% of controls (p < 0.0001). These abnormal concentrations were unrelated to stage of disease. Participants who took vitamin supplements had consistently fewer low concentrations of antioxidants, across HIV infection status and disease stage strata (p = 0.0006). Nevertheless, 29% of the HIV+ patients taking supplemental vitamins had subnormal levels of one or more antioxidants. The frequent occurrence of abnormal micronutrient nutriture, as found in these HIV+ subjects, may contribute to disease pathogenesis. The low magnesium concentrations may be particularly relevant to HIV-related symptoms of fatigue, lethargy, and impaired mentation.
249. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1996 Jul;51(4):B261-9.
Longitudinal assessment of the nutritional status of elderly veterans.
Chapman KM, Ham JO, Pearlman RA.
This study followed the nutritional status 209 male veterans, over 65 years of age for two years. At onset they had no acute disease-related nutritional risk factors. Diet recall, physical examination, and lab tests were done. The authors found that 25% of subjects consumed inadequate amounts of thiamine, vitamin A, vitamin C, and calcium.