1. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 May;74(5):674-6.
Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?
Ishibashi S, Yokota T, Shiojiri T, Matunaga T, Tanaka H, Nishina K, Hirota H, Inaba A, Yamada M, Kanda T, Mizusawa H.
Three patients developed acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy. With thiamine given intravenously the symptoms of neuropathy lessened within two weeks. The authors suggest that this is a new type of peripheral nerve impairment due to thiamine deficiency.
2. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2003 Feb;28(1):47-51.
Effect of intravenous infusions of thiamine on the disposition kinetics of thiamine and its pyrophosphate.
Drewe J, Delco F, Kissel T, Beglinger C.
in this study to determine the proper rate of therapeutic intravenous infusion for thiamine deficiency syndromes a slow rate of infusion was found to be superior to a faster rate.
3. Reversal of thiamine deficiency-induced neurodegeneration.
Ke ZJ, DeGiorgio LA, Volpe BT, Gibson GE.
The authors preface their work by saying highlighting the importance of thiamine in neurodegenerative diseases. They say that thiamine deficiency diminishes thiamine dependent enzymes, alters mitochondrial function, impairs oxidative metabolism, and causes selective neuronal death. In this study on mice significant neuron loss, about 1/3rd occurred after 8 to 9 days of thiamine deficiency and reached 90% by days 10 and 11. Thiamine given on day 8 blocked continued neuronal loss and by days 10 and 11 was ineffective.
4. Anti-obesity effects of a mixture of thiamin, arginine, caffeine, and citric acid in non-insulin dependent diabetic KK mice.
Muroyama K, Murosaki S, Yamamoto Y, Odaka H, Chung HC, Miyoshi M.
a mixture of arginine, caffeine have an effect on weight loss in mice. However, when thiamine and citric acid are also added there is much greater loss in adipose tissue weight.
reducing adipose tissue mass as well as improving disorders in lipid metabolism.
5. Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2003;28(1):13-20.
Can alcoholic withdrawal delirium be prevented?
Hensel M, Kox WJ.
This paper emphasized that the important drugs for successful treatment and prevention of alcohol withdrawal syndrome including potentially life-threatening delirium tremens are benzodiazepines, clonidin, magnesium and vitamin B 1.
6. Cardiology. 2003;99(4):177-81.
Dietary intake of various nutrients in older patients with congestive heart failure.
Gorelik O, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Feder I, Wachsman O, Alon I, Litvinjuk V, Roshovsky M, Modai D, Cohen N.
In a study that assessed dietary intake in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) 57 CHF patients on furosemide were compared with 40 patients without CHF. However, the intake of all patients fell short of recommended allowances in several nutrients: magnesium, calcium, zinc, copper, manganese, energy, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate.
7. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;56(12):1162-8.
Changes in the intake of vitamins and minerals by men and women with hyperlipidemia and overweight during dietetic treatment.
Grzybek A, Klosiewicz-Latoszek L, Targosz U.
On a low-fat, low-energy diet in patients with overweight and hyperlipidemia, the levels of magnesium, thiamin and riboflavin were found to be deficient in men.
8. Psychiatr Genet. 2002 Dec;12(4):217-24.
Individual susceptibility to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and alcoholism-induced cognitive deficit: impaired thiamine utilization found in alcoholics and alcohol abusers.
Heap LC, Pratt OE, Ward RJ, Waller S, Thomson AD, Shaw GK, Peters TJ.
This study investigated mechanisms that could trigger alcoholic brain damage. Thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) status was compared in alcoholics, without significant brain damage, to those with severe chronic brain damage. It was found that alcoholics with brain damage may have increased requirements for thiamine secondary to an abnormality of the (thiamine-dependent) transketolase protein that may predispose such patients to alcoholic brain damage. The authors concluded that thiamine deficiency was commonly present in the alcoholic patients, and that a subgroup of patients may be predisposed to even more severe brain damage as a consequence of abnormalities in the transketolase protein.
9. Alcohol Alcohol. 2002 Nov-Dec;37(6):513-21.
The Royal College of Physicians report on alcohol: guidelines for managing Wernicke's encephalopathy in the accident and Emergency Department
Thomson AD, Cook CC, Touquet R, Henry JA; Royal College of Physicians, London.
A Royal College of Physicians (London) report called “Alcohol - Can the NHS Afford It?” recommends that alcoholic patients with a poor diet who present in the ER should be immediately treated with B vitamins intravenously or intramuscularly. This paper presents a review of the scientific foundations for such recommendation.
10. Bras Cardiol. 2002 Nov;79(5):454
Thiamin, selenium, and copper levels in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy taking diuretics.
da Cunha S, Albanesi Filho FM, da Cunha Bastos VL, Antelo DS, Souza MM.
In patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy using diuretics, thiamin deficiency was observed in 33% of the patients and in only 10% of the control individuals. In heart disease patients thiamin deficiency was significantly more frequent than controls. The authors suggest that there may be benefits with thiamin replacement in patients taking diuretics.
11. Circ J. 2002 Nov;66(11):1070-2.
Shoshin beriberi with vasospastic angina pectoris possible mechanism of mid-ventricular obstruction: possible mechanism of mid-ventricular obstruction.
Ito M, Tanabe Y, Suzuki K, Kumakura M, Aizawa Y.
In this case study a 73-year-old heavy drinker with heart failure was admitted to hospital in a state of shock. No improvement was seen even with the maximal dose in catecholamine therapy. However, his condition improved rapidly after vitamin B(1) was administered indicating underlying beriberi as a precipitating factor.
12. Mol Genet. 2002 Nov 1;11(23):2951-60.
Targeted disruption of Slc19a2, the gene encoding the high-affinity thiamin transporter Thtr-1, causes diabetes mellitus, sensorineural deafness and megaloblastosis in mice.
Oishi K, Hofmann S, Diaz GA, Brown T, Manwani D, Ng L, Young R, Vlassara H, Ioannou YA, Forrest D, Gelb BD.
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA) is characterized by diabetes mellitus, megaloblastic anemia and sensorineural deafness. A mouse model was deleloped to give new insights into the disease and provide a way of studying the association between diabetes and thiamine.
13. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Oct 9;1588(1):79-84.
Thiamine-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in two patients caused by a point mutation (F205L and L216F) within the thiamine pyrophosphate binding region.
Naito E, Ito M, Yokota I, Saijo T, Matsuda J, Ogawa Y, Kitamura S, Takada E, Horii Y, Kuroda Y.
Two patients with human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) deficiency were treated with thiamine resulting in a reduction in the serum lactate concentration and clinical improvement.
14. Nutr Rev. 2002 Sep;60(9):277-80.
Acute versus marginal deficiencies of nutrients.
The author cautions that signs and symptoms of clinical nutrient deficiency may be attenuated over time and not resemble exactly nutrient deficiencies created under experimental conditions.
15. Ann Neurol. 2002 Aug;52(2):195-204.
Cofactors of mitochondrial enzymes attenuate copper-induced death in vitro and in vivo.
Sheline CT, Choi EH, Kim-Han JS, Dugan LL, Choi DW.
In this paper on treatment of copper toxicity we are told that copper toxicity contributes to neuronal death in Wilson's disease and may be linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and prion diseases. The enzyme dehydrogenase is attacked and may be protected by the addition of it’s cofactors such as thiamine. When 1% thiamine was added to the drinking water of a group of rats with Wilson's disease, the thiamine therapy markedly extended life span from 6-7 months to greater than 16 months.
16. AIDS Read. 2002 May;12(5):222-4.
High doses of riboflavin and thiamine may help in secondary prevention of hyperlactatemia.
McComsey GA, Lederman MM.
This paper reports on preliminary research to investigate the use of riboflavin and thiamine in hyperlactatemia in children.
17. Med Sci Monit. 2002 May;8(5):CR357-63.
Alcohol consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer at low levels of micronutrient intake.
Jedrychowski W, Steindorf K, Popiela T, Wahrendorf J, Tobiasz-Adamczyk B, Kulig J, Penar A.
the authors found that the higher the consumption of alcohol, when combined with low micronutrient intake, including thiamine, may considerably increase the risk of colorectal cancer.
18. Neurochem Int. 2002 May;40(6):493-504
Interactions of oxidative stress with thiamine homeostasis promote neurodegeneration.
Gibson GE, Zhang H.
This review of thiamine deficiency and subsequent neurodegenerative disease finds that oxidative processes may be at fault. The effects of thiamine deficiency can be reversed with antioxidants, and some forms of oxidative stress can be relieved by thiamine make the authors believe that thiamine may act as an antioxidant at specific sites.
19. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 May;99(5 Pt 2):875-7.
Hyperemesis gravidarum complicated by Wernicke's encephalopathy.
Spruill SC, Kuller JA.
This is a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. Parenteral thiamine therapy was started on admission and the patient showed rapid improvement, however ataxia persisted. A spontaneous abortion occurred 2 weeks later. The authors felt that early thiamine replacement may decrease the chances of spontaneous abortion.
20. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):251-7.
Meeting the challenges of micronutrient deficiencies in emergency-affected populations.
Weise Prinzo Z, de Benoist B.
In disaster relief areas the common nutrient deficiency diseases are:
Fe and vitamin A deficiencies, scurvy (vitamin C deficiency), pellagra (niacin and/or tryptophan deficiency) and beriberi (thiamin deficiency).
21. Dig Dis Sci. 2002 Mar;47(3):543-8.
Thiamine deficiency in hepatitis C virus and alcohol-related liver diseases.
Levy S, Herve C, Delacoux E, Erlinger S.
This study found that both forms of cirrhosis of the liver, whether alcoholic cirrhosis or hepatitis C virus-cirrhosis have thiamine deficiency and should be treated with thiamine.
22. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;17(2):189-92.
Using thiamine to reduce post-ECT confusion.
Linton CR, Reynolds MT, Warner NJ.
Post ECT confusion treatment with thiamine was reviewed and the authors concluded that it should be recommended therapeutically
23. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Feb;21(1):33-7.
Vitamin profile of 563 gravidas during trimesters of pregnancy.
Baker H, DeAngelis B, Holland B, Gittens-Williams L, Barrett T Jr.
In this study of 563 pregnant women recruited from the obstetrical clinic of New Jersey Medical School and placed on vitamin supplementation. Vitamin levels were assessed and a high percent of combination deficiency of vitamin A, B6, niacin. thiamin and B 12 hypovitaminemia was noted during all pregnancy trimesters. The authors concluded that a vitamin deficit during pregnancy does not occur in isolation.
24. Gastric Cancer. 2002;5(2):77-82.
Reduced thiamine (vitamin B1) levels following gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Iwase K, Higaki J, Yoon HE, Mikata S, Miyazaki M, Kamiike W.
The authors comment that vitamin B1 deficiency is well known as a possible complication following gastric restrictive surgery for morbid obesity. This study set out to determine if patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer have reduced vitamin B1 levels. The authors found that, in fact, vitamin B1 levels may be reduced in gastrectomized patients, especially within 6 months after operation..
25. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6(4):237-42.
Dietary intake analysis in institutionalized elderly: a focus on nutrient density.
Dror Y, Berner YN, Stern F, Polyak Z.
In this study dietary intake was assessed in 50 institutionalized males and females with an average age of 84 years. It was found that intake of vitamins D, E, B6, thiamin (vitamin B1) and folic acid in all or most of the subjects was low. As a further addition to the study the authors found that in almost all of the 39 studies and reviews, densities of at least two nutrients did not meet the calculated RDA density. The lowest nutrient densities were for vitamins C and E, thiamin, vitamin B6, folic acid and vitamin D, as well as of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper.
26. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6(1):75-7.
Reduced serum concentrations of riboflavine and ascorbic acid, and blood thiamine pyrophosphate and pyridoxal-5-phosphate in geriatric patients with and without pressure sores.
Selvaag E, Bohmer T, Benkestock K.
In a study to determine whether patients with pressure sores had deficient B1, B2, and vitamin C the authors found that all the geriatric patients with or without pressure sores had low thiamine-pyrophosphate levels.
27. Medicina (B Aires). 2002;62(4):331-4.
Acute cardiovascular beriberi (shoshin-beriberi).
Lopez Gaston OD, Malvino ER, McLoughlin D, Osatnik J, Chavez Zambrano MA, Pino C.
The authors describe two forms of beriberi (BB), one is called “dry” BB with peripheral neuropathy and muscle weakness and “wet” which has heart symptoms. They are both caused by thiamine deficiency. Then, there are two types of “wet” BB, one with manifestations of right-sided heart failure or "shoshin" BB in which both heart chambers are failing and there is severe metabolic acidosis. The authors present a case of “shoshin” BB in 58 year old alcoholic woman who developed dyspnea, oliguria, edema, cardiac failure with high output, metabolic acidosis, renal tubular dysfunction and high serum lactate. She also had peripheral neuropathy in the lower legs and alteration of her mental status. She responded dramatically when treated with a loading dose of 100 mg of intravenous thiamine. The authors suggest that in cases of lactic acidosis with or without hyperdynamic circulation that vitamin B1 deficiency should be considered and thiamine administered.
28. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2002;53(3):243-52.
Changes in vitamins intake in overweight and obese adults after low-energy diets
Pachocka L, Klosiewicz-Latoszek L.
A group of 96 obese women and men were assessed for their vitamin intake. At baseline in women the lowest intake was found for vitamin B1, at 82.8% of the RDA. The authors found that after 18 weeks of the low-energy diet all assessed nutrients were below the RDA. They concluded that people on low energy diets need to be educated about the nutrient value of foods.
29. Sci Total Environ. 2001 Dec 17;281(1-3):177-82.
Lead poisoning in Indian silver refiners.
Tandon SK, Chatterjee M, Bhargava A, Shukla V, Bihari V.
In a group of 50 silver refiners, 31 had high levels of lead in their blood. There was a decrease in blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and thiamine (as pyruvate) level. The workers had anaemia, abdominal colic, blue lining of gum and muscular wasting all symptoms of lead toxicity. Two subgroups were treated with either vitamin B1 (75 mg, once a day) or vitamin C (250 mg. twice a day) for 1 month. The authors reported that treatment with both the vitamins significantly lowered the blood lead levels and reduced blood thiamine and copper deficiency. They recommended that prevention of lead toxicity would follow from daily intake of vitamin B1 and vitamin C.
30. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec;74(6):808-13.
Postpartum thiamine deficiency in a Karen displaced population.
McGready R, Simpson JA, Cho T, Dubowitz L, Changbumrung S, Bohm V, Munger RG, Sauberlich HE, White NJ, Nosten F.
The authors report that infantile beriberi was the leading cause of infant death in camps for displaced persons of the Karen ethnic minority on Thailand's western border. They designed this study to document thiamine status in pregnant women. Twenty-six women were followed from 30 weeks gestation to 3 months postpartum. Measurements at 3 mo postpartum, showed thiamine deficiency in 57.7%, with 26.9% having severe deficiency. The authors concluded that thiamine deficiency is very common and requires supplementation.
31. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001 Dec;47(6):385-6.
Cooperation of divalent ions and thiamin diphosphate in regulation of the function of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Czerniecki J, Czygier M.
This study produced data that suggests that Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ are associated with thiamin diphosphate as positive regulatory effectors of pig heart.
32. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001 Dec;123(1):21-7.
Co-culture with astrocytes or microglia protects metabolically impaired neurons.
Park LC, Zhang H, Gibson GE.
The authors acknowledge that thiamine deficiency leads to chronic impairment of oxidative metabolism and eventually neurodegeneration. In this study thiamine-deficient primary hippocampal neurons were cultured. After 7 days of continued thiamine-deficiency , 50% of the neurons died, and the processes of many of the surviving neurons were severely truncated.
33. Psychiatry Res. 2001 Nov 5;108(1):49-55.
Serial MRI and (1)H-MRS of Wernicke's encephalopathy: report of a case with remarkable cerebellar lesions on MRI.
Murata T, Fujito T, Kimura H, Omori M, Itoh H, Wada Y.
MRI studies before and after the administration of thiamine were done in a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy. Before thiamine there were several lesions identified by high signal. After thiamine, the high signal intensity in one region disappeared immediately, while those in three other regions persisted. The authors concluded that serial MRI is the way to study the progression of or the treatment of Wernicke’s encephalopathy.
34. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Nov;38(5):941-7.
Thiamine deficiency and unexplained encephalopathy in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.
Hung SC, Hung SH, Tarng DC, Yang WC, Chen TW, Huang TP.
Encephalopathy and thiamine deficiency are both common in dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. This study was designed to determine if thiamine deficiency is associated with unexplained encephalopathy. In 10 of 30 dialysis patients with encephalopathy their condition remained undiagnosed. All ten had thiamine deficiency confirmed by a marked response to thiamine supplementation and/or a low serum thiamine concentration. The authors noted that nine patients recovered, but one patient failed to respond because of delayed treatment. They concluded that in regular dialysis patients, unexplained encephalopathy can be mainly attributed to thiamine deficiency. The warn that this condition is fatal if unrecognized but it can be successfully treated with prompt thiamine replacement.
35. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001 Nov;41(4):453-6.
Wernicke's encephalopathy due to hyperemesis gravidarum: an under-recognised condition.
Togay-Isikay C, Yigit A, Mutluer N.
The authors offer a case history of a 25-year-old woman with hyperemesis gravidarum (severe pregnancy nausea) and symptoms of drowsiness, nystagmus, severe ataxia and areflexia, which developed six weeks after admission to an obstetric clinic. She had been treated with intravenous dextrose and electrolyte solutions and antiemetics. An MRI showed signs of Wernicke's encephalopathy. On the third day of thiamine replacement, neurologic signs improved dramatically. The authors then reviewed 29 previously reported cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, and emphasize the importance of thiamine supplementation to women with prolonged vomiting in pregnancy.
36. Harefuah. 2001 Nov;140(11):1062-7, 1117.
Micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) supplementation for the elderly, suggested by a special committee nominated by Ministry of Health
Dror Y, Stern F, Berner YN, Kaufmann NA, Berry E, Maaravi Y, Altman H, Cohen A, Leventhal A, Kaluski DN.
A committee on nutrition lists the supplements in the suggested preparatory composition that may soon be distributed to the elderly. In mg: vitamin A, 0.450; vitamin D, 0.015; vitamin E, 10; thiamin, 0.6 riboflavin, 0.7; biotin, 0.030; pantothenic acid, 3; niacin, 8; vitamin C, 60; vitamin B6, 0.8; folic acid, 0.120; vitamin B12, 0.0024; choline up to 275; zinc, 8; copper, 0.9; fluorine, 0.5; manganese, 1.2; chromium 0.020; molybdenum, 0.045; selenium, 0.030; and iodine, 0.075. Fat-soluble vitamins should be microencapsulated.
37. Surgery. 2001 Nov;130(5):851-8.
Thiamine reverses hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells.
Ascher E, Gade PV, Hingorani A, Puthukkeril S, Kallakuri S, Scheinman M, Jacob T.
The authors note that high levels of glucose, as in diabetes, have previously been shown to inhibit endothelial cell migration and increase secretion of the von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of endothelial cell damage. This study shows that thiamine inhibits this endothelial cell activation and the effects of hyperglycemia on endothelial cell migration. The authors conclude that the data from their study may mean that thiamine intake may act as a preventive in the vascular complications of diabetes.
38. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001 Oct;14(5):365-70.
Riboflavin deficiency in cystic fibrosis: three case reports.
in this case report on riboflavin deficiency it was also noted in three cystic fibrosis patients that they had deficiencies of thiamine. The authors conclude that these cases point out vitamin deficiencies that have not been previously reported in the cystic fibrosis population.
39. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):C786-92.
Mechanism of thiamine uptake by human jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles.
Dudeja PK, Tyagi S, Kavilaveettil RJ, Gill R, Said HM.
Thiamine, a water-soluble vitamin, is essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development. Thiamine deficiency leads to significant clinical problems and occurs under a variety of conditions. The authors suggest that little is known about the mechanism of thiamine absorption in the native human small intestine. Their data demonstrate the existence of a sodium-independent, pH-dependent, amiloride-sensitive, electroneutral carrier-mediated mechanism for thiamine absorption in native human small intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.
40. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Sep;71(3):357-62.
Postgastrectomy polyneuropathy with thiamine deficiency.
Koike H, Misu K, Hattori N, Ito S, Ichimura M, Ito H, Hirayama M, Nagamatsu M, Sasaki I, Sobue G.
The authors note that polyneuropathy has been reported after gastrectomy. They also cite thiamine deficiency as a cause of this neuropathy and conclude that it is such a common finding that gastrectomy patients should be routinely supplemented with thiamine.
41. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2001 Sep;30(5):273-5.
Effect of multi-micronutrient on heat adaptation and its probable mechanism.
Guo J, Zhao F, Qiu L, Li X.
A multi-micronutrient compound composed of ascorbic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, niacin, folic acid, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn was seen to enhance heat adaptation in Drosophila. The mechanism is thought to be due to improved neuroendocrine regulation and enhancing anti-oxidative function against the damage of free radicals.
42. Eur J Biochem. 2001 Aug;268(15):4177-82.
The effect of thiamine supplementation on tumour proliferation. A metabolic control analysis study.
Comin-Anduix B, Boren J, Martinez S, Moro C, Centelles JJ, Trebukhina R, Petushok N, Lee WN, Boros LG, Cascante M.
The authors comment that thiamine deficiency frequently occurs in patients with advanced cancer and therefore thiamine supplementation is used as nutritional support. However, because thiamine stimulates cell growth the authors wanted to address the possibility that thiamine could stimulate cancer tumor growth. Their results in a mouse model show that thiamine supplementation sufficient to correct existing thiamine deficiency stimulates tumour proliferation as predicted. But there is a tumor inhibitory effect at high doses of thiamine which is unexplained and demands further study.
43. Life Sci. 2001 Jul 27;69(10):1181-91.
Characteristics of depressive behavior induced by feeding thiamine-deficient diet in mice.
Nakagawasai O, Tadano T, Hozumi S, Taniguchi R, Tan-No K, Esashi A, Niijima F, Kisara K.
This study in a group of thiamine-deficient (TD) mice showed growth decrease by day ten and a mortality rate at 67% on day 30. Administration of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine improved behavioral symptoms and suggest that symptoms of thiamine deficiency involve degeneration of serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons.
44. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul;132(1):19-26.
Use of vitamin supplements and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.
Kuzniarz M, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Flood VM.
This study was designed to investigate the association between vitamin supplements and the incidence of cataract. The authors studied 2873 people attending an eye clinic who completed a food diet diary. Specifically, they found that those patients who used thiamine supplements had reduced incidence of nuclear and cortical cataract. They concluded that long-term use of multivitamins, B vitamins, and vitamin A was associated with lowered incidence of both nuclear or cortical cataract.
45. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Jul;281(1):G144-50.
Mechanism of thiamine uptake by human colonocytes: studies with cultured colonic epithelial cell line NCM460.
Said HM, Ortiz A, Subramanian VS, Neufeld EJ, Moyer MP, Dudeja PK.
The authors acknowledge that exogenous thiamine is essential for normal cellular functions and growth. Because mammals cannot synthesize thiamine they must absorb it from the diet through the intestines. The data from this study suggests that thiamine synthesized from bacteria in the gut may be a contributor to thiamine nutrition of the host and to cellular nutrition of the local colonocytes.
46. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 15;421(3):157-64.
B vitamins induce an antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid and formaldehyde models of nociception in mice.
Franca DS, Souza AL, Almeida KR, Dolabella SS, Martinelli C, Coelho MM.
In this study thiamine along with B6 and B12 had an inhibitory effect on the perception of pain in mice. The authors found that the method by which this is accomplished is an effect on the synthesis or action of inflammatory mediators.
47. Br J Nutr. 2001 Jun;85(6):741-8.
Vitamin B intake and status in healthy Havanan men, 2 years after the Cuban neuropathy epidemic.
Arnaud J, Fleites-Mestre P, Chassagne M, Verdura T, Garcia Garcia I, Hernandez-Fernandez T, Gautier H, Favier A, Perez-Cristia R, Barnouin J.
Dietary histories were taken on 199 healthy Cuban males. The results prove that vitamin B complex is deficiency in this otherwise healthy population. The authors stressed the need for preventive multivitamin supplementation and increased dietary sources of B vitamins.
48. Int J STD AIDS. 2001 Jun;12(6):407-9.
Severe lactic acidosis and thiamine administration in an HIV-infected patient on HAART.
Arici C, Tebaldi A, Quinzan GP, Maggiolo F, Ripamonti D, Suter F.
The authors note that severe lactic acidosis is a potentially fatal complication of HIV treatment that is occurring more frequently. This report is of a case of an asymptomatic HIV-infected woman treated with stavudine, lamivudine and indinavir for one year. She was hospitalized with symptoms of shortness of breath, edema, cyanosis and severe lactic acidosis. She responded dramatically (within a few hours) to empirical treatment with thiamine (100 mg i.v.). The authors note that such rapid response deserves careful attention and thiamine infusion should be considered in similar cases.
49. Aquat Toxicol. 2001 May;52(3-4):229-39.
The use of thiamine and thiamine antagonists to investigate the etiology of early mortality syndrome in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).
Fitzsimons JD, Vandenbyllaardt L, Brown SB.
A condition called early mortality syndrome (EMS) is a non-infectious disease affecting lake trout in the Great Lakes. Symptoms are loss of equilibrium, hyperexcitability, anorexia, and eventually death. The authors review the literature and find that EMS is associated with low thiamine. They also report that treatment of eggs or young fry with thiamine-HCl eliminates symptoms and mortality. In this study the authors provide data supporting the hypothesis that a thiamine deficiency in the natural environment is the cause of EMS.
50. Mt Sinai J Med. 2001 May;68(3):216-8.
Wernicke's encephalopathy in a non-alcoholic man: case report and brief review.
Munir A, Hussain SA, Sondhi D, Ameh J, Rosner F.
This is another case of a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy who improved dramatically within 24 hours of administration of thiamine.
51. J Biochem (Tokyo). 2001 Apr;129(4):543-9.
Suppression of the accumulation of triosephosphates and increased formation of methylglyoxal in human red blood cells during hyperglycaemia by thiamine in vitro.
Thornalley PJ, Jahan I, Ng R.
In this cell study the authors found that biochemical changes implicated in the development of diabetic complications were prevented using high dose thiamine. They conclude that there is a biochemical basis for high dose thiamine therapy for the prevention of diabetic complications.
52. Nutrition. 2001 Apr;17(4):351-2.
Severe metabolic acidosis and heart failure due to thiamine deficiency.
Ozawa H, Homma Y, Arisawa H, Fukuuchi F, Handa S.
This case report is of a male patient with severe metabolic acidosis and heart failure caused by thiamine deficiency. The authors speculated that the patient could be thiamine deficient and found a low thiamine blood level and high lactate. After an infusion of thiamine the acidosis and heart failure disappeared. They concluded that thiamine deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of heart failure with severe metabolic acidosis.
53. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Mar;96(3):864-8.
Thiamine treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection.
Wallace AE, Weeks WB.
The authors give an overview of chronic hepatitis B, which is an international health concern that causes cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver failure, and death. They opine that the current treatment options are expensive and have a high incidence of side effects. In this study they followed three patients on daily thiamine. In each patient the hepatitis B viral DNA became undetectable. They suggested further study of this therapy. They feel that thiamine could offer obvious advantages over the current treatments.
54. Public Health. 2001 Mar;115(2):133-8.
Relationships between dietary intake and cognitive function level in Korean elderly people.
Lee L, Kang SA, Lee HO, Lee BH, Park JS, Kim JH, Jung IK, Park YJ, Lee JE.
In a random sample of 210 men and 239 women in Korea, aged 60 and over, the females with poor cognitive function had significantly lower intakes of total amount of foods, cereals, vegetables, fruits, milk, spices, and also, energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, P, Fe, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin than those of the normal cognitive score group. The authors conclude that consumption of adequate nutrients, by taking sufficient amounts and variety of foods, should be encouraged to help maintain adequate cognitive function in elderly Koreans.
55. Rev Med Liege. 2001 Mar;56(3):155-8.
Shoshin beriberi: myth or reality?
Masset C, Lancellotti P, Nkoghe D.
The authors describe a case of shoshin, which is a fulminating form of cardiac beriberi developing in a few hours in a young alcoholic. They know that without specific treatment this condition will evolve into cardiogenic shock, metabolic acidosis and death. They report that treatment by thiamine and alkalinization permits a spectacular and fast recovery.
56. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2001 Mar-Apr;73(2):51-6.
Interaction of rat brain thiamine kinase with thiamine and its derivatives
Pylypchuk Siu, Parkhomenko IuM, Protasova ZS, Vovk AI, Donchenko HV.
In this study thiamine’s intimate action on the synthesis of acetylcholine and function of the nerve cell was confirmed.
57. Brain Research. 2001 Feb 16;892(1):218-27.
Glucose induced IEG expression in the thiamin-deficient rat brain.
Zimitat C, Nixon PF.
The authors confirmed that a bolus of glucose given to thiamine deficient rats, who are made even more deficient by administration of the anti-vitamin, pyrithiamin, adds to the symptoms of acute neuropathy which is a model for Wernicke’s encephalopathy in man. They conclude that timed acute changes that follow a glucose load administered to thiamin-deficient animals may provide a sequential account of events in the pathogenesis of brain damage.
58. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 Feb;28(1):89-92.
Wernicke’s encephalopathy following gastroplasty for morbid obesity.
Toth C, Voll C.
In this case study a 35-year-old female developed uncontrollable vomiting, severe weight loss, and low potassium following gastroplasty for morbid obesity and had the surgery reversed. Following reversal, she developed confusion, ataxia, leg weakness and nystagmus. The patient improved slowly over two months on thiamine therapy and according to the authors should be instituted much sooner in the course of this disease.
59. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Jan;25(1):112-6.
Thiamin treatment and working memory function of alcohol-dependent people: preliminary findings.
Ambrose ML, Bowden SC, Whelan G.
Identifying Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) on clinical examination is difficult but thiamine treatment can rapidly resolve acute symptoms. This study was designed to treat a group of alcoholics with thiamine without diagnosis. Treatment was given to 107 subjects who were detoxifying from alcohol. On the post-treatment assessment, a superior performance was found in the group that received the highest dose of thiamin, compared with four other treatment groups.
60. Ann Nutr Metab. 2001;45(4):175-80.
Nutritional disorders among workers in North China during national turmoil.
Lee BY, Thurmon TF.
A unique set of thiamine deficiency symptoms were seen in a Chinese population undergoing the stress of prolonged deprivation and worsened by physical exertion. They had symptoms of great toe pain, heel pain, temporomandibular joint click, and painful click of the knee. The authors found that intramuscular thiamin HCl prevented impending stroke. However, those who did not receive thiamine progressed to fatal stroke.
61. Behav Neurol. 2001-2002;13(3-4):89-94.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome following small bowel obstruction.
Deb S, Law-Min R, Fearnley D.
A 64 year old woman developed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome following a laparotomy for small bowel obstruction. Because she suffered paralytic ileus after the operation she required total parenteral nutrition for one month. At that point 200 mg of thiamine was given daily with subjective improvement of confusion, confabulation, and anterograde amnesia. However, objective tests showed remaining deficits in cognitive function. A history of alcohol abuse could not be confirmed.
62. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2001 Jan-Feb;27(1):135-8.
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome: a disorder of high-affinity thiamine transport.
Neufeld EJ, Fleming JC, Tartaglini E, Steinkamp MP.
This paper reviews a medical condition called thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) syndrome, which has distinctive features: megaloblastic anemia with ringed sideroblasts, diabetes mellitus, and progressive sensorineural deafness. The TRMA gene has been mapped and found to be mutated in all TRMA relatives studied to date. This paper also notes that cells from TRMA patients are uniquely sensitive to thiamine depletion to the nanomolar range, while pharmacologic doses of vitamin B1 improve the anemia and diabetes.
63. Br J Nutr. 2001 Jan;85(1):49-58.
Longitudinal vitamin and homocysteine levels in normal pregnancy.
Cikot RJ, Steegers-Theunissen RP, Thomas CM, de Boo TM, Merkus HM, Steegers EA.
The authors comment that the importance of maternal nutritional status on pregnancy outcome has recently been identified. Therefore this study was designed to obtain information on normal blood nutritional values in pregnancy for 102 women. It was found that the concentrations of retinol, thiamin, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, serum folate, and vitamin B12 decreased during pregnancy. The authors conclude that these data have provided valuable reference values for vitamins before, during and after pregnancy.
64. J Int Med Res. 2001 Jan-Feb;29(1):37-40.
Cardiac beriberi among illegal mainland Chinese immigrants.
Chen KT, Chiou ST, Chang YC, Pan WH, Twu SJ.
The authors report on two patients with fulminating beriberi; both of whom had been incarcerated at a detention centre for 5 months before hospitalization. The risk factor to their illness was a prolonged monotonous diet, low in thiamine.
65. Rev Environ Health. 2001 Jul-Sep;16(3):213-22.
Risk of colorectal cancer from alcohol consumption at lower vitamin intakes. A hospital-based case-control study in Poland.
Jedrychowski W, Steindorf K, Popiela T, Wahrendorf J, Tobiasz-Adamczyk B, Kulig J, Penar A.
This study was designed to assess alcohol intake and micronutrients in colorectal cancer. In 180 patients data indicate that with low levels of thiamine there is an increased incidence of colorectal cancer. the risk was worsened with high intake of alcohol.
66. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Jun 1;37(7):1765-74.
Chronic heart failure and micronutrients.
Witte KK, Clark AL, Cleland JG.
The authors have found that selective deficiency of selenium, calcium and thiamine can directly lead to the heart failure. This paper reviews the association between micronutrients and heart failure. The authors conclude that there is sufficient evidence to support a large-scale trial of dietary micronutrient supplementation in heart failure.
67. Molecular mechanisms of thiamine utilization.
Singleton CK, Martin PR.
This review paper beings with the statement that thiamine is required for all tissues and is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidneys and brain. Severe thiamine deficiency occurs after 18 days on a thiamine deficient diet. The most common cause of thiamine deficiency is alcoholism. Thiamine diphosphate is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in carbohydrate catabolism, biosynthesis of a number of cell constituents, including neurotransmitters, and for aspects of the oxidant stress defenses, in biosyntheses, and for synthesis of pentoses used as nucleic acid precursors (in DNA). The major manifestations of thiamine deficiency in humans involve the cardiovascular (wet beriberi) and nervous (dry beriberi, or neuropathy and/or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) systems. A number of inborn errors of metabolism of thiamine occur but are treatable with pharmacological doses of thiamine, such as thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia.
68. J Clin Anesth. 2001 May;13(3):230-8.
Early recognition of acute cardiovascular beriberi by interpretation of hemodynamics
Gabrielli A, Caruso L, Stacpoole PW.
This is a case of a patient with acute fulminant cardiovascular beriberi, which is an acute thiamine deficiency. If not recognized and treated, it can lead to high cardiac output failure and death. The symptoms of acute thiamine deficiency include severe lactacidemia, and the presence of a high cardiac output and extremely low oxygen consumption in a patient who is hemodynamically stable.
69. Behav Brain Res. 2001 Mar 15;119(2):167-77.
Aging potentiates the acute and chronic neurological symptoms of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency in the rodent.
Pitkin SR, Savage LM.
This study produced data indicating that age heightens thiamine-deficiency neuropathology.
70. Clin Nephrol. 2001 Mar;55(3):248-53.
Central and extrapontine myelinolysis in a patient in spite of a careful correction of hyponatremia.
Leens C, Mukendi R, Foret F, Hacourt A, Devuyst O, Colin IM.
In this case report a 54-year-old alcoholic female patient was hospitalized for neurologic symptoms along with extremely low sodium levels. She had alcohol cravings and was on a thiazide diuretic for high blood pressure. She worsened until therapy was instituted to correct her low sodium and potassium and thiamine deficiency at which point she recovered almost completely. The authors concluded that it is very important in a low sodium alcoholic patient to identify and manage other risk factors such as thiamine deficiency.
71. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2001 Mar-Apr;2(2):71-5.
Wernicke's Encephalopathy: The Subacute Setting as Safety Net.
Buxbaum RC, Yurkofsky M.
The authors review the treatment of Wernicke's encephalopathy , which include a safe intervention: parenteral thiamine, which they say is often successful in reversing the neurological manifestations.
72. Pediatr Radiol. 2001 Mar;31(3):167-8.
Wernicke's encephalopathy in a child: case report and MR findings.
Coe M, Carfagnini F, Tani G, Ambrosetto P.
This is a rare case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a child diagnosed on MRI. Thiamine treatment was begun immediately on diagnosis.
73. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Feb;37(2):427-30.
Chorea induced by thiamine deficiency in hemodialysis patients.
Hung SC, Hung SH, Tarng DC, Yang WC, Huang TP.
Thiamine deficiency may occur in chronic dialysis because of dialysis loss and low intake. In this paper two hemodialysis patients developed thiamine deficiency-induced chorea. The authors suggest that thiamine deficiency, which causes dysfunction of the basal ganglia, may induce chorea in HD patients
74. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001 Feb;13(2):163-6.
In vivo and in vitro proton NMR spectroscopic studies of thiamine-deficient rat brains.
Lee H, Holburn GE, Price RR.
In an animal model rats deprived of thiamine and fed a thiamine antagonist developed severe reduction in choline. The authors note that their data are compatible with previous research that a decrease in choline compounds is the cause of the biochemical imbalance that leads to neurological damage and symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy.
75. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2001 Jan;20(1):40-3.
Postoperative encephalopathies: thiamine deficiency, an unrecognized etiology
S, Andrianjatovo JJ, Dubau B, Winnock S, Maurette P.
this is a case report of a patient who developed postoperative Wernicke encephalopathy eight days after a left hepatectomy performed for metastasis related to a rectal cancer. In the postoperative period the patient’s only nourishment was 5% dextrose solution intravenously. On day eight postop he had an alteration of consciousness, vertical nystagmus, and ataxia, which led to a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency. Thiamine completely treated the clinical symptoms.
76. Ann Hematol. 1999 Feb;78(2):105-7.
Downbeat nystagmus caused by thiamine deficiency: an unusual presentation of CNS localization of large cell anaplastic CD 30-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Mulder AH, Raemaekers JM, Boerman RH, Mattijssen V.
In this case study a 24-year-old woman with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and a period of protracted vomiting developed nystagmus, anisocoria, and oscillopsia. She was found to have thiamine deficiency, probably due to the vomiting and to thiamine uptake by the tumor cells. The patient had a very positive reaction to thiamine supplementation.
77. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2000 Mar;68(3):113-20.
Thiamine treatment in psychiatry and neurology
Hinze-Selch D, Weber MM, Zimmermann U, Pollmacher T.
This paper reviews the risk/benefit ratio to giving intravenous thiamine for Wernicke-Korsakow-syndrome because of the slight risk of anaphylactic shock of giving synthetic thiamine on an emergency basis. The authors found that 1) Acute mortality of Wernicke-Korsakow-syndrome is about 20%. 2) Oral thiamine is safe. 3) The risk for an anaphylactic shock due to parenteral thiamine administration is below 1 to 100,000. 4) Not only alcohol but any condition with either increased metabolic need (pregnancy, consuming diseases) or deficient nutrition (including eating disorders) can lead to thiamine deficiency. And their direct recommendations were:: 1) Oral thiamine substitution with at least 50 mg per day and supply of a sufficient and complete diet should be given to any person that might be at risk for thiamine deficiency. 2) Any patient suspicious for acute thiamine deficiency needs to be treated under inpatient conditions and there needs to receive 50 to 100 mg thiamine intravenously 3 to 4 times a day. 3) General practitioners, psychiatrists and neurologists should take care of the oral supplementation of thiamine, sufficient nutrition, and they are the physicians to diagnose early stages of thiamine deficiency.
78. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2000;4(3):115-7.
Outcome of thiamine treatment in a child with Leigh disease due to thiamine-responsive pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.
Di Rocco M, Lamba LD, Minniti G, Caruso U, Naito E.
This paper is a case study of a child with severe psychomotor retardation, peripheral neuropathy and bilateral abnormal signal in basal ganglia on MRI, consistent with Leigh disease. The authors report on the difficulty of diagnosis but because the child had neurological improvement after treatment with thiamine, more studies were done and a particular enzyme deficiency was diagnosed in the thiamine pathway.
79. Brain Res Bull. 2000 Jan 1;51(1):47-55.
Immunohistochemical estimation of rat brain somatostatin on avoidance learning impairment induced by thiamine deficiency.
Nakagawasai O, Tadano T, Niijima F, Tan-No K, Kisara K.
In a rat study it was found that after a certain duration of thiamine deficiency, thiamine deficiency-induced behavioral effects might be reversible, but some neuronal fibers might be irreversibly damaged.
80. Ann Vasc Surg. 2000 Jan;14(1):37-43.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) protects against glucose- and insulin-mediated proliferation of human infragenicular arterial smooth muscle cells.
Avena R, Arora S, Carmody BJ, Cosby K, Sidawy AN.
The authors comment that accelerated proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC) plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis in diabetes particularly with high insulin and glucose levels. Knowing that thiamine is a coenzyme important in intracellular glucose metabolism the authors wanted to determine the effect of thiamine treatment on this condition. Cells from diabetics who had amputations reflecting severe atherosclerosis were used in this study. The authors found that thiamine inhibits human ASMC proliferation induced by high glucose and insulin. They conclude that Vitamin B1 intake may help delay the atherosclerotic complications of diabetes.
81. Acta Haematol. 2000;102(3):157-9.
Graft failure of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation due to acute metabolic acidosis associated with total parenteral nutrition in a patient with relapsed breast cancer.
Sawada M, Tsurumi H, Hara T, Goto H, Yamada T, Oyama M, Moriwaki H.
This is a case study of a 32-year-old female with relapsed breast cancer and liver metastasis. During high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation she was only on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without any vitamin support. After a second stem cell transplantation, 28 days after the first, she developed severe metabolic acidosis, heart failure and deep coma. She was immediately given an infusion of thiamine. Her heart failure and coma rapidly improved.
82. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2000 Feb;35(1):19-27.
Alcohol intake and nutrition.
This survey of alcohol and vitamin status revealed that blood thiamin levels and erythrocyte transketolase activity, a thiamin dependent enzyme, showed a significant drop with excess intake of alcohol.
83. Presse Med. 2000 Feb 12;29(5):240-1.
Right heart failure caused by thiamine deficiency (cardiac beriberi)]
Akpan T, Peschard S, Brinkane AH, Bergheul S, Leroy-Terquem E, Levy R.
This is a case report of typical cardiac beriberi. The patient presented with shortness of breath and high output cardiac failure. Echocardiography evidenced severe pulmonary hypertension and high cardiac output. After the more common causes of heart failure were ruled out serum thiamine levels were found to be low and therapeutic thiamine was beneficial.
84. J Neurochem. 2000 Jan;74(1):114-24.
Metabolic impairment elicits brain cell type-selective changes in oxidative stress and cell death in culture.
Park LC, Calingasan NY, Uchida K, Zhang H, Gibson GE.
This study was designed to determine the response of different brain cell types to thiamine deficiency in laboratory experiments. The authors found that certain enzymes, especially alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, that are thiamine dependent were affected and caused damage or toxicity in particular cells which housed those enzymes.
85. J Nutr Health Aging. 2000;4(2):69-71.
Diuretic use: a risk for subclinical thiamine deficiency in elderly patients.
Suter PM, Haller J, Hany A, Vetter W.
This prospective study was designed to assess the effect of hospitalization on vitamin status on the over 50 population. It was found that only thiamine levels worsened during hospitalization and predictor of that occurring was the use of diuretics. The authors suggest that their conclusions show that the elderly are at risk for thiamine depletion and low dose supplementation may prevent developing thiamine deficiency symptoms such as cardiac beriberi.
86. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2000;34 Suppl 8:59-66.
Disturbances of glucose metabolism in epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases
Szutowicz A, Jankowska A, Tomaszewicz M.
This paper provides evidence that nitric oxide, aluminum toxicity, and thiamine deficiency result in similar disturbances in acetyl-CoA release in rat brain nerve terminals making them more susceptible to injury and resulting in neurodegeneration.
87. No To Shinkei. 2000 Jan;52(1):59-63.
A case of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with dramatic improvement in consciousness immediately after intravenous infusion of thiamine
Kikuchi A, Chida K, Misu T, Okita N, Nomura H, Konno H, Takase S, Takeda A, Itoyama Y.
In this case report a 68-year-old man was admitted to hospital with disturbance of consciousness. Three years prior he had a proximal subtotal gastrectomy and reconstructive surgery of the jejunal interposition for gastric cancer. Six months before admission his short term memory was becoming impaired, one month before admission he began developing numbness in the feet, dysphagia, unsteady gait, and diplopia but his brain MRI showed no abnormalities. Finally when he was in semi-coma with total ophthalmoplegia, and absence of doll's eye movement and absent deep tendon reflexes his serum thiamine levels were drawn. They were extremely low and now brain MRI showed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Within 30 seconds of i infusion of thiamine, his consciousness improved dramatically, but returned to semi-coma after about two minutes.
88. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1999 Dec;98(6):614-21.
Changes in serotonergic neurons in the brain of pyrithiamine-induced acute thiamine-deficient mice.
Matsushita H, Takeuchi Y, Kosaka K, Fushiki S, Kawata M, Sawada T.
This study examined changes in 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT, serotonin) neurons in mice who were given pyrithiamine, a drug that causes severe thiamine deficiency. The thiamine-deficiency caused extensive decreases in 5-HT fibers were detected in many parts of the brain. However increases in intensity of 5-HT was found in the dorsal raphe. The authors conclude that is the first report to demonstrate changes in 5-HT neurons through the brain of thiamine-deficient mice.
89. Clin Nutr. 1999 Dec;18(6):375-8.
Thiamin deficiency in HIV-positive patients: evaluation by erythrocyte transketolase activity and thiamin pyrophosphate effect.
Muri RM, Von Overbeck J, Furrer J, Ballmer PE.
This study was initiated to assess the thiamine levels in HIV-positive patients. Fifty-five consecutive HIV-positive patients were matched with 22 healthy controls. The authors concluded that thiamin deficiency was higher in HIV-positive patients, even if asymptmatic, than previously reported.
90. Endocr J. 1999 Dec;46(6):787-93.
Gestational thyrotoxicosis with acute Wernicke encephalopathy: a case report.
Ohmori N, Tushima T, Sekine Y, Sato K, Shibagaki Y, Ijuchi S, Akano K.
This case study is of a 35-year-old pregnant hyperthyroid woman who developed nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, nystagmus and mental disturbance, and was thought to be experiencing a thyroid crisis. was referred to our hospital with a suspected diagnosis of thyroid storm. Not all criteria were met for this diagnosis and Wernicke encephalopathy was suspected. Vitamin B1 was given immediately on the first day of admission and her consciousness became nearly normal on day two.
91. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Oct 1;60(5):1468-76.
Management of the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome.
The author reports that 50 to 75 percent patients who have uncontrolled diabetes when admitted to hospital have significant hyperosmolarity resulting in an altered state of consciousness. Furthermore patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome are often chronically ill, with vitamin and mineral depletion that may include: potassium, phosphate and magnesium, as well as B-complex vitamins (especially thiamine). The author concluded that these deficits require therapeutic correction.
92. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1999 Oct;16(10):733-5.
Thiamine for the treatment of nucleoside analogue-induced severe lactic acidosis.
Schramm C, Wanitschke R, Galle PR.
In HIV patients a side effect of nucleoside analogue medication is - lactic acidosis, which can be fatal. This case study describes a 30-year-old female with AIDS with nucleoside analogue-induced lactic acidosis who deteriorated shortly after beginning total parenteral nutrition and reversed within hours after the addition of thiamine. The authors conclude that this case supports the hypothesis that vitamin deficiency is an important cofactor in the development of this rare condition. They recommend that high dose B-vitamins should be given to any patient presenting with lactic acidosis under nucleoside analogue treatment.
93. Nippon Rinsho. 1999 Oct;57(10):2362-5.
Diabetes and vitamin levels
This review of vitamin levels in diabetes found that plasma vitamin B1 in diabetics is usually marginally deficient. And vitamin B6 plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and has been associated with impairments in gluconeogenesis and abnormal glucose intolerance. The author concludes that administration of vitamins to diabetic patients reduces insulin requirement and improves vascular complications, playing a nutritional and a pharmacological role in treatment.
94. Acta Neurol Belg. 1999 Sep;99(3):198-201.
Acute axonal polyneuropathy in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition.
Vandenbulcke M, Janssens J.
This is a case report on a man with long standing alcohol abuse who, instead of a slow progression of polyneuropathy, developed motor weakness and sensory loss in all four limbs within four days. He did have severe thiamine deficiency
95. J Lab Clin Med. 1999 Sep;134(3):238-43.
Urinary loss of thiamine is increased by low doses of furosemide in healthy volunteers.
Rieck J, Halkin H, Almog S, Seligman H, Lubetsky A, Olchovsky D, Ezra D.
The authors are aware of thiamine loss with furosamide diuretics. They conclude that the present study confirms prior results in animal models indicating that sustained diuresis, greater than 100 milliliters per hour creates a significant increase in urinary loss of thiamine in human subjects. They recommend that thiamine supplements should be considered in patients undergoing sustained diuresis, when diet is not adequate to ensure replacement.
96. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1999 Sep;58(9):946-58.
Oxidative stress is associated with region-specific neuronal death during thiamine deficiency.
Calingasan NY, Chun WJ, Park LC, Uchida K, Gibson GE.
The authors comment that thiamine deficiency (TD) serves as a model of chronic impairment of oxidative metabolism and selective neuronal loss because it leads to neuronal death and elevation of nitric oxide synthase in macrophages/microglia in mouse brain. In this study they concluded that thiamine-deficiency provides a useful model to help clarify neuron-microglial interaction in neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.
97. Metab Brain Dis. 1999 Sep;14(3):137-48.
The relationship between thiamine deficiency and performance of a learning task in rats.
Terasawa M, Nakahara T, Tsukada N, Sugawara A, Itokawa Y.
The authors commented that they were involved with investigating the relationship between learning and thiamine. The first taught rats to press a lever turning a switch off to escape from the pain of electrical stimulation. Then they examined the relationship between learning and the thiamine concentration in various portions of the brain. They found that rats fed a thiamine-deficient diet showed a slower response time and a longer running time than the rats fed the normal diet. In a second study they divided the rats fed the normal diet into two groups, one group trained to switch off a lever and the other group not trained. They found that the thiamine concentration in the blood of the rats in the trained group was significantly higher than that in the group without training in spite of an identical diet.
98. Public Health Nutr. 1999 Sep;2(3A):403-9.
The effects of nutrients on mood.
Benton D, Donohoe RT.
The authors review the effects of nutrients on mood in the literature. They found that deficiency of many vitamins is associated with psychological symptoms. Thiamine supplementation, for example, was found in four double-blind studies to be associated with improved mood.
99. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Aug 13;271(1):33-6.
Cerebrospinal fluid levels of thiamine in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Molina JA, Hernanz A, Fernandez-Vivancos E, de Bustos F,Barcenilla B, Gomez-Escalonilla C, Zurdo M, Berbel A, Villanueva C.
It is well known that thiamine is an essential cofactor for several important enzymes involved in brain oxidative metabolism, one of which is decreased in the substantia nigra of Parkinson’s patients. Four types of thiamine were measured in cerebrospinal (CSF) in 24 Parkinson’s patients and 40 matched controls. The main difference was a lower CSF free thiamine levels in the Parkinson’s group. The authors suggest that low CSF free thiamine levels could be related with the risk for PD.
100. Pediatr Radiol. 1999 Aug;29(8):581-4.
Reversible MRI abnormalities in an unusual paediatric presentation of Wernicke's encephalopathy.
Sparacia G, Banco A, Lagalla R.
This case report on a 12-year-old boy with chronic gastrointestinal disease and Wernike’s encephalopathy diagnosed on MRI. He was given IV thiamine for four days and recovered from his neurological symptoms and signs. One month later there was no abnormality on MRI.
101. No To Shinkei. 1999 Jul;51(7):638-40.
Vitamin B1 deficiency polyneuropathy presenting homolateral imitative synkinesia.
Sasaki I, Fujii S, Ichihara N, Hatanaka Y.
This is a case report of a 56-year-old woman with vitamin B1 polyneuropathy, showing bilateral involuntary movements. Muscle testing with electromyogram revealed neurogenic changes. Nerve biopsy showed marked loss of myelinated fibers, and severe axonal degeneration. MRI of the spine and brain revealed no abnormalities.
102. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1999 Jun;101(2):118-21.
Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with hemodialysis: report of two cases and review of the literature.
Ihara M, Ito T, Yanagihara C, Nishimura Y.
The authors report on two rare cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in non-alcoholic patients on hemodialysis (HD). They presented with WE symptoms of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbance of consciousness. Moreover, intravenous infusion of thiamine led to complete elimination of these manifestations and they had low plasma levels of thiamine before infusion. The authors concluded from the low thiamine levels that HD can deplete thiamine.
103. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 May 19;258(3):703-7.
Thiamine deficiency in vivo produces fiber cell degeneration in mouse lenses.
Frederikse PH, Farnsworth P, Zigler JS Jr.
The report that thiamine deprivation (TD) is considered a classic model of systemic oxidative stress and is linked with degenerative diseases. Specifically thiamine deficiency in mice and rats produces symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Cataracts are also linked with thiamine and oxidative stress. In a group of rats made thiamine deficient, on day 12 days, lens fiber cell degeneration was observed along with increased expression of Alzheimer precursor proteins.
104. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):427-33.
Optimum nutrition: thiamin, biotin and pantothenate.
In this paper on the aspects of nutrition the authors agree that the metabolism of glucose is disturbed in thiamin deficiency. They report the theory that Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is associated with a genetic variant of an enzyme, transketolase, which requires a higher than normal concentration of thiamin diphosphate for activity. The possibility that there is a population that has a higher than average requirement for thiamin, has yet to be proven.
105. Toxicology. 1999 Apr 15;133(2-3):105-13.
Lead induced thiamine deficiency in the brain decreased the threshold of electroshock seizure in rat.
Cheong JH, Seo DO, Ryu JR, Shin CY, Kim YT, Kim HC, Kim WK, Ko KH.
In lead toxic animals, concurrent thiamine deficiency increases the symptoms of neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to test whether lead intoxication could decrease the thiamine status and thresholds of electroshock seizure in rats. It was noted that thiamine contents and transketolase activity were significantly lowered by lead intoxication and thiamine deficiency. And seizure thresholds were significantly decreased. When thiamine supplementation was given it reversed these signs and decreased the brain lead concentration in the lead treated group. The authors concluded that increased seizure susceptibility induced by lead intoxication in rats may be mediated at least in part through the changes of thiamine status.
106. Am J Med Sci. 1999 Apr;317(4):261-2.
Lactic acidosis caused by thiamine deficiency in a pregnant alcoholic patient.
The authors note that metabolic acidosis from excessive lactic acid build up is relatively common and occasionally caused by thiamine deficiency. In this case report a pregnant alcoholic patient was admitted with protracted vomiting and acidosis. She was also tested for thiamine levels which were low. Her symptoms resolved after thiamine infusion.
107. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1999 Apr;18(4):445-50.
Severe lactic acidosis and thiamine deficiency during parenteral nutrition in a child.
Remond C, Viard L, Paut O, Giraud P, Camboulives J.
This is a case report of a leukemic child treated with chemotherapy and parenteral (IV) nutrition for three weeks, who developed a severe lactic acidosis. Symptoms of digestive and neurological condition obscured the diagnosis. Finally a thiamine deficiency was suspected because no vitamins were being given. IV infusion of thiamine immediately treated the lactic acidosis and clinical symptoms. The authors conclude that thiamine deficiency must be suspected in case of severe lactic acidosis during parenteral nutrition and can be prevented by proper vitamin adminstration.
108. Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;18(2):87-91.
The thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxine status of patients on emergency admission to hospital.
Jamieson CP, Obeid OA, Powell-Tuck J.
authors designed to assess the prevalence of thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxine deficiencies at time of admission to an acute hospital. A random selection of 120 adults to an Emergency department provided the test subjects and compared with 80 healthy blood The prevalence of deficiency states in the inpatient group were 21% for thiamine, 2.7% for riboflavin, and 32% for pyridoxine. Almost half the subjects were deficient in one or more vitamins.
109. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Apr;18(2):171-8.
Breakfast type, daily nutrient intakes and vitamin and mineral status of French children, adolescents, and adults.
Preziosi P, Galan P, Deheeger M, Yacoub N, Drewnowski A, Hercberg S.
In this study high-energy breakfasts and cereal consumption were associated with lower serum cholesterols and improved nutritional biochemistry. It was found that serum concentrations of vitamin B1 (in children and adolescents), vitamin B2, and beta-carotene (in adults) were significantly linked to the level of energy provided by breakfast. The authors concluded that consumption of breakfast cereals appears to have a positive impact on nutritional status regardless of age.
110. J R Soc Med. 1999 Apr;92(4):183-5.
Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Heap LC, Peters TJ, Wessely S.
To study the effects of vitamins on chronic fatigue patients the functional status of several B vitamins, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine was tested in 12 vitamin-untreated CFS patients and in 18 healthy controls. The authors found that their data provide preliminary evidence of reduced functional B vitamin status CFS patients.
111. Pediatr Neurol. 1999 Apr;20(4):289-94.
Early diagnosis of pediatric Wernicke's encephalopathy.
Vasconcelos MM, Silva KP, Vidal G, Silva AF, Domingues RC, Berditchevsky CR.
Wernicke's encephalopathy, which is a deficiency of thiamine, may be fatal if untreated. The authors suspect that Wernicke's encephalopathy is underdiagnosed in children, therefore they designed this study to assess the frequency of overlooked diagnosis and identify findings that could help identify this condition. From the available literature 31 patients were found. Eleven patients had malignancy, 13 died undiagnosed, 16 recovered with thiamine. Only six presented with the classical signs of Wernicke's encephalopathy, although nine eventually demonstrated this triad. The authors conclude that the high rate of patients diagnosed only at postmortem examination (41.9%) confirms that Wernicke's encephalopathy is underdiagnosed in children. They recommend thiamine therapy if any component of the Wernicke's encephalopathy is present in a hospital setting.
112. CMAJ. 1999 Mar 9;160(5):675-80.
Diagnosis and management of acute alcohol withdrawal.
Holbrook AM, Crowther R, Lotter A, Cheng C, King D.
The authors overview the use of vitamins in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. They routine administration of thiamine, but not necessarily other vitamins..
113. Acta Neurol Scand. 1999 Mar;99(3):196-8.
Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by hyperemesis gravidarum.
Gardian G, Voros E, Jardanhazy T, Ungurean A, Vecsei L.
This is a report of a 25-year-old pregnant patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum who presented at 11 weeks of pregnancy. Neurological examination 8 weeks later demonstrated obtunded sensations, nystagmus and ataxia of gait. MRI suggested a diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The patient was treated with intramuscular vitamin B1 followed by oral thiamine until she delivered a healthy male. The authors did a literature review and found 20 cases in the past 30 years of Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by hyperemesis gravidarum. Unfortunately only half of these pregnancies resulted in the birth of a normal infant.
114. Br Poult Sci. 1999 Mar;40(1):127-30.
Effects of thiamine and clenbuterol on body composition, plasma metabolites and hepatic oxygen consumption in broiler chicks.
Hamano Y, Okada S, Tanaka T.
The authors examined the effects of thiamine-hydrochloride (10 mg/kg body weight) and a beta-agonist on energy expenditure. The found that thiamine-induced energy expenditure results not only from thermogenesis in the liver, but also from increasing energy utilisation for muscle hypertrophy and this vitamin supplementation facilitates the lipolytic effects of the beta-agonist.
115. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Mar;74(3):259-63.
Metabolic acidosis and thiamine deficiency.
Romanski SA, McMahon MM.
This case report describe a 19-year-old patient who was receiving home parenteral nutrition in whom lactic acidosis developed. It appears that her home parenteral nutrition formula contained no multivitamins, most significantly thiamine. After thiamine administration, the acidosis resolved, and the patient experienced pronounced clinical improvement. The authors warn that clinicians must be aware that thiamine is essential for normal glucose metabolism and that thiamine deficiency can lead to lactic acidosis. They also warn that thiamine deficient deaths have occurred due to lactic acidosis and therefore any patient receiving parenteral nutrition must also receive adequate vitamin supplementation.
116. Metab Brain Dis. 1999 Mar;14(1):1-20.
Glucose loading precipitates acute encephalopathy in thiamin-deficient rats
Zimitat C, Nixon PF.
The authors report that giving glucose repeatedly to thiamine deficient rats significantly increased the rate of progression of acute encephalopathy when compared with untreated thiamine-deficient rats. The authors suggest that their model may be useful for the further investigation of the pathogenesis of Wernicke’s encephalopathy at the molecular level.
117. Lancet. 1999 Feb 13;353(9152):546-9.
Thiamine deficiency and malaria in adults from southeast Asia.
Krishna S, Taylor AM, Supanaranond W, Pukrittayakamee S, ter Kuile F, Tawfiq KM, Holloway PA, White NJ.
The authors note that thiamine deficiency (beriberi) is common in some parts of southeast Asia but symptoms of acute thiamine deficiency can be confused with symptoms of malaria, such as encephalopathy and lactic acidosis. In this study the prevalence of thiamine deficiency in adults admitted to hospital with malaria was studied. In 77 patients tested thiamine deficiency was more severe in patients with cerebral malaria than in those with uncomplicated malaria and the controls. The authors concluded that thiamine deficiency commonly complicates acute malaria, is worse in severe infections, and could contribute to dysfunction of the central nervous system.
118. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Oct;66(4):925-8.
The response to treatment of subclinical thiamine deficiency in the elderly.
Wilkinson TJ, Hanger HC, Elmslie J, George PM, Sainsbury R.
In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial the significance of subclinical thiamine deficiency in the elderly was determined by assessing response to thiamine supplementation. The authors found that all subjects randomly assigned to receive thiamine showed increases in thiamine levels compared with control subjects. Those subjects with persistently low thiamine levels showed subjective benefits from treatment with improvements in quality of life, decrease in systolic blood pressure, and decrease in weight when compared with subjects given placebo. There were also benefits in sleep and energy.
119. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997 Oct;58(2):461-70.
Both ethanol toxicity and thiamine deficiency are necessary to produce long-term memory deficits in the young chick.
Crowe SF, Kempton S.
This study on the effects of alcohol and thiamine deficiency on chicks suggest that preexistent thiamine deficiency may make the subject susceptible to the neurotoxicological effects of alcohol on memory function.
120. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Sep 1;54(5):575-82.
Thiamine deficiency in cardiac cells in culture.
Zangen A, Shainberg A.
The authors found that rat heart cells in culture were a unique model for studying biochemical and pharmacological aspects of thiamine deficiency. When thiamine was excluded from the growth medium, the following effects were observed: (1) “On days 10-11 spontaneous contractions ceased, accompanied by initiation of cell degeneration; (2) Intensive degeneration and cell death were observed after 14-16 days. (3) Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) concentration in thiamine-deprived cells was decreased gradually, with an elimination half-life of 4-5 days. (4) [3H]deoxyglucose uptake by the cells was increased, even after 1 day of thiamine deprivation. (5) ATP level decreased after 8 days and reached 50% of control cells after 10 days. (6) In thiamine-deprived cells, thiamine addition caused a 60% rise in contraction amplitude but contraction rate was not altered significantly. (7) All these effects were reversible if thiamine was supplied before the initiation of the degeneration processes.”
121. J Pediatr. 1997 Sep;131(3):450-2.
Concomitant administration of sodium dichloroacetate and vitamin B1 for lactic acidemia in children with MELAS syndrome.
Kuroda Y, Ito M, Naito E, Yokota I, Matsuda J, Saijo T, Kondo S, Yoneda Y, Miyazaki M, Mori K, Iwamoto H.
This is a case history of two siblings with MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike syndrome). They developed myoclonic seizures, intractable abdominal pain, and headaches, which resolved during the concomitant administration of sodium dichloroacetate and vitamin B1.
122. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Aug;16(4):366-75.
Nutritional disorders in a concentration camp.
Lee BY, Thurmon TF.
This paper makes observations on nutritional disorders in a concentration camp before and during the Great Starvation in China. The authors state that many unique abnormalities should be considered as a part of clinical picture of malnutrition, such as mucocutaneous pigmentation, nail layering phenomena and intranail hemorrhage, palmar/plantar fissures, vegetative system crisis, a avitaminostic fevers, multiple premature beats, and enlargement of cartilage, lymph nodes, and submandibular glands. However, thiamine deficiency should be also considered as one, if not the only, etiologic factor of several common disorders, including submandibular gland cyst, Baker's cyst, stenosing tenosynovitis, direct inguinal hernia, among others.
123. Alcohol Alcohol. 1997 Jul-Aug;32(4):493-500.
Thiamine deficiency in head injury: a missed insult?
Ferguson RK, Soryal IN, Pentland B.
The authors found that there was no clear policy on the use of thiamine in head-injury patients also at risk for Wernicke-Korsakoff. The authors describe a 2 year retrospective study of 218 admissions where alcohol was ingested shortly before sustaining head injury. It was found that a minority (20.6%) had been given thiamine and just over half (56.1%) of those documented as alcoholic received this treatment. It was also determined that the amount and timing of thiamine given was mostly inadequate. The authors comment that treatable conditions are being missed with this failure to ensure that head injury patients at risk of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome receive appropriate thiamine prophylaxis.
124. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1997 Jul;61(7):1221-4.
Thiamine increases expression of yeast gene.
Ichikawa K, Shiba Y, Yamazaki M, Serizawa N.
The authors found that thiamine generally increases the expression of yeast genes, since the expression of the luciferase gene that was artificially constructed was also increased to some extent by thiamine in S. cerevisiae.
125. Cancer Causes Control. 1997 Jul;8(4):575-90.
Plant foods and colon cancer: an assessment of specific foods and their related nutrients (United States).
Slattery ML, Potter JD, Coates A, Ma KN, Berry TD, Duncan DM, Caan BJ.
This study found that in women who had a high intake of plant foods containing vitamin B6, thiamin, and niacin there was an association with lower rate of colon cancer.
126. J Med Chem. 1997 Jun 20;40(13):1969-76.
Zinc ejection as a new rationale for the use of cystamine and related disulfide-containing antiviral agents in the treatment of AIDS.
McDonnell NB, De Guzman RN, Rice WG, Turpin JA, Summers MF.
The author report that a literature search identified a form of vitamin B1, thiamine disulfide, cystamine, and disulfiram as compounds that have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication.
127. Brain Dev. 1997 Jun;19(4):262-7.
Treatment of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with a combination of cytochrome C and vitamins B1 and B2.
Tanaka J, Nagai T, Arai H, Inui K, Yamanouchi H, Goto Y, Nonaka I, Okada S.
The authors studied the therapeutic efficacy of a regimen consisting of intravenous injection of Cardiocrome, containing cytochrome c, flavin mononucleotide and thiamine diphosphate for mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MEM). Nine patients received treatment and eight were improved clinically in the muscle symptoms of easy fatigability, motor disability and severity of stroke-like episodes, as well as in various other symptoms such as phosphate, tinnitus, headache, corneal edema, chilblains, thalamic pain, respiratory failure, and nystagmus. By giving intermittent injections this improvement was maintained for more than 1 year. The authors conclude this therapy was fairly effective for the management of patients with MEM.
128. Endocr J. 1997 Jun;44(3):447-52.
Gestational thyrotoxicosis manifesting as wernicke encephalopathy: a case report.
Otsuka F, Tada K, Ogura T, Hayakawa N, Mimura Y, Yamauchi T, Inoue N, Makino H, Kudo T.
This is a case report of a patient with "gestational transient thyrotoxicosis” who also had protracted vomiting and was developing symptoms of Wernicke encephalopathy. The authors thought that the thyrotoxicosis and a catabolic state due to the vomiting had induced a vitamin B1 deficiency, causing the encephalopathy. They cautioned that pregnant patients with protracted vomiting should undergo careful endocrinological and neurological evaluations.
129. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997 Jun;17(3):190-3.
A treatment for tardive dyskinesia and some other extrapyramidal symptoms.
Cowen MA, Green M, Bertollo DN, Abbott K.
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced two-period cross-over study with initial baselines and intervening washout periods the authors studied the effects of the administration of acetazolamide and thiamine (A + T) on the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (TD) and parkinsonism of 8 elderly and 25 younger chronic hospitalized mental patients. All patients were maintained on their own medications throughout the study. The elderly group received 1.5 g acetazolamide and thiamine per day in three divided doses for 3 weeks. The younger group received 1.5 g thiamine and 2.0 g acetazolamide per day in divided doses for 2 months. The results showed that both groups had a significant decrease in scores on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (TD) and the Simpson-Angus Neurological Rating Scale (parkinsonism) while on A + T.
130. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1997 Jun;36(2):169-75.
Dietary thiamin supply during lactation influences thiamin status in lactating rats and their offspring and the thiamin level in milk.
Roth-Maier DA, Trubswetter N, Stangl GI, Kirchgessner M.
This study examined the effect of dietary thiamin, ranging from non-existent to excessive supplies, on thiamin status of lactating rats and their offspring, and the thiamin level in milk. Rat dams were divided into eight groups of 10 each, and were fed diets with 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, 40, 350 and 3500 mg/kg thiamin over a total of 13 days during lactation. Milk for determining the thiamin concentration was obtained from day 6 and 13 of lactation. The authors found that lactating rat dams fed a thiamin-free diet and their offspring were classified as thiamin-deficient on the basis of growth retardation and a lower activity of transketolase in blood, liver and brain. In the eight groups the concentration of thiamin in milk ranged between 0.1 and 19 mg/kg. The findings show that dietary thiamin had the strongest effect on thiamin in milk obtained from day 6 and 13 of lactation. The authors concluded that this means there was no thiamine reserve in the mother that transferred to the milk.
131. Psychiatry Res. 1997 May 30;70(3):165-74.
Beneficial effects of thiamine on recognition memory and P300 in abstinent cocaine-dependent patients.
Easton CJ, Bauer LO.
This double blind study reports results on memory task performance and event-related electroencephalographic potentials in eight abstinent cocaine-dependent patients who were given thiamine vs. placebo. Patients were given 5 g of thiamine and 5 g of a lactose placebo on two separate days 1 week apart. The authors found that thiamine significantly improve drecognition accuracy and electroencephalographic potentials. They recommend that these results call for further studies of thiamine's effects on central nervous system cholinergic function, and the direct and indirect effects of cocaine abuse.
132. Acta Paediatr. 1997 May;86(5):448-53.
Evaluation of full-term infants fed an evaporated milk formula.
Friel JK, Andrews WL, Simmons BS, L'Abbe MR, Mercer C, MacDonald A, McCloy UR.
This study was designed to compare nutritional status of full-term infants who were fed human milk (29infants), formula (30 infants) or evaporated milk formulae (30 infants) for at least 3 months. On testing the infants there were more (13%) abnormal thiamin assays in the EM group at 6 months than in the breast fed and formula fed infants (0%). The authors concluded that infants fed evaporated milk formula receive adequate copper but may not receive enough thiamin or selenium and unless supplemented from birth with medicinal iron, intakes of iron will be inadequate.
133. Alcohol Alcohol. 1997 May-Jun;32(3):207-9.
Parenteral thiamine and Wernicke's encephalopathy: the balance of risks and perception of concern.
Thomson AD, Cook CC.
The authors review the use of thiamine for preventing and treating the serious condition of Wernicke's encephalopathy, which is common in alcoholics. Intravenous thiamine in high doses is a very effective therapy. The authors acknowledge that there have been very rare reports of anaphylactoid reactions, which has served to diminish the use of this important therapy and possibly led to increased morbidity and mortality. They call for proper education of doctors in the treatment of Wernicke’s encephalopathy.
134. Alcohol Alcohol. 1997 May-Jun;32(3):281-5.
Increasing incidence of Korsakoff's psychosis in the east end of Glasgow.
Ramayya A, Jauhar P.
In this retrospective analysis of all admissions between 1990 and 1995 in a population of 160,000 a total of 47 new cases of Korsakoff's psychosis was identified. Of that number only seven has symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The authors speculate that the increasing incidence may be due to reporting of thiamine anaphylaxis and subsequent withdrawal of high-potency parenteral multivitamins with thiamine.
135. Ann Epidemiol. 1997 May;7(4):285-93.
Vitamin intake: a possible determinant of plasma homocyst(e)ine among middle-aged adults.
Shimakawa T, Nieto FJ, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, Schreiner PJ, Szklo M.
The authors acknowledge the many epidemiologic studies that have identified elevated plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolic disease. Dietary data in this case-control study was collected from 322 middle-aged individuals with atherosclerosis in the carotid artery and 318 control subjects without evidence of this disease. The authors found that as plasma homocysteine went down the intake certain nutrients went up: thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. The authors concluded that among vitamin users plasma homocysteine was 1.5 mumol/L lower than that among nonusers. The authors recommended further studies.
136. Arch Dis Child. 1997 May;76(5):416-20.
Relation between dietary fat and energy and micronutrient intakes.
Tonstad S, Sivertsen M.
The authors acknowledged the concern being raised about the energy and nutrient adequacy of low fat diets for children in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. The diets of 174 schoolchildren aged 8-12 years from middle and high socioeconomic groups were assessed to determine their nutrient composition in relation to fat intake. The authors found that energy intake from fat was 31% and from saturated 13%. 44% of all children reported consuming less than 30% of their energy from fat. Consequently a decreased fat intake was associated with an increased sugar intake, but also with increased nutrient densities of thiamin, niacin, folate, vitamin C, magnesium, and iron, which meant an increased intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains.
137. Rev Med Chil. 1997 May;125(5):582-5.
Wernicke's encephalopathy as a complication of chronic hemodialysis: report of one case.
Sandoval E, Borja H, Gatica A.
This case study of Wernicke encephalopathy, due to the depletion of thiamine, shows that this condition can be a complication of chronic hemodialysis. A 43 year old diabetic male in chronic hemodialysis, two weeks amputation of his left leg, was admitted to the hospital after five days of abdominal pain and an episode of vomiting. He was conused and had eye signs of Wernicke's encephalopathy. After giving IV thiamine his confusion ceased. The authors advise that dialysis can be a predisposing factor for Wernicke encephalopathy and this diagnosis must be considered in confused patients.
138. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1997 May-Jun;69(3):48-53.
Blood vitamin levels in various population groups in the Ukraine suffering from sequelae to the accident at the Chernobyl power plant
Donchenko HV, Chernukhina LO, Kuz'menko IV, Parkhomenko IuM.
This paper states that all those who suffered from the catastrophe at Chernobyl exhibit polyhypovitaminosis. The treatment given to all is adequate multivitamin therapy.
139. Vopr Med Khim. 1997 May-Jun;43(3):158-64.
Influence of lead on metabolism of vitamins B group in alimentary iron deficient rats.
Khotimchenko SA, Kodentsova VM, Alekseeva IA, Vlaskina SG, Vrzhesinskaia OA, Sokol'nikov AA, Kharitonchik LA, Aleshko-Ozhevskii IP, Sheviakova LV.
The authors acknowledge that experimentally induced lead poisoning especially under simultaneous iron deficit leads to the development of secondary thiamine insufficiency. With treatment of lead poisoning there is an increased excretion of riboflavin, 4-pyridoxic acid and 1-vtthylnicotinamide in rats fed with adequate diet. Thus lead intoxication and iron deficiency influence the metabolism of vitamin B complex.
140. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1997 Apr;21(2):141-6.
Dietary intake of Australian smokers and nonsmokers.
English RM, Najman JM, Bennett SA.
This study reports on the 1983 National Dietary Survey of Adults and the 1983 Risk Factor Prevalence Survey with regard to the nutrient intakes of smokers (1024 men and 785 women) and nonsmokers (1974 men and 2421 women). The results were that both men and women, nonsmokers had a significantly higher intake of starch, dietary fibre (g/day and g/1000 kJ), thiamin, vitamin C, calcium and magnesium than smokers, who also had a significantly higher intake of alcohol. The authors suggest that nonsmokers consume a more nutritious diet than smokers, in regard to having a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, wholegrain cereals and milk and milk products.
141. Brain Dev. 1997 Apr;19(3):205-8.
Recurrent pain attacks in a 3-year-old patient with myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF): a single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) and electrophysiological study.
Tanaka S, Osari S, Ozawa M, Yamanouchi H, Goto Y, Matsuda H, Nonaka I.
This is a case report of a 3-year-old girl with myoclonus epilepsy who experienced recurrent pain attacks and allodynia (pain from clothing) on the right side of the body. there were some changes on MRI and on SPECT scan there was hypoperfusion in the thalamus. Somatosensory evoked potentials showed delayed early cortical responses, particularly on right median nerve stimulation. The intravenous administration of cytochrome c with flavin mononucleotide and thiamine diphosphate abolished the intolerable pain and SPECT scan returned to normal.
142. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 1997 Mar;26(2):122-5.
Relationship between dietary nutrients intakes and human prostate cancer
Du S, Shi L, Zhang H, He S.
In this study the relationship between dietary nutrients intakes and prostate cancer was assessed. The authors designed a case-control study with 102 patients diagnosed with histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 102 healthy controls. It was found that vitamin C and vitamin B1 decreased the risk of prostate cancer. The authors discussed the possible mechanism of dietary nutrients contributing to the risk of prostate cancer.
143. Nutrition. 1997 Feb;13(2):110-7.
Clinical and biochemical aspects of thiamine treatment for metabolic acidosis during total parenteral nutrition.
Nakasaki H, Ohta M, Soeda J, Makuuchi H, Tsuda M, Tajima T, Mitomi T, Fujii K.
The authors describe six cases of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated lactic acidosis. What was common in the patients was severe gastrointestinal disease, very little food intake prior to surgery and TPN postoperatively with no food intake and no vitamin supplements. Within four weeks they developed hypotension, Kussmaul's respiration, and clouding of consciousness, and abdominal pain. Lactic acidosis was found on blood testing but there was no response to sodium bicarbonate treatment. After the first case thiamine deficiency was suspected and serum levels were lot in 5 patients. Thiamine infusion of 100 mg every 12 hours resulted in clinical improvement in 3 patients. The authors reviewed 11 relevant papers published from 1982-1992 discussing this condition. They strongly recommend the need to supplement TPN with thiamine and monitor thiamine levels during TPN and to immediately use IV thiamine in cases of lactic acidosis.
144. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1997;90(2):113-6.
Neuromyelopathy in the population of Noir-marron of Saint-Laurent du Maroni in French Guiana
Sainte-Foie S, Bourhis V, Joly F, Petit-Bon J.
The authors report on a total of ten people with neurological signs and symptoms related to thiamine deficiency due to a limited diet of cassava. Neurological symptoms included retrobulbar optic neuropathy, spastic paraparesis, sensitive ataxia and cerebellar ataxia, and psychiatric symptoms. Other organs affected were cardiovascular, digestive, cutaneous or endocrinologic (thyroid). The authors reported that thiamin deficiency has been observed several times and there was clinical improvement after thiamin was given.
145. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1997;67(4):248-54.
Dietary thiamin supply during gestation effects thiamin status of lactating rats and their suckling offspring.
Kirchgessner M, Trubswetter N, Stangl GI, Roth-Maier DA.
This is a two-generational study of the effect of dietary thiamin supply during gestation on body thiamin status of lactating rats and their suckling offspring. Rat dams were not given adequate thiamine gestation and their offspring were thiamin-deficient. While lactating the dams were fed a regular diet which included thiamine and the level of thiamine in the milk increased over time. The authors conclude that an adequate thiamin supply during lactation can not completely compensate for an inadequate thiamin supply during gestation, and that necessitates a constant thiamin intake.
146. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Jan;129(1):66-71.
Thiamine supplementation mood and cognitive functioning.
Benton D, Griffiths R, Haller J.
In a this clinical trial one hundred and twenty young adult females took either a placebo or 50 mg thiamine, each day for 2 months. Testing done before and after taking the tablets assessed mood, memory and reaction times. The authors observed that an improvement in thiamine status was associated with self-reports of being more clearheaded, composed and energetic. Althoughtaking of thiamine had no influence on memory, reaction times were faster following supplementation. The authors make special note that these changes occurred in patients whose thiamine status, according to the traditional criterion, was adequate.
147. Vopr Pitan. 1997;(4):6-8.
Indicators of thiamine content and energy homeostasis in alcoholic psychosis
Bolko EP, Sidorov PI, Solov'ev AG, Kirpich IA.
The authors find that in acute alcoholic psychoses, with delirium and hallucinosis, there is substantial thiamine deficiency and tissue deterioration that can not be totally reversed.
148. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 Dec;91(12):2555-9.
Thiamine status in patients receiving long-term home parenteral nutrition.
Schiano TD, Klang MG, Quesada E, Scott F, Tao Y, Shike M.
The authors acknowledge that clinical thiamine deficiency can occur in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without thiamine supplementation. This study set out to determine the amount of thiamine to be used in TPN and the results show that the currently recommended 3 mg of thiamine hydrochloride added to TPN solutions is adequate to maintain normal thiamine status. This level should prevent the development of thiamine deficiency even in patients with compromised intestinal thiamine absorption, and in the presence of bisulfite-containing amino acid solutions.
149. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996 Dec;82(6):634-6.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and thiamine deficiency.
Haisraeli-Shalish M, Livneh A, Katz J, Doolman R, Sela BA.
the authors acknowledge that recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a disease of unknown cause. The designed this study to examine whether recurrent aphthous stomatitis may be caused by thiamine deficiency. Thiamine levels were studied in 70 patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis and in 50 people in the control group. The authors found low levels of vitamin B1 in 49 patients but in only two members of the control group. The authors concluded that there may be an association between thiamine deficiency and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
150. J Stud Alcohol. 1996 Nov;57(6):581-4.
Thiamine absorption in alcoholic delirium patients.
The author acknowledges that the study of thiamine deficiency in alcoholics is usually confined to Wernicke-Korsakov syndrome. However the relationship between delerium tremens (DTs) and thiamine is contradictory. Seventy male patients with DTs
Were compared to 13 controls both confined to hospital. The findings showed that absorption of vitamin B1 was minimally lower in the case of the delirium patients in comparison with the nonalcoholics. However, there was a considerably greater range of scattering of vitamin B1 absorption in the delirium patients, which improved greatly in the 4 weeks after delirium as did clinical symptoms. Incidentally patients with visual hallucinations showed lower thiamine absorption than patients without such symptoms,
151. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Sep;64(3):347-53.
Biochemical evidence of thiamine depletion during the Cuban neuropathy epidemic, 1992-1993.
Macias-Matos C, Rodriguez-Ojea A, Chi N, Jimenez S, Zulueta D, Bates CJ.
This paper is a report on the epidemic outbreak of neuropathy in Cuba during 1992-1993. Blood and urine samples were collected from 107 persons with confirmed neuropathy, and from 106 control subjects without clinical abnormality and from another 537 unmatched subjects, also without symptoms. Measurements of urinary thiamine and blood transketolase and its activation with thiamine pyrophosphate were made. Levels of thiamine in all groups showed a high prevalence of depletion affecting 30-70%. In the neuropathy group, thiamine was lower the more the alcohol intake. The authors conclude that both thiamine deficiency and alcohol intake may have been contributory factors to the epidemic. But they do suggest that thiamine supplementation or food fortification may be necessary in Cuba.
152. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1996 Sep;35(3):266-72.
Can megadoses of thiamine prevent ethanol-induced damages of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones?
Wenisch S, Steinmetz T, Fortmann B, Leiser R, Bitsch I.
The authors wanted to evaluate whether high doses of thiamine can compensate or prevent alcohol-induced damages of rat hippocampus CA1 pyramids. They concluded that megavitamin therapy with thiamine supports neuron carbohydrate metabolism and therefore could be able to prevent or reduce alcohol-induced damages of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in rat central nervous system.
153. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Aug;50(8):549-55.
Subclinical beriberi polyneuropathy in the low income group: an investigation with special tools on possible patients with suspected complaints
Djoenaidi W, Notermans SL, Verbeek AL.
The authors set out to determine the prevalence rate of subclinical beriberi polyneuropathy (PNP) in a low income population and present new methods for early detection. A prospective, randomized observational study assessed 53 low-income patients and 56 from the mid- and high-income groups. The patients diet and blood thiamine were analyzed. The authors found that subclinical beriberi PNP was 66% in the apparently healthy subjects of the low income group compared with 12.5% among the mid and high income groups. On analysis of the diet of the low income group there was inadequacy of thiamine and the authors concluded that their carbohydrate rich and non fat calories in the diet with low thiamine intake may provoke beriberi.
154. Alcohol Alcohol. 1996 Jul;31(4):421-7.
Thiamine deficiency as predisposition to, and consequence of, increased alcohol consumption.
Zimatkin SM, Zimatkina TI.
In this study on rats their only fluid intake was 15% ethanol for 6 months over which time the thiamine -dependent enzyme, transketolase (TK), was decreased (down to 61-79% of control). It took one month after ethanol was withdrawn for the enzyme to gradually be restored. In another experiment the authors confirmed findings in the literature that thiamine deficiency can be both predisposing to and a consequence of, increased alcohol consumption.
155. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jul;50 Suppl 2:S77-85.
Longitudinal changes in the intake of vitamins and minerals of elderly Europeans. SENECA Investigators.
Amorim Cruz JA, Moreiras O, Brzozowska A.
This study assessed changes in intake of vitamins and minerals in elderly Europeans. Initially there was a significant decrease in the median intake of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C and iron in several towns. The authors concluded that over the 4-year follow-up period, the proportion of elderly people with nutrient intakes below the lowest European RDI's increased for various nutrients in most towns leaving them at increased risk for malnutrition. The proportion of elderly people taking nutrient supplements varied from less than 5% to 60% in various towns.
156. Ir Med J. 1996 Jul-Aug;89(4):145-6.
Wernicke's encephalopathy presenting in the puerperium.
Byrne BM, Stronge JM.
This paper is a case presentation of Wernicke's encephalopathy presenting in the time after delivery in a patient. There was dramatic reversal of the symptoms and signs following the administration of intravenous thiamine supporting the clinical diagnosis. The authors were unable to find a similar case report review of the literature.
157. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1996 Jul;51(4):B261-9.
Longitudinal assessment of the nutritional status of elderly veterans.
Chapman KM, Ham JO, Pearlman RA.
This study followed the nutritional status 209 male veterans, over 65 years of age for two years. At onset they had no acute disease-related nutritional risk factors. Diet recall, physical examination, and lab tests were done. The authors found that 25% of subjects consumed inadequate amounts of thiamine, vitamin A, vitamin C, and calcium.
158. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1996 Jun;46(2):122-7.
Nutritional status of institutionalised elderly in Ecuador.
Barclay DV, Heredia L, Gil-Ramos J, Montalvo MM, Lozano R, Mena M, Dirren H.
Switzerland/Ecuador-Study done by Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Lausunne, Switzerland.
This study evaluated the nutritional status of 111 elderly men and women aged 60 to 99 years in two institutions in the Ecuadorian Andes using dietary, anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The authors found that intake of of zinc, vitamin A, niacin and thiamine were low.
159. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996 Jun;15(3):231-6.
Plasma and erythrocyte thiamin concentrations in geriatric outpatients.
Chen MF, Chen LT, Gold M, Boyce HW Jr.
This study was designed to determine the plasma and red cell thiamin levels in geriatric outpatients and using the rat model, to evaluate the sensitivity of plasma thiamin concentration. The authors found that about 50% of geriatric outpatients in this study had low plasma thiamin levels. The authors concluded that the long-term effect of a low plasma thiamin level on cognitive functions needs to be investigated.
160. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr. 1996 Jun;27(3):97-101.
Failure in self care and heart failure, thiamine deficiency in geriatric patients
te Water W, Jellesma-Eggenkamp MJ, Bruijns E.
This is a case report of two patients admitted to a geriatric ward with cardiac failure was due to thiamine deficiency (wet beri-beri). After supplementation with thiamine they recovered completely. The authors noted that the first patient had poor nutrition and ate only canned food and the second patient was an alcoholic and did not take proper nutrients. They concluded that doctors should not hesitate to supplement thiamine in case of cardiac failure because of possible thiamine deficiency.
161. Acta Paediatr. 1996 May;85(5):625-8.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in a child responsive to thiamine treatment.
Pastoris O, Savasta S, Foppa P, Catapano M, Dossena M.
This is a case report of a 4-year-old child who was investigated for a suspected metabolic disorder but was later diagnosed as having a pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Results of a muscle biopsy was performed and the data obtained suggested thiamine treatment which resulted in a regression of the clinical findings and a return to normal values of blood lactic and pyruvic acids. The interruption of thiamine supplementation after 1 year of treatment led to a prompt recurrence of the previous clinical and biochemical symptoms.
162. Behav Neurosci. 1995 Dec;109(6):1209-14.
Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency impairs object recognition in rats.
Mumby DG, Mana MJ, Pinel JP, David E, Banks K.
The authors of this paper set out to prove that pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) in rats is a useful model for Korsakoff’s disease. They found that the PTD rat model of Korsakoff's disease is valid by demonstrating that PTD rats display object-recognition deficits that are similar to those reported patients with Korsakoff’s disease.
163. Ann Neurol. 1996 May;39(5):585-91.
Brain thiamine, its phosphate esters, and its metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer's disease.
Mastrogiacoma F, Bettendorff L, Grisar T, Kish SJ.
The authors acknowledge clinical data that suggest high-dose thiamine may have a mild beneficial effect in some patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). They wanted to determine if this effect was association with a brain thiamine deficiency. They measured several different metabolites of thiamine and thiamine-dependent enzymes in 18 autopsied AD cadavers and 20 matched controls. Levels of thiamine diphosphate were significantly reduced by 18 to 21% in all three cortical brain areas examined. The authors concluded that a chronic subclinical TDP deficiency could contribute to impaired brain function in AD and may explain the mild beneficial improvement by thiamine in cognitive status of some patients with AD.
164. Vet Rec. 1996 Apr 6;138(14):327-9.
Sulphur-induced polioencephalomalacia in lambs.
Low JC, Scott PR, Howie F, Lewis M, FitzSimons J, Spence JA.
This is a report of an outbreak of polioencephalomalacia that affected 16 of 46 Swaledale lambs and 5 of 25 Scottish blackface lambs 15 to 32 days after initiation of a diet containing 0.43 per cent sulphur. The lambs exhibited depression, central blindness and head-pressing, but no hyperaesthesia, nystagmus, dorsiflexion of the neck or opisthotonos. Treatment of the affected lambs with vitamin B1, dexamethasone and antibiotics was associated with a prolonged recovery period. No further cases were seen after vitamin B1 had been given by injection to all the lambs at risk.
165. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1996 Apr;20(2):181-7.
Preventing the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in Australia: cost-effectiveness of thiamin-supplementation alternatives.
Connelly L, Price J.
The authors acknowledge that slcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy has been commonplace in Australia for many years. They felt that since the syndrome is caused by a dietary deficiency of thiamine it should be preventable. The authors created a ranking system to and identified the most cost-effective thiamin-supplementation alternative as that of enriching bread-making flour with thiamin.
166. Indian J Med Res. 1996 Apr;103:227-31.
Curative treatment of primary (spasmodic) dysmenorrhoea.
The author designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 556 girls aged 12-21 yr, having moderate to very severe spasmodic dysmenorrhoea to prove the efficacy of oral vitamin B1. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) was given in a dose of 100 mg orally or a placebo daily for 90 days. The results in the treatment group showed that 87% were completely cured, 8% relieved (pain almost nil to reduced) and 5% showed no improvement. The effects were maintained two months when no drug was administered. The author comments that most current treatments are suppressive in nature however, thiamine is a curative treatment that directly treats the cause, is free from side effects, is inexpensive and easy to administer.
167. Rev Neurol. 1996 Apr;24(128):456-8.
Neuropathic beriberi as a complication of surgery of morbid obesity
Munoz-Farjas E, Jerico I, Pascual-Millan LF, Mauri JA, Morales-Asin F.
This is a case report of a 22-year old woman with a history of gastroplasty (as treatment for morbid obesity). After four weeks of nausea and vomiting she was admitted to hospital and treated with intravenous dextrose but without vitamin supplementation. One week later she complained of diplopia, paresthesia and weakness of the limbs, however, all investigations were normal. Eventually a deficiency state was suspected, probably Wernicke's encephalopathy and treatment with high doses of parenteral thiamine, other vitamins and a suitable diet was begun. The patient recovered completely. The authors emphasize the
168. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Mar 7;220(1):113-
Thiamine pyrophosphate and pyridoxamine inhibit the formation of antigenic advanced glycation end-products: comparison with aminoguanidine.
Booth AA, Khalifah RG, Hudson BG.
The authors comment that proteins bound by excess glucose (glycation) cause toxic and immunogenic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that may manifest as diabetes mellitus, aging, and, possibly, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. This in vitro study tested whether certain nutrients such as vitamin B1 and B6 would inhibit AGE formation. The authors found that Among the inhibitors, pyridoxamine and thiamine pyrophosphate potently inhibited AGE formation and were more effective than aminoguanidine. They concluded that B1 and B6 may have novel therapeutic potential in preventing vascular complications of diabetes.
169. Metab Brain Dis. 1996 Mar;11(1):81-8.
Alterations of thiamine phosphorylation and of thiamine-dependent enzymes in Alzheimer's disease.
Heroux M, Raghavendra Rao VL, Lavoie J, Richardson JS, Butterworth RF.
The authors acknowledge the growing body of evidence which suggests that thiamine neurochemistry is disrupted in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as evidenced by low levels of thiamine and thiamine-dependent enzymes in autopsied AD brains. The authors researched the literature and concluded that deficiencies of thiamine diphosphate-related metabolic processes could therefore participate in neuronal cell death mechanisms in AD.
170. Metab Brain Dis. 1996 Mar;11(1):89-94.
Thiamine therapy in Alzheimer's disease.
Mimori Y, Katsuoka H, Nakamura S.
this study tested a thiamine vitamin derivative at a dose of 100 mg/day given orally and found it had a mild beneficial effect on Alzheimer's disease in a 12-week open trial. The authors noted improvement in emotional, mental symptoms, and intellectual function in mild forms of Alzheimer's
171. Metab Brain Dis. 1996 Mar;11(1):95-106.
Effects of thiamine supplementation on exercise-induced fatigue.
Suzuki M, Itokawa Y.
This study tested thiamine supplementation of 100 mg/day on recovery from exercise-induced fatigue. Sixteen male athletes volunteered and had blood testing for thiamine. Eight had normal levels and eight had below normal levels. The authors found that blood thiamine level markedly increased following supplementation of thiamine. The results after exercise showed that thiamine supplementation significantly suppressed the increase in blood glucose and significantly decreased the number of complaints shortly after exercise in the subjective fatigue assessment of 30 items.
172. Ugeskr Laeger. 1996 Feb 12;158(7):898-901.
the author presents a review of Wernicke's encephalopathy and advises that the treatment, consisting of large doses of intravenous thiamine, is effective and safe and warns how important it is to be aware of WE among risk-patients, especially among patients with alcohol abuse. He recommends immediately treatment with intravenous thiamine at the slightest suspicion.
173. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Feb;34(2):47-50.
Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine.
This paper assesses the absorption and bioavailability of thiamine analogues. The author suggests that one formulation called benfotiamine is absorbed much more better than water-soluble thiamine salts with maximum plasma levels of thiamine 5 times higher after benfotiamine. The bioavailability is at maximum about 3.6 times as high as that of thiamine hydrochloride and better than other lipophilic thiamine derivates. The author concludes that because of its excellent pharmacokinetic profile benfotiamine should be preferred in treatment of relevant indications.
174. Ann Nutr Metab. 1996;40(3):146-56.
Influence of the intake of fortified breakfast cereals on dietary habits and nutritional status of Spanish schoolchildren.
Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Redondo R, Lopez-Sobaler AM, Andres P, Ortega A, Gaspar MJ, Quintas E, Navia B.
This paper reports on breakfast choices of 200 schoolchildren between 9 and 13 years of age. One group had fortified breakfast cereals (65 boys and 35 girls) and the second group did not (64 boys and 36 girls). Blood, biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected. The fortified breakfast group among other factors had better dietary habits all round and higher thiamine, pyridoxine, folates, and beta-carotenes.
175. Ann Nutr Metab. 1996;40(1):24-51.
Vitamin status of healthy subjects in Burgundy (France).
de Carvalho MJ, Guilland JC, Moreau D, Boggio V, Fuchs F.
This study is a population survey to determine nutrition status in a sample of 337 middle-aged and healthy subjects (157 males and 180 females) attending health examination centers. Low vitamin intakes (< 1/2 FRDA) were found in 5% of males and 7% of females for thiamin, in 11% of males and 28% of females for vitamin B6, in 6% of males and 3% of females for vitamin C, in 87% of males and 91% of females for vitamin D, and in 8% of males and 13% of females for vitamin E. The authors found that for both genders, except for vitamin C and vitamin A (only for females), low values corresponding to a moderate risk of vitamin deficiency was high for most vitamins. The authors conclude that their results compare with other studies performed in France and in other industrialized countries and raise the issue of the health significance of marginally deficient vitamin status.
176. Brain Dev. 1996 Jan-Feb;18(1):68-70.
Long-term therapy with cytochrome c, flavin mononucleotide and thiamine diphosphate for a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome.
Nakagawa E, Osari S, Yamanouchi H, Matsuda H, Goto Y, Nonaka I.
This is a case report of a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome who was treated with Cardiocrome, containing cytochrome c, flavin mononucleotide and thiamine diphosphate, given by IV for 22 months. The authors concluded that this therapy was helpful for impaired skeletal muscle function and corneal edema, but not for ocular movements, central nervous system symptoms or cardiac conduction abnormalities, because irreversible degeneration had probably occurred in these organs before therapy was instituted.
177. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1996;104(4):311-6.
A benfotiamine-vitamin B combination in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy.
Stracke H, Lindemann A, Federlin K.
This double-blind, randomized, controlled study sought to asses the effectiveness of treatment with a combination of Benfotiamine (an Allithiamine, a lipid-soluble derivative of vitamin B1 with high bioavailability) and vitamin B6/B12 on symptoms of neuropathy in 24 diabetic patients with polyneruopathy. Patients were treated for 12 weeks and showed significant improvement in nerve conduction velocity in the peroneal nerve and a statistical trend toward improvement of the vibration perception threshold. The effects continued in the 9 patients observed over a 9 month period. The authors concluded that this benfotiamine-vitamin B combination represents a starting point in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy.
178. Int J Cardiol. 1996 Jan;53(1):81-5.
Alcohol consumption and heart failure in hypertensives.
Olubodun JO, Lawal SO.
In this study sixty hypertensives (30 with and 30 without heart failure, matched for age and sex) were studied and their alcohol consumption and its possible role in heart failure were assessed. The authors noted that there were 12 drinkers in heart failure and 75% drank heavily, while only 18.2% (two of 11) of the non-heart failure drinkers drank heavily. The blood tests showed that significantly more of the heart failure group were thiamine deficient, although the deficiency could not be directly attributed to alcohol. The authors concluded that their data suggest that heavy alcohol consumption appears to be a major contributory factor to heart failure in these patients.
179. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1996;66(4):332-41.
The study of thiamine requirement in broiler chickens.
Olkowski AA, Classen HL.
A study on supplementation levels in broiler chickens was done. It was found that blood thiamine concentration tended to decline in unsupplemented birds. The authors found that their data indicated organ-specific differences in the requirement for thiamine with the heart appears to have a higher requirement than the liver or brain. The authors acknowledge that there is research showing that there are potential beneficial effects of thiamine on the heart, and therefore felt this subject deserves more detailed investigation.
180. J Hirnforsch. 1996;37(3):377-87.
Neuroprotective effects of thiamine-megadoses after long-term ethanol application in the rat brain. A structural investigation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje neurons.
Wenisch S, Fortmann B, Steinmetz T, Leiser R, Bitsch I.
The authors in this study found that 20 weeks of ethanol consumption induced significant elongation of dendritic spines of rat cerebellar Purkinje cells, and they demonstrated for the first time in the present study, of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Of note was this neuromorphological alteration could not be detected in the thiamine treated alcohol group. The authors acknowledge that thiamine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions primarily concerned with carbohydrate metabolism, so they conclude that megadoses of thiamine are able to support neuronal energy metabolism, which was initially impaired by ethanol-induced thiamine deficiency. They suggest that megavitamintherapy in association with chronic alcohol intake could be able to attenuate or prevent ethanol-induced damages in rat central nervous system.
181. J Neurochem. 1996 Jan;66(1):250-8.
Thiamine, thiamine phosphates, and their metabolizing enzymes in human brain.
Bettendorff L, Mastrogiacomo F, Kish SJ, Grisar T.
Several important facts about thiamine are reported in this paper. Total thiamine (the sum of thiamine and its phosphate esters) concentrations are two- to fourfold lower in human brain than in the brain of other mammals. Maximal levels of thiamine and its phosphate ester were found to be present at birth. However in the oldest age group, mean levels of total thiamine in parietal cortex and globus pallidus, were, respectively, 21 and 26% lower than those in the middle age group (40-55 years). Concentrations of thiamine diphosphide in the oldest group were only approximately 50% of the levels present during the first 4 months of life. The authors conclude that their data were consistent with previous observations conducted in blood and suggest a tendency toward decreased thiamine status in older people.
182. Przegl Lek. 1996;53(5):423-6.
Content of thiamin in plasma and erythrocytes in patients with end stage renal disease.
Pietrzak I, Baczyk K, Mlynarczyk M, Kaczmarek M.
This study of 68 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), nondialyzed-(ND)-21 treated by hemodialysis (HD)-27 or intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD)8 and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-12, we examined thiamine free (Th F) and thiamine total (Th T) content in plasma (P) and erythrocytes (E). 20 healthy volunteers (HV) served as a control group. Thiamine content in plasma and in hemolysate was assessed by fluorimetric method according to Blum and Merkel. In all patients the mean Th FP, Th TP, and Th FE, Th TE levels were decreased in comparison to HV. Mean level of Th FE in ND and IPD was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in comparison to Th FE to HV and to patients treated by HD or CAPD. Mean level of Th FP was the lowest in IPD group, but did not differ significantly from Th FP in ND, HD and CAPD). In IPD patients mean level of Th TE was the lowest and differed significantly (p < 0.05) from that in HD and CAPD groups. The lowest mean level of Th TP we found in CAPD patients. There was significant difference with it in ND and HV group (p). Patients treated by HD and CAPD presented almost normal levels of Th FE and Th TE. The highest mean levels of Th FP and Th TP were found in ND patients. We suggest the need of thiamine supplementation in ESRD patients especially in those treated by dialysis. The supplementation of thiamine is needed particularly in patients on peritoneal dialysis.
183. Diabetologia. 1996 Nov;39(11):1263-8.
Thiamine corrects delayed replication and decreases production of lactate and advanced glycation end-products in bovine retinal and human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured under high glucose conditions.
La Selva M, Beltramo E, Pagnozzi F, Bena E, Molinatti PA, Molinatti GM, Porta M.
This study aimed at verifying whether thiamine, a co-enzyme which decreases intracellular glycolysis metabolites advanced glycosylation end-products (AGE). The findings on fluorescent AGE determination showed that thiamine may prevent non-enzymatic glycation. The authors conclude that thiamine restores cell replication, decreases the glycolytic flux and prevents fluorescent AGE formation in endothelial cells cultured in high glucose concentrations, suggesting that abnormal levels of glycolytic metabolites may damage cells.
184. AIDS Rev. 2003 Jan-Mar;5(1):36-43.
Hepatotoxicity of antiretroviral therapy.
Kontorinis N, Dieterich D.
In this discussion of liver toxicity as a serious complication in HIV patients taking antiretroviral therapy the authors concluded that nucleoside-induced mitochondrial damage to the liver may improve with riboflavin or thiamine therapy.
185. Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2002 Dec;13(78):490-6.
Dietary intake elderly subjects in rural and urban area in Poland, Rychlik E.
In this paper the authors compare the dietary habits of elderly people living in rural and urban areas. The data were collected from 591 men and women aged 61-96 years, using 24-h dietary recall. The intake of beta-carotene and ascorbic acid, in men and women and potassium and magnesium in women, was lower in rural than in urban population. The study subjects had high intake of sodium, phosphorus, vitamin A, but insufficient intake of calcium, zinc, copper, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and women had also low intake of iron, potassium, thiamin and niacin in comparison with Polish dietary allowances. Improper dietary habits significantly increase the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and osteoporosis among the studied subjects.
186. Age Ageing. 1998 Jul;27(4):455-61.
Nutritional status of elderly Chinese vegetarians.
Woo J, Kwok T, Ho SC, Sham A, Lau E.
This study surveyed the nutritional status of elderly Chinese vegetarians. Dietary recall, anthropometric indices and laboratory tests were assessed in 131 elderly Chinese vegetarian women with a mean age of 81 years. These results were compared with matched omnivores. The authors found that total energy, fat and protein calorie, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin intakes were lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, while carbohydrate calorie, calcium, potassium, retinol equivalent and ascorbic acid intakes were higher. The authors concluded that there was a trade off in the Chinese vegetarian diet. It may be beneficial for avoiding ischaemic heart disease but it is deficient in many B vitamins resulting in a high prevalence of nutritional anemia.
187. J Med Assoc Thai. 1993 Oct;76 Suppl 2:138-45.
Effects of multivitamin supplementation for improvement of thiamin, riboflavin, and retinol nutrition in pediatric patients.
Angkatavanich J, Suthutvoravut U, Panijpan B, Tontisirin K.
This study assesses the effect of multivitamin supplementation on thiamin, riboflavin and retinol nutrition in ten chronically ill boys. A multiple vitamin was given for ten days and the preceding ten days served as control. Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and dietary assessments were performed. Initial biochemical assessments of vitamin nutrition showed multiple vitamin deficiencies yet no clinical manifestations. Most patients showed subclinical vitamin deficiencies. The authors noted that improvement of vitamin nutrition was clearly shown in most patients after supplementation. The authors concluded that multiple vitamin supplements should be routinely prescribed in high-risk patients since there was no definite pattern of vitamin deficiencies in various diseases and early detection of vitamin deficiency was difficult to perform as evidenced by the fact that none of the patients appeared to show any clinical signs of vitamin deficiency. They recommend a daily dosage between 1-2 times of the RDA.
188. N Z Med J. 1996 Nov 22;109(1034):435-8.
Nutrient intakes of Tongan and Tokelauan children living in New Zealand.
Bell AC, Parnell WR.
The authors, using a 24-hour diet record, wanted to measure the nutrient intakes of 10- to 13-year-old Tongan and Tokelauan children living in New Zealand and to compare them with non-Pacific Islands children of the same age. A total of 162 children (68 boys and 94 girls) were interviewed. Micronutrient intakes were generally lower for Tongan and Tokelauan children with intakes of calcium, riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, folate and vitamin A being significantly lower for both sexes. Vitamin C was also significantly lower for girls (p < 0.05).
The reason for the deficiencies in Tongan and Tokelauan children were that they obtain most of their nutrients from meat, bakery products, fast foods and dairy products. Fruit and vegetables were not significant in their diet.
189. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Dec;95(12):1409-13.
High-risk nutrient intakes among low-income Mexican women in Chicago, Illinois.
Ballew C, Sugerman SB.
The authors report on data from The Cross-sectional Cooking, Eating, Nutrition, and Shopping (CENAS) Survey for food consumption patterns of 186 low-income Mexicans living in Chicago, Ill. The micronutrient intake was 11% of the RDA for thiamin and riboflavin and a high of 82% of the RDA for folacin.
190. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Jun;45(2):148-51
Relation between diet composition and coronary heart disease risk factors.
Porrini M, Simonetti P, Testolin G, Roggi C, Laddomada MS, Tenconi MT.
This study evaluated diet and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Dietary evaluation and blood tests were done on adults living in a small town in Northern Italy. The hypercholesterolaemic and atherogenic potential of the diet, evaluated by the cholesterol/saturated fat index, was high in about 50% of the population. The thiamin and riboflavin intakes were lower than the Italian recommended allowances in more than 60% of the people tested.
191. Farmakol Toksikol. 1988 Mar-Apr;51(2):69-71.
Influence of enzyme inducers and inhibitors of the metabolism of xenobiotics and of the coenzyme forms of vitamins B1 and B2 on the anti-inflammatory effect of voltaren.
Stanislavchuk NA, Pentiuk AA, Lychik GZ, Lychko AP, Lutsiuk NB.
In experiments on 245 male rats the effect of vitamins B1 and B2, thiamine diphosphate and flavin mononucleotide on the anti-inflammatory effect of voltaren was evaluated. The authors found that thiamine diphosphate potentiates the therapeutic effect of voltaren. And flavin mononucleotide decreases volatren’s toxicity.
192. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 1991 Aug;14(8):244-7.
Folic acid and vitamin deficiency caused by oral contraceptives
The authors acknowledge recent reports that long-term use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) can induce folic acid and vitamin B deficiency. The symptoms are paleness, forgetfulness, sleeplessness, and euphoric and depressive states. Vitamin B12 deficiency as well as lower riboflavin and thiamin concentration in erythrocytes is reported after using OCs. The author recommended patient education on the effects of vitamin deficiency and on proper nutrition for women on Ocs as well as estrogen replacement therapy.
193. Int J Epidemiol. 1998 Oct;27(5):845-52.
Nutritional factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada.
Ghadirian P, Jain M, Ducic S, Shatenstein B, Morisset R.
The authors acknowledge that nutrition and food patterns, particularly high consumption of animal fat and low intake of fish products, may play a role in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). The association between nutritional factors and MS was studied among 197 incident cases and 202 frequency matched controls. A significant protective effect was observed with vegetable protein, dietary fiber, cereal fiber, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, and potassium. Similar trends were seen for males and females. A higher intake of fruit juices was inversely associated with risk. A protective effect was also observed with cereal/breads intake for all cases combined and for fish among women only; pork/hot dogs and sweets/candy were positively associated with risk. The authors conclude that this study supports a protective role for plants foods (fruit/vegetables and grains) and an increased risk with high energy and animal food intake.
194. J Med Assoc Thai. 1998 Dec;81(12):931-7.
Thiamin and riboflavin status of medical inpatients.
Songchitsomboon S, Komindr S, Kulapongse S, Puchaiwatananon O, Udomsubpayakul U.
This paper assesses thiamin and riboflavin status was assessed in 165 medical inpatients. The patients were receiving thiamine and riboflavin in their diets. Nine per cent of the medical inpatients had thiamin depletion. Seventeen per cent had riboflavin depletion. The authors concluded that although the usual dose of vitamin supplementation in medical inpatients is beneficial vitamin depletion can still be present in catabolic patients.
195. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001 Oct;14(5):365-70.
Riboflavin deficiency in cystic fibrosis: three case reports.
This is a case report on three cystic fibrosis children with clinical riboflavin deficiency. The children presented w angular stomatitis and riboflavin deficiency was confirmed by blood testing. The authors found that they were not on riboflavin supplements and were given a water-soluble vitamin complex. Two children were adequately nourished which implies their deficiency was due to either increased requirements, inadequate absorption or utilization. Further testing showed deficiencies in thiamin, pyridoxine. The authors conclude that they have found vitamin deficiencies not previously reported in the cystic fibrosis population.
196. Int J Cancer. 1998 Nov 9;78(4):415-20.
Nutrient intake patterns and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in Belgium.
Kaaks R, Tuyns AJ, Haelterman M, Riboli E.
Dietary assessments were undertaken on 301 Belgian men and women with stomach tumors. Those at increase risk had a diet rich in mono- and disaccharides. Those with low gastric cancer risk had high intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamins B1, B3 and B6. These findings were consistent with those of colon and rectum cancer studies.
197. Int J Cancer. 1998 Nov 9;78(4):415-20.
Nutrient intake patterns and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in Belgium.
Kaaks R, Tuyns AJ, Haelterman M, Riboli E.
Dietary assessments were undertaken on 301 Belgian men and women with stomach tumors. Those at increase risk had a diet rich in mono- and disaccharides. Those with low gastric cancer risk had high intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamins B1, B3 and B6. These findings were consistent with those of colon and rectum cancer studies.
198. Br J Cancer. 1993 Dec;68(6):1195-8
Micronutrients in gastrointestinal cancer.
Georgiannos SN, Weston PM, Goode AW.
Pre- and post-surgery patients with gastric cancer who were losing weight had lower blood levels of vitamin C and thiamine compared to patients whose weight was stable. There was a significant correlation between plasma levels of vitamin C and the intake of vitamin C. the authors suggest a correlation between intake of vitamin C and plasma levels of vitamin C during surgery.