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Abstracts

Vitamin C: 460 Abstract Summaries

HUMAN RESEARCH
1. Med Sci Monit. 2003 Jun;9(6):RA119-24.
The possible role of oxidative stress in heart failure and the potential of antioxidant intervention.
Korantzopoulos P, Galaris D, Papaioannides D, Siogas K.
Greece
The authors cite growing evidence that oxidative stress is implicated in the cardiac dysfunction leading to heart failure. Therefore, antioxidant therapy is a focus of recent research. This review finds that promising results have been obtained mainly from studies using water-soluble antioxidants such as vitamin c. However, studies with clinical end-points in humans are scarce and the authors urge more human studies be done.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
2. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2003;41(5):360-9
Mutagenicity, antioxidant potential, and antimutagenic activity against hydrogen peroxide of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice and cajuina.
Melo Cavalcante AA, Rubensam G, Picada JN, Gomes da Silva E, Fonseca Moreira JC, Henriques JA.
Brazil
This is a report on a popular beverage in Brazil made from cashew nut and apple juice. The combination is said to have antibacterial and antitumor potential as well as nutritional benefit. Chemically there are high concentrations of vitamin c, various carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. The drink exhibited antioxidant in a mouse model. There was also evidence of mutagen protection.

HUMAN RESEARCH
3. Neurosci Lett. 2003 May 8;341(3):173-6
Plasma vitamin c, cholesterol and homocysteine are associated with grey matter volume determined by MRI in non-demented old people.
Whalley LJ, Staff RT, Murray AD, Duthie SJ, Collins AR, Lemmon HA, Starr JM, Deary IJ.
UK
In this study a group of 82 non-demented old people had MRI measurements of their grey and white matter and intracranial volumes. Grey and white matter volumes were related to plasma concentrations of vitamins C, B(12), folate, homocysteine, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density and low density (LDL) lipoproteins, and to red blood cell folate and glycated haemoglobin concentrations (HbA1(c)). The authors found that low volume of grey matter was associated with lower plasma levels of vitamin c and higher homocysteine, cholesterol and LDL. They felt their data was consistent with the reported benefits of dietary vitamin C.

HUMAN RESEARCH
4. J Biosci. 2003 Feb;28(1):39-49.
Justification for antioxidant preconditioning (or how to protect insulin-mediated actions under oxidative stress).
Orzechowski A.
Poland
The author discusses the benefits of using anti-oxidants such as (vitamin c, E, a-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine to protect tissues from high insulin levels especially under oxidative stress. This condition is called insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues, accelerated muscle protein degradation, impaired antioxidant defenses and extensive cell death. The author stresses that using antioxidants in this way may help prevent both diabetes- and insulin resistance-associated side-effects.

HUMAN RESEARCH
5. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):975-84
High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women.
Grodstein F, Chen J, Willett WC.
USA
This study was designed to examine the association between high-dose antioxidant supplements and cognition. Participants in the study were 14,968 women aged 70-79 years from the Nurses' Health Study. Findings showed that long-term, current users of vitamin E with vitamin c had significantly better mental performance than did women who had never used vitamin E or vitamin c, and the longer these nutrients were used the better.

HUMAN RESEARCH
6. Gynecol Oncol. 2003 Mar;88(3):434-9.
The use of antioxidant therapies during chemotherapy.
Drisko JA, Chapman J, Hunter VJ.
USA
This study was undertaken because many cancer patients use alternative medicine along with their conventional therapy. The authors reviewed four common antioxidants: vitamin E (mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols), beta-carotene (natural mixed carotenoids), vitamin c (ascorbic acid), and vitamin A (retinoic acid). They acknowledge that antioxidants act as electron acceptors as well as therapeutic biologic response modifiers. They conclude that antioxidants may be beneficial when combined with cancer chemotherapy. They recommend randomized controlled trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding antioxidants to chemotherapy. Such a trial they say is now under way in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer at the University of Kansas Medical Center.

HUMAN RESEARCH
7. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003 Mar;33(3):231-8.
Effects of insulin lispro and chronic vitamin c therapy on postprandial lipaemia, oxidative stress and endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Evans M, Anderson RA, Smith JC, Khan N, Graham JM, Thomas AW, Morris K, Deely D, Frenneaux MP, Davies JS, Rees A.
UK
Researchers assessed endothelial function and oxidative stress after insulin and 1 gram of vitamin c treatment. It was found that Vitamin c therapy may enhance the vascular benefits of insulin in type 2 diabetes by minimizing oxidative stress.

HUMAN RESEARCH
8. Arch Intern Med. 1996 May 13;156(9):925-35
Safety of antioxidant vitamins.
Meyers DG, Maloley PA, Weeks D
USA
In this report on antioxidant vitamin safety it was noted that ascorbic acid toxic reactions are rare at dosages less than 4 g/d. The authors admit that despite a lack of clinical trial data, it seems that antioxidant vitamins are safe, but advise prudence in women of childbearing potential, persons with liver disease or renal dysfunction, and those taking certain medications or undergoing specific laboratory tests.

HUMAN RESEARCH
9. Clin Geriatr Med. 1995 Nov;11(4):577-89.
Diet, aging, and cancer.
Goodwin JS, Brodwick M.
University of Texas Medical Branch Center on Aging, Galveston, USA.
USA
The authors acknowledge the vast amount of evidence supporting the consumption of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables (at least five servings daily) to reduce the risk of cancer. However, only 10% of the U.S. populations consumes the recommended daily amount of fruits and vegetables with 20-35% of the U.S. population consuming low quantities. Given that fruits and vegetables are the main source of the antioxidants, vitamins C and E, people who are consuming low amounts of fruits and vegetables are at greater risk of cancer; a risk second-only to the risk of smoking.

HUMAN RESEARCH
10. Conn Med. 1995 Oct;59(10):579-88.
Free radicals, oxidative stress, oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the heart: antioxidants and other strategies to limit cardiovascular damage.
Sinatra ST, DeMarco J.
Manchester Memorial Hospital, USA.
USA
The antioxidant benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables has been established in other research. Also established is the heart’s responsiveness to nutritional and antioxidant treatment, namely vitamins C and E, flavonoids, carotenoids and beta-carotene. It can be concluded that a responsible cardiovascular health regime would include antioxidants as well as vitamin and mineral supplements.

HUMAN RESEARCH
11. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Oct;14(5):419-27.
Epidemiologic studies of antioxidants and cancer in humans.
Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Greenberg RS.
Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
USA
This review of the literature from 1985-1993 assessed the association between three antioxidants and protection from seven types of cancer. The use of vitamin c was beneficial as a preventative in uterine cancer and to a lesser degree in lung cancer. Ongoing research is recommended.

HUMAN RESEARCH
12. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Aug;14(4):387-92
Metabolic benefits deriving from chronic vitamin c supplementation in aged non-insulin dependent diabetics.
Paolisso G, Balbi V, Volpe C, Varricchio G, Gambardella A, Saccomanno F, Ammendola S, Varricchio M, D'Onofrio F.
Department of Geriatric Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, II University of Naples, Italy.
Italy
In this double-blind study, twenty Type II non-insulin diabetics were given 0.5 g. of vitamin c twice daily for four months. Twenty patients were given a placebo for the same duration. The results were a significant decrease in free radicals that were present in the bloodstream. Daily intake of vitamin c also improved the body’s ability to metabolize glucose and lipids and is seen as being beneficial to those with Type II diabetes.

HUMAN RESEARCH
13. Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1995;(52):75-91.
Cardiovascular disease and vitamins. Concurrent correction of 'suboptimal' plasma antioxidant levels may, as important part of 'optimal' nutrition, help to prevent early stages of cardiovascular disease and cancer, respectively.
Gey KF.
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Berne, Switzerland.
Switzerland
Several studies concur that consuming optimal levels of antioxidant rich foods reduces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer. However consuming antioxidants at 25-30% below optimal levels doubles the risk of cancer and CVD. Antioxidants (vitamins A, C or E, and of beta-carotene) are found to have greater health benefits when there are optimal amounts of all antioxidants and the absence of one or more in the diet can increase the risk of CVD and cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
14. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1994 Aug;26(4):349-58.
The role of ascorbate in antioxidant protection of biomembranes: interaction with vitamin E and coenzyme Q.
Beyer RE.
Department of Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109.
USA
This study reviews the health benefits of ascorbic acid (vitamin c) as an antioxidant. One of the vital roles of ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is to act as an antioxidant to protect cellular components from free radical damage. Ascorbic acid has been shown to scavenge free radicals directly in the aqueous phases of cells and the circulatory system. Ascorbic acid has also been proven to protect membrane and other hydrophobic compartments from such damage by regenerating the antioxidant form of vitamin E. In addition, reduced coenzyme Q, also a resident of hydrophobic compartments, interacts with vitamin E to regenerate its antioxidant form. The mechanism of vitamin c antioxidant function, the myriad of pathologies resulting from its clinical deficiency, and the many health benefits it provides, are reviewed.

HUMAN RESEARCH
15. In Vivo. 1994 May-Jun;8(3):391-400.
Is Linus Pauling, a vitamin c advocate, just making much ado about nothing? (Review).
Kodama M, Kodama T.
Kodama Research Institute of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
Japan
In this study the authors refer to their own experiences on the use of vitamin C infusion treatment for the control of either diabetes mellitus or autoimmune disease and allergy to show the importance of pharmacological considerations in the assessment of the effect of vitamin c. They also refer to a number of scientific debates to prove that a shift of paradigm is indispensable for getting a full comprehension of the benefits of vitamin c including the control of both diabetes mellitus and autoimmune disease/allergy complex.

HUMAN RESEARCH
16. Annu Rev Nutr. 1994;14:371-91
Pharmacology of Vitamin c.
Sauberlich HE.
Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294.
USA
This paper calls for human intervention trials to determine the role of vitamin c in the prevention of disease. It is argued that many studies cannot discern whether vitamin c is acting on its own as preventative or whether it is working in synergy with other antioxidants like vitamin E and carotenoids. There is an expressed need for studies that will lead to a better comprehension of the many roles that vitamin c can play in disease prevention.

HUMAN RESEARCH
17. J Urol. 1994 Jan;151(1):21-6.
Megadose vitamins in bladder cancer: a double-blind clinical trial.
Lamm DL, Riggs DR, Shriver JS, vanGilder PF, Rach JF, DeHaven JI.
Department of Urology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown.
USAIn this double-blind study, 65 patients with bladder cancer were given either the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of multivitamins, vitamins A, B6, C, E and zinc or megadoses of the same vitamins. After ten months, there was a significant reduction in the recurrence of tumors in the group of patients receiving the megadoses of vitamins with a 40 recurrence of tumors versus an 80% recurrence of tumors in patients taking the RDA dose of vitamins.

HUMAN RESEARCH
18. Int J Sport Nutr. 1993 Dec;3(4):356-75.
Exercise, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review.
Jenkins RR.
Department of Biology, Ithaca College, NY 14850.
USA
This review of literature explores the knowledge base regarding the benefits of nutritional supplements in combating the negative effects of free radicals. The authors even suggest that aerobic exercise for certain people under certain conditions may increase free radical production to the point of overcoming the body’s defense system. Nutrients such as vitamin c, vitamin E, beta-carotene, are able to neutralize such radical events.

HUMAN RESEARCH
19. Br J Nutr. 1992 Jan;67(1):3-16.
Vitamin c and the common cold.
Hemila H.
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Finland
The authors review the literature on vitamin c and the common cold and conclude that here is evidence that the duration and severity of colds were decreased with the intake of vitamin c, perhaps due to the vitamin’s antioxidant properties.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
20. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1987 Jul;57(1):137-40
An acute study on the relative gastro-intestinal absorption of a novel form of calcium ascorbate.
Bush MJ, Verlangieri AJ.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University 38677.
USA
This study compares the absorption of vitamin c ascorbic acid versus ESTER-C in rats. Two groups of rats were given either ascorbic acid or ESTER-C and their blood and urine was measured for the presence of ascorbic acid. Rats given ESTER-C had a better absorption and less excretion of ascorbic acid

HUMAN RESEARCH
21. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;498:90-9
Ascorbic acid intakes and plasma levels in healthy elderly.
Garry PJ, Vanderjagt DJ, Hunt WC.
USA
Elderly women absorb vitamin c better than elderly men. Although it is essential that elderly people have sufficient amounts of nutrients to protect their health, the current RDA of vitamin c is about 30% of what elderly patients actually need to ensure that their plasma levels retain enough ascorbic acid. The argument is in favor of increasing, not reducing the RDA of vitamin c.

HUMAN & ANIMAL RESEARCH
22. Cancer Detect Prev. 1984;7(3):147-58.
Micronutrients and cancer chemoprevention.
Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ, Willett W.
USA
In this paper, the authors review animal and human studies examining the factors that may induce vitamins A, C and E, beta-carotene and selenium to inhibit cancer. The authors recommend that research be conducted on healthy individuals in placebo controlled studies.

HUMAN RESEARCH
23. Med Hypotheses. 1979 Jun;5(6):711-21.
Homo sapiens ascorbicus, a biochemically corrected robust human mutant.
Stone I.
USA
This early paper on human requirements for ascorbic acid states that the RDA of 45 milligrams of ascorbate is insufficient for humans as compared to other mammals.

HUMAN RESEARCH
24. Am Heart J. 2003 Aug;146(2):280-5.
Improvement of peripheral endothelial dysfunction by acute vitamin c application: different effects in patients with coronary artery disease, ischemic, and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Erbs S, Gielen S, Linke A, Mobius-Winkler S, Adams V, Baither Y, Schuler G, Hambrecht R.
University of Leipzig, Heart Center, Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Leipzig, Germany.
Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or chronic heart failure (CHF) and healthy patients were given high doses of vitamin c in saline. There was a significant change in the diameter of the radial artery in patients with CAD following treatment with vitamin c.

HUMAN RESEARCH
25. Clin Nephrol. 2003 Jul;60(1):28-34.
Effects of vitamin supplementation on microcirculatory disturbance in hemodialysis patients without peripheral arterial disease.
Sato M, Matsumoto Y, Morita H, Takemura H, Shimoi K, Amano I.
Japan
In this control study, the circulation of 33 hemodialysis (HD) patients and 20 healthy control subjects was measured to determine whether antioxidants have an effect on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2). The patients taking vitamin c and vitamin E for 6 months had significant increases in circulation

HUMAN RESEARCH
26. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003 May;73(3):163-70.
Comparison of the effects of simultaneous administration of vitamin c and omega-3 fatty acids on lipoproteins, apo A-I, apo B, and malondialdehyde in hyperlipidemic patients.
Shidfar F, Keshavarz A, Jallali M, Miri R, Eshraghian M.
Tehran
In this double-blind placebo study, 68 patients with high cholesterol received either a placebo or daily vitamin c, and omega 3 fatty acids (n-3Fas) OR a combination of vitamin c and n-3Fas for 10 weeks. Fasting blood samples showed an increase in the levels of vitamin c for those taking vitamin c as well as the n-3FA/vitamin c combination. The authors concluded that giving 500 mg vitamin C for more than 10 weeks might significantly decrease total cholesterol and apo-B in hyperlipidemic patients.

HUMAN RESEARCH
27. J Med Liban. 2002 Jan-Apr;50(1-2):10-3.
The salutary effects of antioxidant vitamins on the plasma lipids of healthy middle aged-to-elderly individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Rezaian GR, Taheri M, Mozaffari BE, Mosleh AA, Ghalambor MA.
Iran
In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, 120 healthy males and females aged 50+ received either vitamin c, vitamin E, a combination of C and E or a placebo for 75 days to ascertain whether such intervention lowers serum lipid levels. Those subjects receiving vitamin c had a significant decline in cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride and an increase in serum HDL, compared to the placebo group.

HUMAN RESEARCH
28. Circulation. 2003 Jul 8;108(1):24-31. Epub 2003 Jun 23
Timing of antioxidant vitamin ingestion alters postprandial proatherogenic serum markers.
Carroll MF, Schade DS/
USA
The authors designed this study to determine the time to take vitamins C and E in order to prevent oxidative stress created by a high-fat evening meal in type 2 diabetics. Eleven subjects were given insulin intravenously to maintain a normal blood level and fed a high fat supper. Vitamin E 800 IU and vitamin c 1 g were given either before breakfast or before supper in a double-blind manner on the day of the test meal. There was a significant rise in two inflammatory markers after the test supper compared with "no meal". Both presupper or prebreakfast vitamins E and C prevented the meal-induced rise in C-reactive protein (the main inflammatory marker) although presupper vitamins were more effective compared with prebreakfast vitamins. Only prebreakfast vitamins prevented the meal-induced rise in a marker of fibrinolysis. The authors concluded that the timing of taking antioxidant vitamins has variable effects on markers of meal-induced inflammation and fibrinolysis. Their opinion is that this may explain why cardiovascular disease prevention trials using these vitamins have reported conflicting results.

HUMAN RESEARCH
29. Hypertension. 2003 Jun;41(6):1240-5. Epub 2003 May 12.
Influence of vitamin c on baroreflex sensitivity in chronic heart failure.
Piccirillo G, Nocco M, Moise A, Lionetti M, Naso C, di Carlo S, Marigliano V.
Italy
Baroreflex sensitivity is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and can result in sudden death. In this study, 33 subject with CHF and 11 control subjects had baroreflex sensitivity testing. Subjects were given either a placebo or high doses of vitamin c. Those patients with CHF experienced an increase in baroreflex sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to determine the long term benefits of ongoing vitamin c treatment.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
30. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2003 Mar;61(1):25-33. Epub 2003 Apr 16.
Pharmacological, morphological and behavioral analysis of motor impairment in experimentally vitamin c deficient guinea pigs.
Oria RB, Costa CM, Santos Tde J, Vieira CM.
Brazil
Three groups of guinea pigs were given 100 mg, 5.0 mg and no Vitamin c, respectively to determine the extent to which vitamin c protects the nervous system. Animals that received no vitamin c were shown to have a disruption in spinal cord development and muscular deterioration.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
31. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2002 Dec;21(12):675-80
Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on arsenic-induced oxidative stress.
Ramanathan K, Balakumar BS, Panneerselvam C.
India
The authors comment, in this study on the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on arsenic that arsenic is a common environmental contaminant causing an oxidative burst of free radical damage in exposed individuals leading to tissue damage. Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplements were administered to rats that were being fed arsenic in order to determine whether the supplements protected the rats from oxidative damage from the arsenic. The supplements were found to protect the rats’ antioxidant system and to diminish lipid peroxidation.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
32. Circ Res. 2003 Jan 10;92(1):88-95.
Long-term vitamin c treatment increases vascular tetrahydrobiopterin levels and nitric oxide synthase activity.
d'Uscio LV, Milstien S, Richardson D, Smith L, Katusic ZS.
USA
The authors note that in cultured endothelial cells, the antioxidant, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin c), increases nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme activity via chemical stabilization of tetrahydrobiopterin (the essential cofactor in the enzymatic hydroxylation of 3 aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). The object of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin c on NOS function and tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in vivo in two types of mice. They found that long-term treatment with vitamin c restored endothelial NOS activity in aortas of one type of mice and increased tetrahydrobiopterin and NOS activity in aortas of the other mice.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
33. Arch Med Res. 2002 Nov-Dec;33(6):515-9.
Effects of certain micronutrients and melatonin on plasma lipid, lipid peroxidation, and homocysteine levels in rats.
Baydas G, Yilmaz O, Celik S, Yasar A, Gursu MF.
Turkey
Evidence indicates that the risk coronary heart disease can be decreased with antioxidant vitamins an fish oil. And hyperhomocysteinemia , which requires certain vitamin cofactors) has also been identified as an independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis. The authors found that animals treated with melatonin, vitamin E, vitamin c, lipoic acid, and fish oil has significantly lower plasma lipid levels than controls. They concluded that supplementation with antioxidants appears to be reduce lipid levels.

HUMAN RESEARCH
34. Biomed Environ Sci. 2002 Sep;15(3):233-44.
Abnormal reactions of free radicals and oxidative damages in the bodies of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.
Zhou JF, Chen JX, Shen HC, Cai D.
China
In this study 80 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis patients (CGNP) and eighty healthy adult volunteers were enrolled in a random control study to assess free radical and oxidative damage. The authors found that values of oxidative parameters were higher in the study group and their antioxidant vitamin values were significantly lower. They recommend that in order to reduce oxidative damage in their bodies, suitable dose of antioxidants should be supplemented to patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.

BASIC RESEARCH
35. J Neurosci Res. 2003 Jan 1;71(1):121-6.
Fullerene C60 and ascorbic acid protect cultured chromaffin cells against levodopa toxicity.
Corona-Morales AA, Castell A, Escobar A, Drucker-Colin R, Zhang L.
Mexico
The authors found prior research that chromaffin cell transplants for Parkinson’s disease , when combined with levodopa treatment, result in chromaffin cell death. In this study they report beneficial effect of ascorbic acid when applied to chromaffin cell cultures exposed to levodopa. They conclude that these observations could help prevent the neurotoxicity generated by levodopa if chromaffin cell transplants become a treatment for Parkinson’s disease.

BASIC RESEARCH
36. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 4;50(25):7449-54.
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.
Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH.
USA
Because fruits and vegetables have been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer the authors wanted to study the nutrient content of various foods. They found that cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin c equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. When antiproliferation activities were studied in vitro cranberry showed the highest inhibitory followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach.

HUMAN RESEARCH
37. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Oct;7(5):389-403
Intravenous nutrient therapy: the "Myers' cocktail".
Gaby AR.
USA
The author uses an intravenous vitamin-and-mineral formula for the treatment of a wide range of clinical conditions. He calls it the modified "Myers' cocktail," which consists of magnesium, calcium, B vitamins, and vitamin c. His clinical research finds it effective against acute asthma attacks, migraines, fatigue (including chronic fatigue syndrome), fibromyalgia, acute muscle spasm, upper respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, seasonal allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, and other disorders. In this paper the author presents a rationale for the therapeutic use of intravenous nutrients, reviews relevant published clinical research, describes his clinical experiences, and discusses potential side effects and precautions.

HUMAN RESEARCH
38. Nutr Rev. 2002 Oct;60(10 Pt 1):308-26.
Roles of vitamins E and C on neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive performance. A Review.
Martin A, Youdim K, Szprengiel A, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph J.
USA.
The authors note that extended life expectancy has increased the number of chronic illnesses and disabilities, including cognitive impairments. They say that inflammatory processes and vascular dysfunctions appear to play important roles in the development of diseases of aging including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In this review they refer to a large body of evidence showing that both vitamins E and C are important for the brain and central nervous system and deficiencies create structural and functional damage to the cells. They conclude that several studies reveal a link between diets rich in fruits and vegetables containing significant amounts of vitamins E and C and a lower incidence of certain chronic diseases.

BASIC RESEARCH
39. J Biomed Sci. 1997;4(5):256-259
Free Radical and Oxidative Damage in Human Blood Cells.
Chiu DT, Liu TZ.
China
A group of individuals have a disorder of an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Using red blood cells from these individuals it was found that G6PD-deficient individuals have lower antioxidant levels, particularly of vitamin c, than normal individuals.

HUMAN RESEARCH
40. Circ J. 2002 Oct;66(10):908-12
Evaluation by high-resolution ultrasonography of endothelial function in brachial artery after Kawasaki disease and the effects of intravenous administration of vitamin c.
Deng YB, Xiang HJ, Chang Q, Li CL.
China
In previous studies in patients with a history of Kawasaki disease (KD), a childhood heart disease, the focus has been on endothelial function of the coronary but the effect vitamin c on systemic vascular endothelial function after KD remains to be defined. In this study 39 patients were compared with 17 matched healthy subjects to determine the effects of IV infusion of vitamin C on the endothelium. The authors found that systemic vascular endothelial function can be restored by acute intravenous administration of vitamin c.

HUMAN RESEARCH
41. Toxicology. 2002 Nov 15;180(2):121-37
The influence of cigarette smoking on circulating concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients.
Alberg A.
USA
The author note that cigarette smoke is a significant source of oxidative stress. A literature search shows smokers have greater than 25% lower circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and cryptoxanthin (a carotenoid). Even in former smokers the concentration of these nutrients was 16-22% lower in former smokers compared with people who never smoked. Another literature search pooled studies showing intake of vitamin c was 16% lower in current smokers and 2% lower in former smokers than in never smokers. However the author concludes that the differences observed between current smokers and nonsmokers seem to be due to an acute effect of smoking. And the associations observed with active smoking also appear to hold true for passive smoking, implying that even low-dose exposures to tobacco smoke can result in lowered circulating antioxidant micronutrient concentrations. The author conclude that smoking is independently associated with lowered circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid and provitamin A carotenoids.

HUMAN RESEARCH
42. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):738-42.
Efficacy of a complex multivitamin supplement.
Earnest C, Cooper KH, Marks A, Mitchell TL.
USA
The authors wanted to test whether a multi-vitamin formula could have measurable antioxidant effects. They concluded that a multi-ingredient vitamin formula with antioxidant properties has measurable effects on homocysteine and LDL oxidation indices.

BASIC RESEARCH
43. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 20;451(3):237-43.
Comparison of melatonin versus vitamin c on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in Alzheimer's disease induced by okadaic acid in neuroblastoma cells.
Montilla-Lopez P, Munoz-Agueda MC, Feijoo Lopez M, Munoz-Castaneda JR, Bujalance-Arenas I, Tunez-Finana I.
Spain
In this in vitro study the authors demonstrated that exposure of cells to 50 nM okadaic acid for 2 hours created a drop in cellular glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase and catalase activity and also an increase in lipid peroxidation. They found that treatment of cells with 10(-5) M melatonin or 0.5 microg/ml vitamin c prevented the effects of okadaic acid. The authors concluded that okadaic acid induces an oxidative stress imbalance, while melatonin and vitamin c prevent the oxidative stress. They feel their data indicate the great importance of oxidative stress in both this experimental model and in real life neurodegenerative disease, especially Alzheimer's disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
44. Body Forum. 1977 Jan 30;2(7):20.
Women on the pill are opening up a small case of side effects every morning.
Henley S.
USA
In the 1970’s the author notes that a few researchers have found nutritional depletion in oral contraceptive users. They find that Vitamin-C is definitely depleted in pill users and may result in cardiac problems and thrombosis. The author recommends that full vitamin supplementation is recommended for all women taking oral contraceptives, including these vitamin c, folic acid, vitamin B6, as well as Vitamin-E and bioflavinoids. The author concludes that since vitamin supplements are routine for pregnancy, they should also be routine for the pseudopregnancy of oral contraception.

HUMAN RESEARCH
45. J Neurosci Res. 2002 Aug 15;69(4):550-8.
Oxidative stress induced by phenylketonuria in the rat: Prevention by melatonin, vitamin E, and vitamin c.
Martinez-Cruz F, Pozo D, Osuna C, Espinar A, Marchante C, Guerrero JM.
Spain
The authors note that phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the phenylalanine hydroxylation system and is characterized by a block in the conversion of phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. In examining the effects of maternal PKU on fetal rat brain and cerebellum a number of oxidative stress markers were followed. The authors demonstrate that PKU strongly increased most of the oxidative stress markers studied and caused significant morphological damage. They also showed giving the mother daily melatonin (20 mg/kg BW), vitamin E (30 mg/kg BW), and vitamin c (30 mg/kg BW) until delivery prevented the oxidative biomolecular damage in the rat brain and cerebellum.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
46. Atherosclerosis. 2002 Nov;165(1):33-40.
Dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E prevents downregulation of endothelial NOS expression in hypercholesterolemia in vivo and in vitro.
Rodriguez JA, Grau A, Eguinoa E, Nespereira B, Perez-Ilzarbe M, Arias R, Belzunce MS, Paramo JA, Martinez-Caro D.
Spain
Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation has been associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability in hypercholesterolemia. In this study vitamins C and E treatment improved the endothelium-dependent vasomotor capacity and prevented decreased expression of eNOS in hypercholesterolemic pigs.

HUMAN RESEARCH
47. Epidemiol Rev. 2001;23(2):268-87.
Diet and obstructive lung diseases.
Romieu I, Trenga C.
Mexico
This review of the impact of nutrition on obstructive lung disease shows that the most important nutrients are antioxidants and especially vitamin C. The author suggests that antioxidant vitamins could benefit childhood asthma, since in studies on children, consumption of fresh fruit, particularly fruit high in vitamin c, has been related to a lower prevalence of asthma symptoms and higher lung function. Supplementation studies on individuals exposed to high levels of oxidants suggest that daily intake of antioxidant vitamins exceeding the RDA may have a beneficial effect on lung airways. The author recommends that and that intake higher than the RDA should be recommended for populations chronically exposed to air pollutants (such as ozone), cigarette smoking, or those doing vigorous exercise. Guidelines from the US National Cancer Institute recommend consumption of five servings of fruit and vegetables daily, corresponding to a vitamin c intake exceeding 200 mg. However, dietary surveys carried out in the US population indicate that less than 12 percent of US children and adults meet this recommended level of intake.

To hereHUMAN RESEARCH
48. Presse Med. 2002 Jul 27;31(25):1174-84.
Antioxidants to slow aging, facts and perspectives.
Bonnefoy M, Drai J, Kostka T.
France
Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between free radicals on the one hand, and antioxidants systems on the other. Severe oxidative stress progressively leads to cell dysfunction and ultimately cell death. The authors note that epidemiological data suggest that nutrient antioxidants may alter age-related diseases such as: atherosclerosis, cancer, and some neurodegenerative and ocular diseases. The authors conclude that even though current data indicate that antioxidants cannot prolong life, they may enhance quality of life. They suggest that to begin with antioxidant-rich diets with fruit and vegetables should be recommended.

HUMAN RESEARCH
49. J Dermatol. 2002 Jul;29(7):455-8.
Induction of Darier's disease by repeated irradiation by ultraviolet B; protection by sunscreen and topical ascorbic acid.
Heo EP, Park SH, Yoon TJ, Kim TH.
Korea
Darier's disease, keratosis follicularis, is a rare inherited skin disease, which is frequently aggravated by sun exposure. A 47-year-old Korean man with Darier’s disease was treated with sunscreen and topical ascorbic acid and exposed to ultraviolet B. the authors found that sunscreen and topical ascorbic acid protected against Dariers lesions. The authors conclude that their results strongly suggest that sunscreen and ascorbic acid would be very helpful in preventing the aggravation of Darier's disease caused by sun exposure.

HUMAN RESEARCH
50. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002 May;25(2):107-18. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002 May;25(2):107-18.
Vitamin c therapy ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction in treated patients with homocystinuria.
Pullin CH, Bonham JR, McDowell IF, Lee PJ, Powers HJ, Wilson JF, Lewis MJ, Moat SJ.
UK
In this study the authors found that vitamin C reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with homocystinuria, independent of changes in homocysteine concentration. They recommend that vitamin C should be considered as an additional adjunct to therapy to reduce the potential long-term risk of atherothrombotic disease in patients with homocystinuria.

HUMAN RESEARCH
51. Mutagenesis. 2002 Jul;17(4):281-7.
Hunting for electrophiles that harm human DNA: Frits Sobels Award Lecture.
Bartsch H.
USA
In this lecture the author talks about people at risk of toxic levels of nitrosamines and the protective effect of vitamin C.

HUMAN RESEARCH
52. JAMA. 2002 Jun 26;287(24):3223-9.
Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease.
Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, van Swieten JC, Hofman A, Witteman JC, Breteler MM.
The Netherlands.
The authors acknowledge that the risk of Alzheimer disease might be reduced by intake of antioxidants that counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. They set out to determine whether dietary intake of antioxidants is related to risk of Alzheimer disease. Dietary assessments were done on a population 5395 participants aged 55 years and above, free of dementia, and noninstitutionalized. After about 6 years, 197 participants developed dementia, of whom 146 had Alzheimer disease. When all the adjustments were made for confounding factors a high intake of vitamin c and vitamin E was associated with lower risk of Alzheimer disease. The authors concluded that high dietary intake of vitamin c and vitamin E may lower the risk of Alzheimer disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
53. Med Klin. 2002 May 15;97(5):263-9.
Effect of vitamin c on platelet aggregation in smokers and nonsmokers
Schindler TH, Lewandowski E, Olschewski M, Hasler K, Solzbach U, Just H.
Germany
In this study on antioxidant effect on platelets the authors found that vitamin c has an unknown inhibitory effect on collagen-induced platelets aggregation. The conclude that their findings give evidence of a further protective effect of vitamin c in the development of coronary heart disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
54. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jun 28;294(5):1161-8.
Effects of oral vitamin c on monocyte: endothelial cell adhesion in healthy subjects.
Woollard KJ, Loryman CJ, Meredith E, Bevan R, Shaw JA, Lunec J, Griffiths HR.
Pharmacology Research Group, PSRI, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.
The authors acknowledge that people with low plasma ascorbate are at elevated risk of coronary vascular disease. It is unknown whether vitamin C supplementation affects monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy non-smokers. Therefore they designed a randomized double-blind crossover study to study the effect of vitamin C supplementation for six weeks at 250 mg/day. The authors concluded that vitamin C supplementation normalizes monocyte adhesion in subjects with low plasma vitamin C. They speculated that this process may be related to a direct effect on monocytes, independent of lipid peroxidation.

== 54


VITAMIN C ABSTRACTS
Second set of 50

HUMAN RESEARCH
55. Clin Cardiol. 2002 May;25(5):219-24.
Vitamin c preserves endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease after a high-fat meal.
Ling L, Zhao SP, Gao M, Zhou QC, Li YL, Xia B.
China
A group of 74 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and a group of 50 healthy subjects were each divided into two groups. One group received a single dose of 2 g. of vitamin c after a high-fat meal; the control did not receive vitamin c. All subjects experienced a significant elevation in serum triclyceride values. However, the CHD and vitamin c group experienced improvement in blood flow due to endothelial dilation due to the Vitamin c. The authors conclude that if vitamin c treats endothelial dysfunction through an oxidative stress mechanism it shows promise for patients with CHD because the postprandial state after a high-fat meal is critical in atherogenesis.

HUMAN RESEARCH
56. Lancet. 2002 Mar 30;359(9312):1108-13.
Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial.
Fang JC, Kinlay S, Beltrame J, Hikiti H, Wainstein M, Behrendt D, Suh J, Frei B, Mudge GH, Selwyn AP, Ganz P.
USA
In this double-blind study, 40 heart transplant patients were administered either vitamin c and E, or a placebo for one year following transplant. The results concluded vitamins C and E are beneficial in preventing the advancement of arteriosclerosis in heart transplant patients.

HUMAN RESEARCH
57. Bull Math Biol. 2002 Jan;64(1):65-95.
Lipoprotein oxidation and its significance for atherosclerosis: a mathematical approach.
Cobbold CA, Sherratt JA, Maxwell SR.
UK
The authors used a mathematical model of existing studies to conclude that vitamin c is more effective that vitamin E as an antioxidant in defense against atherosclerosis.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
58. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Jan;85(1):60-7.
The effect of ascorbic acid and L-histidine therapy on acute mammary inflammation in dairy cattle.
Chaiyotwittayakun A, Erskine RJ, Bartlett PC, Herd TH, Sears PM, Harmont RJ.
USA
Ascorbic acid was administered to 8 cows with acute mastitis resulting in an increase in milk output. The researchers concluded that ascorbic acid could be beneficial to cows with mammary infection.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
59. Curr Eye Res. 2001 Sep;23(3):206-14.
Effects of ascorbic acid on retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Bohmer JA, Sellhaus B, Schrage NF.
Germany
To determine whether ascorbic acid has an effect on the propagation of animal cells, pigs’ eye membranes were treated with ascorbic acid. The administration of ascorbic acid had a significant impact on the growth of cells and the authors recommend ascorbic acid in the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).

ANIMAL RESEARCH
60. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001 Nov;83(8):1202-6.
Oral vitamin c attenuates acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle.
Kearns SR, Moneley D, Murray P, Kelly C, Daly AF.
Ireland
Obstruction in the blood supply can decrease muscle function. In this study of rat muscles, tissue damage was reduced in rats treated with vitamin c versus the control group.

BASIC RESEARCH
61. Nutr Cancer. 2001;39(2):284-91
Antioxidants prevent the lymphocyte DNA damage induced by PMA-stimulated monocytes.
Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Rosignoli P, Morozzi G.
Italy
White blood cell DNA damage was measured again the use of several antioxidants. All compounds tested were able to protect the white blood cells to a certain degree. There was 41% protection with ascorbic acid, 55% protection with alpha-tocopherol, 50% protection with -carotene, and 56% protection with quercetin. The authors concluded that this "ex vivo model," more closely related to physiological conditions, could be used to test the antioxidant activity of different compounds.

HUMAN RESEARCH
62. Vopr Med Khim. 1988 Sep-Oct;34(5):99-104.
Effect of therapy with beta-adrenoblockers and vitamin complexes on indices of oxyproline excretion in various hereditary connective tissue diseases
Russia
In this study 16 children with with Marphan-Like syndrome and Marphan, Ehlers-Dunlos and Larson syndromes were treated with propranolol and a complex of vitamins (ascorbic acid, riboflavin and pyridoxine). The authors noted that treatment caused quantitative and qualitative correction of collagen and apparently of elastin fibrilles development. The authors feel that their complex treatment might be applied as a preoperative therapy of the patients with Marphan-like syndrome as well as with syndromes of Marphan and Ehlers-Dunlos before thoracoplastics for chest deformation.
PMID: 2905846

ANIMAL RESEARCH
63. Farmakol Toksikol. 1984 Nov-Dec;47(6):46-50.
Action of a vitamin complex with oxidative-reductive properties on the course of acute myocardial hypoxia and ischemia.
Sidorenko AF, Gatsura VV.
Russia
The authors acknowledge that certain vitamins (ascorbic acid, riboflavine mononucleotide, lipoic acid, nicotinamide) treat experimental hypoxia in mice. The same complex of vitamins reduced metabolic acidosis in the ischemia zone in dogs. This protective action of the vitamins, also seen in myocardial ischemia, is due to conjugation of oxidation and phosphorylation in the mitochondria of the ischemic myocardium, as well as with its membrane-stabilizing action and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
PMID: 6240410

ANIMAL RESEARCH
64. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002 Feb;10(2):119-26.
Dietary vitamins and selenium diminish the development of mechanically induced osteoarthritis and increase the expression of antioxidative enzymes in the knee joint of STR/1N mice.
Kurz B, Jost B, Schunke M.
Germany
This study assessed the effect of dietary vitamins and selenium on mechanically-induced osteoarthritis (OA) over a 12 month period in a group of mice. Their special diet was supplemented with the vitamins E, C, A, B6, B2, and selenium). The authors found that a diet supplemented with vitamins/selenium might be important in prevention or therapy of mechanically induced OA. They hypothesize that free oxygen radical species might be involved in the mechanical induction of OA.
PMID: 11869071

HUMAN RESEARCH
65. Presse Med. 1994 Oct 22;23(32):1475-9.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by cytochrome-oxidase deficiency
Gournay-Toulemonde V, Munnich A, Bouhour JB, Lefevre M, Potiron M, Saudubray JM.
Paris
This is a case report of a 16-year-old girl who had cytochrome C oxidase deficiency. The diagnosis was confirmed by spectrophotometric and polarographic assay of mitochondria from a peripheral muscle biopsy. Treatment with riboflavin, ascorbic acid, factor P, menadione, carnitine and iron sulfate has lead to some clinical improvement.
PMID: 7824467

HUMAN RESEARCH
66. Br J Nutr. 1992 Jul;68(1):11-9.
Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.
Oshaug A, Ostgard LI, Trygg KU.
Norway
A study of diet on oil rigs showed that 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fiber intake was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. The authors concluded that this type of diet if eaten chronically may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry.
PMID: 1390597

HUMAN RESEARCH
67. Vopr Pitan. 2001;70(1):12-4.
Effects of biologically active supplements on the antioxidant and vitamin status of patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease.
Tutel'ian VA, Pogozheva AV, Rumiantseva OI, Akol'zina SE, Lysikova SL, Kodentsova VM, Mal'tsev GIu.
Russia
In this study patients of 91 patients with heart disease were treated with an anti-arteriosclerotic diet and vitamins C, E, B2, B6, beta-carotene, zinc, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and calcium. After 4 weeks the author noted improvement in clinical symptoms, lowering of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increasing levels of of vitamins A, E, C, B2, and B6.
PMID: 11338339

HUMAN RESEARCH
68. J Cell Mol Med. 2002 Oct-Dec;6(4):570-82.
Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant mechanisms and serum cytokine levels in cancer patients: impact of an antioxidant treatment.
Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Mura L, Massa E, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Murgia V, Camboni P, Ferreli L.
Italy
Researchers gave oral doses selected antioxidants for 10 days to cancer patients to determine reaction on reactive oxygen species. The antioxidants were: alpha lipoic acid 200 mg/day orally, N-acetylcysteine 1800 mg/day i.v. or carboxycysteine-lysine salt 2.7 g/day orally, amifostine 375 mg/day i.v., reduced glutathione 600 mg/day i.v., vitamin A 30000 IU/day orally plus vitamin E 70 mg/day orally plus Vitamin c 500 mg/day orally in cancer patients, administered for 10 consecutive days. The authors found that antioxidants tested were effective in reducing reactive oxygen species levels. The antioxidant treatment also reduced serum levels of IL-6 and TNF.

HUMAN RESEARCH
69. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2003 Jan-Mar;49(1):91-5. Epub 2003 Apr 28.
Nutritional status and food intake assessment of climacterics women
Montilla RN, Marucci Mde F, Aldrighi JM.
Brazil
In this study of 154 women, 75 percent had a body mass index above normal. The women in both the older and younger age groups were shown to have inadequate calcium , vitamin A and vitamin c. The study concludes that the two factors, high body mass and low nutritional content in food intake, pose a health risk for these women.

HUMAN RESEARCH
70. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2003 Mar-Apr;14(2):81-9.
Dietary Markers of Hypertension Associated With Pulse Pressure and Arterial Compliance in Black South African Children: The THUSA Bana Study.
Schutte AE, Van Rooyen JM, Huisman HW, Kruger HS, Malan NT, De Ridder JH.
South Africa.
Dietary intake below recommended levels for various nutrients were found to be risk markers in the development of hypertension in black children, ages 10-15 years. Researchers concluded that there were strong associations between low level of protein, polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin c, vitamin E, nicotinic acid, vitamin B(12), biotin and phosphorus with the rate of hypertension in black South African children.

BASIC RESEARCH
71. Nutr Cancer. 2002;44(2):104-26.
Diet and Oral, Pharyngeal, and Esophageal Cancer.
Chainani-Wu N.
USA
Cancers of the upper digestive tract, including those arising in the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, present a significant public health problem worldwide. These cancers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and identification of protective factors is very important. The results of 35 epidemiological studies were examined to determine the protective role of dietary components against development of oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. It was concluded that there is sufficient evidence to point to a preventive role of vegetable intake, including green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and yellow vegetables, total fruit intake, and citrus fruit intake. Yellow fruits are likely to be protective. Carotene, vitamin c, and vitamin E are protective, most likely in combination with each other and other micronutrients. The role of vitamin A is presently somewhat ambiguous because some studies show benefit and some do not.

HUMAN RESEARCH
72. Free Radic Res. 2003 Feb;37(2):213-23.
The impact of different antioxidant agents alone or in combination on reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines in a series of advanced cancer patients at different sites: correlation with disease progression.
Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Mura L, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Murgia V, Camboni P, Ferreli L, Mocci M, Massa E.
Italy
The authors set out to test the capacity of several different antioxidants to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, increase glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduce the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFalpha. Fifty-six patients with advanced stage cancer were studied. The authors used the following antioxidants: alpha lipoic acid or carboxycysteine-lysine salt, amifostine, reduced glutathione, vitamin A plus vitamin E plus Vitamin c. Antioxidant treatment was given for 10 consecutive days. Results of the study showed that all single antioxidants tested were effective in reducing the ROS levels and three of them in increasing GPx activity.

HUMAN RESEARCH
73. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Jan-Feb;97(1):109-14.
Effects of multimicronutrient supplementation on helminth reinfection: a randomized, controlled trial in Kenyan schoolchildren.
Olsen A, Thiong'o FW, Ouma JH, Mwaniki D, Magnussen P, Michaelsen KF, Friis H, Geissler PW.
Kenya
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out among 977 schoolchildren from 19 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya from February 1995 to February 1996 to determine effects on worm infestation. The treatments included vitamin A and are as follows:(vitamin A, 1000 micrograms; vitamin B1, 1.4 mg; vitamin B2, 1.6 mg; vitamin B6, 1.7 mg; vitamin B12, 2.0 micrograms; folate, 150 micrograms; niacin, 16 mg; vitamin c, 50 mg; vitamin D, 5 micrograms; vitamin E, 8 mg; iron, 18 mg; zinc, 20 mg; copper, 2.0 mg; iodine, 150 micrograms; selenium, 40 micrograms) and multihelminth chemotherapy (albendazole 600 mg in a single dose and/or praziquantel 40 mg/kg in a single dose). Children given multimicronutrients had a slightly, but significantly, lower intensity of Schistosoma mansoni reinfection compared with children given placebo.

HUMAN RESEARCH
74. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(2):178-85.
Micronutrient status of primary school girls in rural and urban areas of South Vietnam.
Ta TM, Nguyen KH, Kawakami M, Kawase M, Nguyen C.
Japan
The diets of rural and urban school girls in Vietnam were studied. The rural group showed dietary deficiencies in iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, beta-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin c. However, sufficient consumption of these elements, except beta-carotene, was seen in the urban group. Children with marked vitamin A (retinol) stores (7.1%) were found in the rural group and required immediate retinol supplementation. Furthermore, the prevalence of children with marginal retinol stores in both the rural (35.7%) and urban (21.4%) groups were not considered a public health problem. In both groups, more than 50% and 20% of children showed beta-carotene and tocopherol levels in the range of severe deficiency, respectively. The authors suggested nutritional education to improve the dietary habits of the two groups.

HUMAN RESEARCH
75. Int Urol Nephrol. 2002;34(2):207-14.
Chemoprevention of carcinoma prostate: a review.
Ansari MS, Gupta NP, Hemal AK.
India
A twenty-year review of the literature on chemoprevention of prostate cancer was undertaken by the authors. They found that nutritional factors including reduced fat intake, supplemental vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin c, vitamin D, Lycopene and selenium may have a protective effect against prostate cancer. the authors concluded that on the basis of numerous studies, dietary and nutritional intervention should occur at the onset of prostate cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
76. J Korean Med Sci. 2003 Aug;18(4):534-40.
Intake of dietary fat and vitamin in relation to breast cancer risk in korean women: a case-control study.
Do MH, Lee SS, Jung PJ, Lee MH.
Korea
A group of 224 women biopsy-positive for breast cancer were compared with 250 women without breast cancer. Diet analysis showed a significant association of beta-carotene and vitamin c and decreasing risk of breast cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
77. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1996 Jul;51(4):B261-9.
Longitudinal assessment of the nutritional status of elderly veterans.
Chapman KM, Ham JO, Pearlman RA.
USA
This study followed the nutritional status 209 male veterans, over 65 years of age for two years. At onset they had no acute disease-related nutritional risk factors. Diet recall, physical examination, and lab tests were done. The authors found that 25% of subjects consumed inadequate amounts of thiamine, vitamin A, vitamin c, and calcium.

HUMAN RESEARCH
78. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):251-7.
Meeting the challenges of micronutrient deficiencies in emergency-affected populations.
Weise Prinzo Z, de Benoist B.
Switzerland
In disaster relief areas the common nutrient deficiency diseases are:
Fe and vitamin A deficiencies, scurvy (vitamin c deficiency), pellagra (niacin and/or tryptophan deficiency) and beriberi (thiamin deficiency).

HUMAN RESEARCH
79. Arch Dis Child. 1997 May;76(5):416-20.
Relation between dietary fat and energy and micronutrient intakes.
Tonstad S, Sivertsen M.
Norway
The authors acknowledged the concern being raised about the energy and nutrient adequacy of low fat diets for children in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. The diets of 174 schoolchildren aged 8-12 years from middle and high socioeconomic groups were assessed to determine their nutrient composition in relation to fat intake. The authors found that energy intake from fat was 31% and from saturated 13%. 44% of all children reported consuming less than 30% of their energy from fat. Consequently a decreased fat intake was associated with an increased sugar intake, but also with increased nutrient densities of thiamin, niacin, folate, vitamin c, magnesium, and iron, which meant an increased intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains.

HUMAN RESEARCH
80. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1997 Apr;21(2):141-6.
Dietary intake of Australian smokers and nonsmokers.
English RM, Najman JM, Bennett SA.
Australia
This study reports on the 1983 National Dietary Survey of Adults and the 1983 Risk Factor Prevalence Survey with regard to the nutrient intakes of smokers (1024 men and 785 women) and nonsmokers (1974 men and 2421 women). The results were that both men and women, nonsmokers had a significantly higher intake of starch, dietary fiber (g/day and g/1000 kJ), thiamin, vitamin c, calcium and magnesium than smokers, who also had a significantly higher intake of alcohol. The authors suggest that nonsmokers consume a more nutritious diet than smokers, in regard to having a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, wholegrain cereals and milk and milk products.

HUMAN RESEARCH
81. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 1997 Mar;26(2):122-5.
Relationship between dietary nutrients intakes and human prostate cancer
Du S, Shi L, Zhang H, He S.
China
In this study the relationship between dietary nutrients intakes and prostate cancer was assessed. The authors designed a case-control study with 102 patients diagnosed with histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 102 healthy controls. It was found that vitamin c and vitamin B1 decreased the risk of prostate cancer. The authors discussed the possible mechanism of dietary nutrients contributing to the risk of prostate cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
82. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jul;50 Suppl 2:S77-85.
Longitudinal changes in the intake of vitamins and minerals of elderly Europeans. SENECA Investigators.
Amorim Cruz JA, Moreiras O, Brzozowska A.
Portugal
This study assessed changes in intake of vitamins and minerals in elderly Europeans. Initially there was a significant decrease in the median intake of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin c and iron in several towns. The authors concluded that over the 4-year follow-up period, the proportion of elderly people with nutrient intakes below the lowest European RDI's increased for various nutrients in most towns leaving them at increased risk for malnutrition. The proportion of elderly people taking nutrient supplements varied from less than 5% to 60% in various towns.

HUMAN RESEARCH
83. Harefuah. 2001 Nov;140(11):1062-7, 1117.
Micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) supplementation for the elderly, suggested by a special committee nominated by Ministry of Health
Dror Y, Stern F, Berner YN, Kaufmann NA, Berry E, Maaravi Y, Altman H, Cohen A, Leventhal A, Kaluski DN.
Israel
A committee on nutrition lists the supplements in the suggested preparatory composition that may soon be distributed to the elderly. In mg: vitamin A, 0.450; vitamin D, 0.015; vitamin E, 10; thiamin, 0.6 riboflavin, 0.7; biotin, 0.030; pantothenic acid, 3; niacin, 8; vitamin c, 60; vitamin B6, 0.8; folic acid, 0.120; vitamin B12, 0.0024; choline up to 275; zinc, 8; copper, 0.9; fluorine, 0.5; manganese, 1.2; chromium 0.020; molybdenum, 0.045; selenium, 0.030; and iodine, 0.075. Fat-soluble vitamins should be microencapsulated.

HUMAN RESEARCH
84. Sci Total Environ. 2001 Dec 17;281(1-3):177-82.
Lead poisoning in Indian silver refiners.
Tandon SK, Chatterjee M, Bhargava A, Shukla V, Bihari V.
India
In a group of 50 silver refiners, 31 had high levels of lead in their blood. There was a decrease in blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and thiamine (as pyruvate) level. The workers had anaemia, abdominal colic, blue lining of gum and muscular wasting all symptoms of lead toxicity. Two subgroups were treated with either vitamin B1 (75 mg, once a day) or vitamin c (250 mg. twice a day) for 1 month. The authors reported that treatment with both the vitamins significantly lowered the blood lead levels and reduced blood thiamine and copper deficiency. They recommended that prevention of lead toxicity would follow from daily intake of vitamin B1 and vitamin c.

HUMAN RESEARCH
85. J Intern Med. 2000 Nov;248(5):377-86.
Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis.
Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, Lakka HM, Kaikkonen J, Porkkala-Sarataho E, Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, Rissanen T, Leskinen L, Tuomainen TP, Valkonen VP, Ristonmaa U, Poulsen HE.
Finland

In this double-blind study, 520 smoking and non-smoking men and women were given either vitamin c, vitamin E, a combination C and E or a placebo twice daily for three years. The thickness of their carotid arteries was measured twice yearly and the results indicated that both vitamins C and E slowed the advancement of atherosclerosis in men.

HUMAN RESEARCH
86. Clin Excell Nurse Pract. 1998 Jan;2(1):10-22.
A review of vitamins A, C, and E and their relationship to cardiovascular disease.
Brown DJ, Goodman J.
USA
The authors of this review of studies of vitamins A, C and E and cardiovascular disease (CVD) find significant evidence to support the supplementation of vitamins A, C and E to lower the risk of death from CVD. They also concluded that diabetics, smokers and those with hypertension would benefit from taking vitamin c.

HUMAN RESEARCH
87. Prim Care. 2002 Jun;29(2):231-61.
Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.
Jaber R.
USA
This author recommends long term studies to examine the benefits of vitamin c supplementation on asthmatic patients while indicating that there is support for the use of vitamin c to treat exercise-induced asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and upper respiratory tract infections.

HUMAN RESEARCH
88. J Nutr. 2002 Apr;132(4):756-61.
A dietary oxidative balance score of vitamin c, beta-carotene and iron intakes and mortality risk in male smoking Belgians.
Van Hoydonck PG, Temme EH, Schouten EG.
Belgium
This study compared the dietary antioxidants (vitamin c and beta-carotene) of 2,814 male smokers with mortality rates in that group. Those with a high intake of vitamin c and beta-carotene and low intake of iron had a lower relative risk of cancer than those men with a low intake of antioxidants.

HUMAN RESEARCH
89. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;9(1):49-80.
The Roche European American Cataract Trial (REACT): a randomized clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of an oral antioxidant micronutrient mixture to slow progression of age-related cataract.
USA
An antioxidant combination of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene was administered to 445 cataract patients from the U.S. and the U.K. to determine whether the supplement would hinder the progression of cataracts. After 3 years, a small positive effect was evident in the U.S. group indicating that the antioxidant mixture could hinder growth of cataracts.

HUMAN RESEARCH
90. Can J Diet Pract Res. 1999 Summer;60(2):78-84.
Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.
Craig W, Beck L.
USA
The health benefits of consuming phytochemical-rich fruits and vegetables include protection from cancer and cardiovascular disease. Garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables have the highest anticancer activity. Citrus fruits in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin c, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fiber, contains a host of active phytochemicals. The authors recommended and increased intake of these foods.

HUMAN RESEARCH
91. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Apr;96(4):1080-4.
Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C.
Kennedy M, Bruninga K, Mutlu EA, Losurdo J, Choudhary S, Keshavarzian A.
USA.
In this pilot study, 20 patients who had received pelvic radiation and were diagnosed with radiation proctitis (rectal bleeding, pain, diarrhea, fecal urgency) were treated with antioxidants (vitamins C and E). The severity and frequency of the symptoms were documented before and after treatment. There was a significant improvement in the symptoms and these improvements were sustained at a one-year follow-up. The authors recommend that a double-blind placebo controlled study be conducted to verify results.


HUMAN RESERACH
92. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000 Nov-Dec;40(6):785-99.
Antioxidant nutrients: current dietary recommendations and research update.
McDermott JH.
USA
This review concludes that significant health benefits can be derived by consuming antioxidants (vitamins C and E) as found in fruits and vegetables. These antioxidants may improve immune function and decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, cataracts and asthma.

HUMAN RESEARCH
93. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2000 Fall;40(4):93-111
Nutrition and retinal degenerations.
Berson EL.
USA.
The successful use of nutritional supplements in the treatment of retina disease is reported. A trial is currently in progress to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamins C and E) and trace minerals in treating retinal degenerative diseases.


94. J Cell Mol Med. 2002 Oct-Dec;6(4):583-92.
Blood histamine is associated with coronary artery disease, cardiac events and severity of inflammation and atherosclerosis.
Clejan S, Japa S, Clemetson C, Hasabnis SS, David O, Talano JV.
USA
Blood levels of 50 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 50 patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) were measured for histamines and serum vitamin c and free radical, isoprostane. The results indicated that histamine levels were lower in blood that had higher levels of ascorbate.

HUMAN RESEARCH
95. Jpn Heart J. 2001 Nov;42(6):677-90.
Association of serum antioxidant capacity with coronary artery disease in middle-aged men.
Nojiri S, Daida H, Mokuno H, Iwama Y, Mae K, Ushio F, Ueki T.
Japan.
Total antioxidants, such as retinol, alpha, gamma-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, alpha, beta-carotenoids, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and oxidative products, were measured in 31 male CAD patients with angiographically defined CAD and 66 male controls, aged 40-70 years, in a case-control study. The presence of diseased cells increased as the presence of these antioxidants decreased.

HUMAN RESEARCH
96. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000;95 Suppl 1:I65-71
Coronary artery disease--free radical damage, antioxidant protection and the role of homocysteine.
Maxwell SR.
United Kingdom
This review of studies establishes that the presence of free radicals can contribute to the development of vascular disease and antioxidants like vitamin c can provide protection against vascular damage.

HUMAN RESEARCH
97. Circulation. 2001 Feb 13;103(6):799-805.
Comparative effect of ace inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on bioavailability of nitric oxide in patients with coronary artery disease: role of superoxide dismutase.
Hornig B, Landmesser U, Kohler C, Ahlersmann D, Spiekermann S, Christoph A, Tatge H, Drexler H.
Germany
Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have damaged vasodilation and low levels of superoxide dismutase. The diameter of the radial artery was measured in 35 CAD patients before and after the administration of vitamin c. Vitamin c improved the diameter of the radial artery but the effect was lost with the administration of the drugs, ramipril or losartan.

HUMAN RESEARCH
98. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Sep;36(3):758-65.
Effect of folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.
Title LM, Cummings PM, Giddens K, Genest JJ Jr, Nassar BA.
Canada
High homocysteine levels in the blood can contribute to atherosclerosis by damaging blood vessels. In this double-blind placebo controlled study, folic acid, folic acid plus antioxidants (vitamins C and E) or placebo was administered to 75 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Folic acid increased plasma folate by 475%, improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and reduced homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid plus antioxidants had similar positive results.


99. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jun 15;28(12):1806-14
The role of natural antioxidants in preserving the biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide.
Carr A, Frei B.
USA
Most cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) are linked with oxidative stress. The presence of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO), a vaso relaxant can control the progress of atherosclerosis. Supplementation with antioxidants (vitamins C and E) can stabilize EDNO, a positive therapy in the prevention of CAD.

HUMAN RESEARCH
100. Circulation. 1999 Jun 29;99(25):3234-40
Long-term ascorbic acid administration reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.
Gokce N, Keaney JF Jr, Frei B, Holbrook M, Olesiak M, Zachariah BJ, Leeuwenburgh C, Heinecke JW, Vita JA.
USA.
It has been established that treatment with ascorbic acid improves blood vessel function in the heart. In this double-blind placebo study with 46 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, the flow-mediated dilation improved, as did plasma levels after single dose of ascorbic acid and after long term treatment as compared to the placebo group. The conclusion is that ascorbic acid treatment has a positive effect on the patients with CAD.

HUMAN RESEARCH
101. Clin Chim Acta. 1998 Nov;278(1):55-60
Antioxidant vitamins and coronary artery disease risk in South African males.
Delport R, Ubbink JB, Human JA, Becker PJ, Myburgh DP, Vermaak WJ.
South Africa
Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) had significantly lower blood levels of vitamins E, C and A compared with healthy control group.

HUMAN RESEARCH
102. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Sep 15;82(6):762-7.
Comparison of effects of ascorbic acid on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with chronic congestive heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy versus patients with effort angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease.
Ito K, Akita H, Kanazawa K, Yamada S, Terashima M, Matsuda Y, Yokoyama M.
Japan
In this control study, the administration of ascorbic acid was found to ease flow-mediated vasodilation in patients coronary artery disease (CAD) as compared to the control group.

HUMAN RESEARCH
103. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jun 1;79(11):1558-60.
Intake of antioxidants among American cardiologists.
Mehta J.
USA
This survey of cardiologists indicated that they supplemented with the antioxidant vitamin E more than vitamin c and their risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and supplementation of antioxidants both increase with age.

HUMAN RESEARCH
104. Clin Chim Acta. 1996 Jan 31;244(2):173-80.
Investigation of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) documented by angiography.
Akkus I, Saglam NI, Caglayan O, Vural H, Kalak S, Saglam M.
Turkey
In this control study, 42 subjects had coronary artery disease (CAD) and 35 were healthy. Subjects with CAD had significantly lower levels of vitamin c in their blood than the control group. These findings warrant further study of the relationship between CAD and vitamin c.

HUMAN RESEARCH
105. Am J Cardiol. 1995 Dec 15;76(17):1233-8.
Dietary intake, plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, and oxidative stress in relation to coronary artery disease in elderly subjects.
Singh RB, Ghosh S, Niaz MA, Singh R, Beegum R, Chibo H, Shoumin Z, Postiglione A.
India.
A survey of 595 elderly subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) indicated that the blood levels of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene) were low.

HUMAN RESEARCH
106. Int J Epidemiol. 1998 Oct;27(5):845-52.
Nutritional factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada.
Ghadirian P, Jain M, Ducic S, Shatenstein B, Morisset R.
Canada
The authors acknowledge that nutrition and food patterns, particularly high consumption of animal fat and low intake of fish products, may play a role in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). The association between nutritional factors and MS was studied among 197 incident cases and 202 frequency matched controls. A significant protective effect was observed with vegetable protein, dietary fiber, cereal fiber, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, and potassium. Similar trends were seen for males and females. A higher intake of fruit juices was inversely associated with risk. A protective effect was also observed with cereal/breads intake for all cases combined and for fish among women only; pork/hot dogs and sweets/candy were positively associated with risk. The authors conclude that this study supports a protective role for plants foods (fruit/vegetables and grains) and an increased risk with high energy and animal food intake.
PMID: 9839742

HUMAN RESEARCH
107. Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Oct;38(5):450-37.
Anti-oxidant vitamins and steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome in Indian children.
Mathew JL, Kabi BC, Rath B.
India
The authors acknowledge that nephrotic syndrome may be a consequence of an imbalance between oxidant and anti-oxidant activity. In the present study, the levels of micronutrient anti-oxidant vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin C, carotene and riboflavin) in 30 Indian children with steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome were investigated and 30 sibling controls. The authors found that mean vitamin E, vitamin C and carotene were significantly lower during the proteinuric phase of the disease, and there was decreased erythrocyte riboflavin activity. The vitamin levels improved during hospitalization but did not become normal. The authors concluded that these vitamins were active in performing their anti-oxidant function, as indicated by significant depression in their levels during the acute (proteinuric) phase, followed by partial recovery during remission. They conclude that steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome in children is associated with oxidative stress.
PMID: 12354259

HUMAN RESEARCH
108. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2002 Oct;31(5):375-8.
Dietary status of preschool children from day-care kindergartens in six cites of China
Yin S, Su Y, Liu Q, Zhang M.
China
The dietary status of 1170 preschool children was assessed for three consecutive days. The authors found that a deficiency of calcium is common, only 61.6% of the recommended nutrient intake(RNI). Salt intake was relatively higher than that of adequate intake recommended by Chinese Nutritional Society. The zinc intake reached 62.9% of RNIs. And Vitamin C intakes from each age of groups did not meet their RNI. The authors conclude deficiencies of some trace nutrients can be causing decreased body weight and height in preschool children.
PMID: 12572362

== 54 -----108


August 31, 2003

HUMAN RESEARCH
109. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Oct 4;92(19):1607-12.
Gastric dysplasia and gastric cancer: Helicobacter pylori, serum vitamin C, and other risk factors.
You WC, Zhang L, Gail MH, Chang YS, Liu WD, Ma JL, Li JY, Jin ML, Hu YR, Yang CS, Blaser MJ, Correa P, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr, Xu GW.
USA
This study on gastric cancer was conducted among 3433 adults in an area of China with high rates of gastric cancer. The presence of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria (a known antecedent to gastric cancer) was measured and 77% of subjects tested positive. Four years later, subjects whose conditioned had progressed to gastric cancer were compared to those with no change, or with improvement in their condition. The results indicated that those with baseline values of ascorbic acid had 80% decrease in risk of progression to gastric cancer. The authors concluded that low levels of ascorbic acid could lead to progression of gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
110. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2000 Oct;9(5):329-34.
Dietary carotenoids and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.
De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Carzoglio JC, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M.
Uruguay
The impact of diet in gastric cancer was studied in 120 subjects with stomach cancer and 360 controls. The results indicated that those with high intake of vitamin C and alpha-carotene were at lower risk of gastric cancer. The ingestion of vitamin A and licopene also reduced cancer risk. The authors concluded that risk reduction could be associated with high vegetable intake.

HUMAN RESEARCH
111. Int J Cancer. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):750-4.
Antioxidants and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia.
Terry P, Lagergren J, Ye W, Nyren O, Wolk A.
Sweden

In this control study subjects with three types of esophageal and gastric cancer were compared with 815 controls. Subjects who had a high intake of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene had a 40-50% lower risk of two types of esophageal cancer compared to those with low intake of these supplements. Also, vitamin C and beta-carotene were more likely to factor in gastric cancer risk prevention than vitamin E.

HUMAN RESEARCH
112. Int J Cancer. 2000 Jul 1;87(1):133-40.
Dietary antioxidant intake and the risk of cardia cancer and noncardia cancer of the intestinal and diffuse types: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.
Ekstrom AM, Serafini M, Nyren O, Hansson LE, Ye W, Wolk A.
Sweden
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the positive benefits of antioxidants limited to specific types of gastric cancer. Groups with 2 types of gastric cancer (n=567) were interviewed as well as 1165 controls. The results indicated that intake of vitamin C reduced risk of all types of gastric cancer by 40%-60%. beta-carotene was found to have a positive effect on intestinal cancer as well. The authors conclude that antioxidants are of benefit in the prevention of gastric cancer, especially for smokers and for those with H. pylori infection.

HUMAN RESEARCH
113. J Nutr. 2000 Feb;130(2S Suppl):338S-339S.
Vitamin nutrition and gastroesophageal cancer.
Yang CS.
USA.
Four combinations of supplements were tested on 29,584 subjects: 1) retinol and zinc; 2) riboflavin and niacin; 3) vitamin C and molybdenum; and 4) vitamin E, beta-carotene and selenium. Each group had a control group. Risk of death from stomach cancer was significantly reduced by vitamin E, beta-carotene and selenium. Subjects with intestinal metaplasia had significantly lower levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene in their blood. The author reports that a current study is measuring the effects of a combination of vitamins C, E and selenium.


HUMAN AND ANIMAL RESEARCH
114. In Vivo. 2000 Jan-Feb;14(1):125-38.
In search of the cause of gastric cancer.
Kodama M, Kodama T.
Japan.
This review cites studies that link high carbohydrate and salt diets and vitamin C deficiency with increased risk of gastric cancer. Also at risk for gastric cancer are those with gastritis and low levels of vitamin C.

HUMAN RESEARCH
115. Neoplasma. 2000;47(1):37-40.
Blood levels of natural antioxidants in gastric and colorectal precancerous lesions and cancers in Slovakia.
Beno I, Klvanova J, Magalova T, Brtkova A.
Slovak Republic
The risk of gastric and colorectal cancers is significantly reduced by the intake of fruits and vegetables. Blood levels of 345 subjects with cancerous and precancerous gastric, colonic, and rectal lesions were measured for vitamins A, C and E, beta-carotene, selenium, zinc and copper. All of the cancer groups had low levels of vitamins and beta-carotene indicating a low level of antioxidant intervention. The authors state the importance of diets high in fruits and vegetables as risk prevention of these types of cancers.

HUMAN RESEARCH
116. Am J Med. 1994 Sep 26;97(3A):18S-21S; discussion 22S-28S.
Antioxidant vitamins and coronary artery disease risk.
Gaziano JM.
USA
This early review of studies of the benefits of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C, and E, beta-carotene) and their ability to prevent coronary artery disease (CAD) revealed that, even in 1994 there was support for supplementation. The author recommended large randomized trials to provide reliable evidence of the importance of antioxidants to prevent CAD.

HUMAN RESEARCH
117. Acta Cardiol. 1994;49(5):453-67.
Diet, antioxidant vitamins, oxidative stress and risk of coronary artery disease: the Peerzada Prospective Study.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Bishnoi I, Sharma JP, Gupta S, Rastogi SS, Singh R, Begum R, Chibo H, Shoumin Z.
India
This randomized study compared the blood antioxidant levels of 152 Indian males and females with Indian immigrants to the U.K. and a U.K. control group. The findings indicated that subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) had lower levels of vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene compared to healthy subjects, and their intake of dietary antioxidants was lower. Also the levels of vitamins C and E were very low in subjects who were smokers or who were diabetic. The study concludes that the subjects in India would benefit from a high dietary intake of vitamins C, E and beta-carotene.

HUMAN RESEARCH
118. Clin Cardiol. 1985 Oct;8(10):552-4.
Effect of vitamin C on platelet adhesiveness and platelet aggregation in coronary artery disease patients.
Bordia A, Verma SK.
The platelet adhesive index (PAI) in ten healthy males was increased by feeding the subjects 75 g. of butter. The adhesion was significantly prevented by administering 1 g of vitamin C with the fatty meal. There was also a concurrent rise in the blood vitamin C levels. This study provides an important finding to the prevention of coronary artery disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
119. Atherosclerosis. 1978 Aug;30(4):351-4.
Acute effect of ascorbic acid on fibrinolytic activity.
Bordia A, Paliwal DK, Jain K, Kothari LK.

This early study measured the effect of ascorbic acid on serum fibrinolytic activity (blood clotting). The serum levels in a group of 40 healthy males given 1 g of ascorbic acid increased 71%. A group with coronary artery disease had similar results. A third group were given fat with the ascorbic acid and there was a 64% increase the fibrinolytic activity.

HUMAN RESEARCH
120. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003 Jul;56(7):694-700.
Total tooth loss and prevalent cardiovascular disease in men and women. Possible roles of citrus fruit consumption, vitamin C, and inflammatory and thrombotic variables.
Lowe G, Woodward M, Rumley A, Morrison C, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Stephen K.
UK
In this study, a significant link was found between men and women without teeth and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There was also a strong association with low levels of fruit ingestion and low levels of vitamin C in the blood system. Low levels of vitamin C can increase the risk factor of CVD. The author recommends increased intake of vitamin C in people with no teeth.

HUMAN RESEARCH
121. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2003 Apr;15(4):232-4.
[Study on the changes in endogenous oxidation agents and levels of anti-oxidation agents in patients with cerebral vascular disease]
Chen JH, Liu XJ, Wang QC, Zeng H, Jiang XP.
China.
The presence of antioxidants in the blood was measured in 4 groups: patients with cerebral hemorrhage (CH), patients with cerebral infarction (CI), patients with nervous system diseases and healthy control group. Patients with CH and CI had lower levels of vitamins C and E than in the control group. This indicates that low vitamin C and E levels could be an indicator of the severity of the disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
122. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Jul;18(7):1272-80
Oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease: an emerging threat to patient outcome.
Locatelli F, Canaud B, Eckardt KU, Stenvinkel P, Wanner C, Zoccali C.
Italy
The authors reviewed experimental studies and cite oxidative stress as a key factor in renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Factors also include a deficiency in antioxidants like vitamins C and E and a presence of free radicals. The authors recommend randomized clinical trials of vitamins C and E and other antioxidants to provide evidence for physicians to use antioxidants clinically.

HUMAN RESEARCH
123. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Jun;20(3):255-63.
Relation of serum ascorbic acid to mortality among US adults.
Simon JA, Hudes ES, Tice JA.
USA
In this study of 8,453 Americans’ serum ascorbic acid (SAA) levels and mortality rates from disease, it was found that those with a normal to high level of SAA had a 21%-25% lower risk of dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD). There was also a reported 25%-29% decrease in risk of mortality from all causes compared to those with low levels of SAA. The authors concluded that ascorbic acid intake could reduce mortality in men and women.

HUMAN RESEARCH
124. Ann Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;10(2):125-34.
Design of Physicians' Health Study II--a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials.
Christen WG, Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH.
USA.
The authors of the Physicians' Health Study II call for large scale randomized studies of the effects of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and multivitamins on cancer, cardiovascular disease and eye disease. The authors acknowledge that PHS II is the only primary prevention trial in apparently healthy men to test the balance of benefits and risks of vitamin C, multivitamins, as well as any single antioxidant vitamin, alone and in combination, on cancer, CVD, and eye diseases. Finally, PHS II is the only trial testing the hypotheses that beta-carotene and vitamin E may reduce the risks of prostate cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
125. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999 Autumn;14(4):124-9.
Nutritional strategies in cardiovascular disease control: an update on vitamins and conditionally essential nutrients.
Kendler BS.
USA.
This review concludes that supplementing the diet with vitamins C, E, B6 and folate are conducive to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Current research validates the use of the above supplements as being effective in cardiovascular disease risk prevention as an effective adjunctive strategy for CVD control.

HUMAN RESEARCH
126. Nippon Rinsho. 1999 Dec;57(12):2837-41
Antioxidants and cardiovascular disease.
Kazumi T, Yoshino G.
Japan
The authors reviewed studies of the correlation between dietary vitamins C and E and the reduction in risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). They maintain that CVD can be halted by the regular consumption of antioxidant-rich foods.

HUMAN RESEARCH
127. Br J Haematol. 1999 Feb;104(2):246-57.
Associations of blood rheology and interleukin-6 with cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease.
Woodward M, Rumley A, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Lowe GD.
USA
In this study, blood hemorrhagic variables of 753 men and 821 women were measured to examine their relationship to cardiovascular disease risk factors. Compared to women, men had higher levels of blood viscosity, haematocrit, corrected viscosity and relative viscosity, which were inversely related to HDL-cholesterol, plasma vitamin C and social class showed inverse associations. Plasma interleukin-6 (a negative indicator of heart disease) (measured in a 25% sub-sample of 196 men and 221 women) correlated significantly with age, fibrinogen, white cell count, plasma and blood viscosity, current smoking, and (in men) with low serum vitamin C levels; but not with other major risk factors or with prevalent cardiovascular disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
128. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Oct;17(5):425-34.
Cardiovascular disease risk factors are lower in African-American vegans compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarians.
Toohey ML, Harris MA, DeWitt W, Foster G, Schmidt WD, Melby CL.
USA.
The authors acknowledge that African-American vegans) have less hypertension and a more healthy lipid profile than their lacto-ovo vegetarian. They wondered if plasma ascorbic acid concentrations could explain any group differences in these cardiovascular disease risk factors. In this study African-American vegans did exhibit a more favorable serum lipid profile than lacto-ovo-vegatarians and plasma ascorbic acid is inversely related to BP in African-American vegetarians.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
129. Metabolism. 1998 Jul;47(7):883-91.
Regulation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins by vitamin C level and dietary fat saturation in guinea pigs.
Montano CE, Fernandez ML, McNamara DJ.
USA.
Guinea pigs were fed high fat diets and administered either low levels of vitamin C or adequate levels of vitamin C. Animals given low levels of vitamin C measured blood values that are consistent with the development of cardiovascular disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
130. Biofactors. 1998;7(1-2):113-74.
Vitamins E plus C and interacting conutrients required for optimal health. A critical and constructive review of epidemiology and supplementation data regarding cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Gey KF.
Switzerland.
Low levels of vitamins C, E and carotenoids are correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Conversely, vitamin E is seen as being the most beneficial risk factor with vitamin C being the second. The author concludes that a combination of the nutrients vitamins C, E and carotenoids are necessary for optimal health.

HUMAN RESEARCH
131. Circulation. 1997 Sep 16;96(6):1803-8.
Association between plasma total homocysteine and parental history of cardiovascular disease in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.
Tonstad S, Refsum H, Ueland PM.
Norway.
Children (91 boys and 64 girls) with family histories cardiovascular disease (CVD) were administered a lipid-lowering diet and their plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) was measured before and after. These children were compared to children who had no family history of CVD. The authors found that children with a family history of CVD had lower intakes of folate, vitamin C, and fruits and vegetables, lower serum folate and vitamin B12 and higher levels of homocysteine. The authors concluded that dietary education for those with a family history of CVD should include nutrients that affect homocysteine metabolism.

HUMAN RESEARCH
132. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Aug;30(2):392-9.
Antioxidant nutrient supplementation reduces the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease.
Mosca L, Rubenfire M, Mandel C, Rock C, Tarshis T, Tsai A, Pearson T.
USA.
In this 12-week, double-blind placebo control study, 45 patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) took either a placebo, a mid-dose of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene or a high dose of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene. The results indicated a higher level of vitamin C and beta-carotene present in the blood in the mid and high dose subjects. High doses of the combination of antioxidants may be a preventative in the recurrence of CVD.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
133. Subcell Biochem. 1996;25:331-67
Ascorbic acid and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Lynch SM, Gaziano JM, Frei B.
USA.
This review of animal studies confirms that vitamin C can inhibit atherosclerosis. The author calls for human and primate studies of vitamin C to confirm its positive effect on cardiovascular disease risk.

HUMAN RESEARCH
134. Ann Epidemiol. 1995 Jul;5(4):261-9.
A secondary prevention trial of antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease in women. Rationale, design, and methods. The WACS Research Group.
Manson JE, Gaziano JM, Spelsberg A, Ridker PM, Cook NR, Buring JE, Willett WC, Hennekens CH.
USA
This report discusses the methodology being used in a study of 8,000 women with cardiovascular disease (CVD). They will receive vitamins C and E and beta-carotene or a placebo. This study is being conducted in response to the need of data to support the positive effect of antioxidant vitamins on CVD in women.

HUMAN RESEARCH
135. Ther Umsch. 1994 Jul;51(7):475-82
Essential antioxidants in cardiovascular diseases--lessons for Europe.
Gey KF, Stahelin HB, Ballmer PE.
Germany
This review confirms that the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased with the decline in optimal levels of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, beta-carotene). Low levels of antioxidants are strong indicators of CVD risk in Europe; moreso than classical indicators of CVD. Men from Scotland and Finland, especially smokers, tend to have low levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene whereas men from France, Italy and Spain tend to have a diet more rich in antioxidants. The authors recommend dietary supplementation of vitamin C and E in Northern Europe.

HUMAN RESEARCH
136. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993 Aug;12(4):426-32
Antioxidants and cardiovascular disease: a review.
Manson JE, Gaziano JM, Jonas MA, Hennekens CH.
USA
This review attests to the capacity of antioxidants to hinder the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. There are more studies of men than of women and the author cites a study in progress of 40,000 women and the effects of antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene.

HUMAN RESEARCH
137. Med Hypotheses. 1985 Jan;16(1):7-15.
Fruit and vegetable consumption and cardiovascular mortality.
Verlangieri AJ, Kapeghian JC, el-Dean S, Bush M.
USA
This early review cites the evidence that fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C have a positive impact on mortality from cardiovascular disease. In fact, the authors attribute the fall in mortality rates from CVD to an increase in the consumption of vitamin C rich fruits and vegetables.

HUMAN RESEARCH
138. Lancet Oncol. 2001 Apr;2(4):226-32.
Unconventional therapies for cancer and cancer-related symptoms.
Vickers AJ, Cassileth BR.
USA.
The authors point out that many cancer patients are using complementary therapies in their treatment. Of the myriad alternative treatments, using high doses of vitamin C has proven to be effective. Many complementary therapies are provided in traditional cancer treatment settings.

HUMAN RESEARCH
139. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Aug;19(4):423-5.
Reevaluation of ascorbate in cancer treatment: emerging evidence, open minds and serendipity.
Padayatty SJ, Levine M.
USA.
This review indicates that many cancer cells have an adverse reaction to intravenous administration of ascorbate (vitamin C). The authors call for extensive testing of high-dose ascorbate (vitamin C) treatment of cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
140. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Jun;3(3):174-86.
Ascorbic acid in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
Head KA.
USA.
The author maintains that there is sufficient evidence to support the use of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the treatment of cancer. Its benefits include, but are not limited to, support of the immune system, increased collagen development, the protection and prevention of tumors, and protection from chemotherapy related free radical damage.

HUMAN RESEARCH
141. Proc Nutr Soc. 1998 Feb;57(1):9-13.
Free radicals, exercise and antioxidant supplementation.
Kanter M.
USA
The author claims that there are not appropriate methods available to measure the production of free radicals from exercise. The study of exercise-induced free radicals is warranted as is the use of antioxidant supplements for people who are physically active.

HUMAN RESEARCH
142. Prostate. 1997 Aug 1;32(3):188-95.
Effect of vitamin C on prostate cancer cells in vitro: effect on cell number, viability, and DNA synthesis.
Maramag C, Menon M, Balaji KC, Reddy PG, Laxmanan S.
USA.
Human prostate cancer cells were treated in the laboratory with vitamin C. The results indicated that the vitamin C advanced the production of hydrogen peroxide, which may act as an antioxidant to impair the growth of the cancer cells. The authors conclude that vitamin C is a powerful means to combat prostate cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
143. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1995 Sep;9(3):563-82.
Helicobacter pylori as a risk factor for cancer.
Webb PM, Forman D.
Australia.
The authors explore a possible correlation between the high incidence of gastric cancer and the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Studies showed that those with Helicobacter pylori infection were more likely to develop gastric cancer and that the subjects also had low levels of gastric ascorbic acid. There was speculation as to whether higher levels of ascorbic acid were a contributing factor to those who did not develop gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
144. S Afr Med J. 1987 Jul 4;72(1):30-3.
Gastric cancer. Some aspects of epidemiology, risk factors, treatment and survival.
Walker AR, Madden MV, Dent DM.
South Africa
The authors cite that a diet that is low in vitamin C and high in smoked and salted foods contributes to the high worldwide incidence of gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
145. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1985 Jun;8(2):95-103.
Vitamin C and chiropractic.
Dryburgh DR.
This early review cites the need for supplementation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) for people who are smokers, diabetics, pregnant and who ingest alcohol, contraceptives and antibiotics. Ascorbic acid was found to enhance wound healing and immune system function, and reduce inflammation. The conclusion is that vitamin C could be endorsed by chiropractors.

HUMAN RESEARCH
146. Med Hypotheses. 1982 Jan;8(1):49-84
Vitamin C and cancer: examination of the Vale of Leven trial results using broad inductive reasoning.
Jaffey M.
In this early review of vitamin C trials, the authors infer that vitamin C doubled the survival time of cancer patients. The author supports the use of vitamin C in cancer treatment in the absence of widely recognized studies.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
147. World J Gastroenterol. 2003 Mar;9(3):446-8
Protective effect of ascorbic acid in experimental gastric cancer: reduction of oxidative stress.
Oliveira CP, Kassab P, Lopasso FP, Souza HP, Janiszewski M, Laurindo FR, Iriya K, Laudanna AA.
Brazil
Gastric cancer was brought about in 12 male rats. Six of the rats were the control group and the others were fed water with vitamin C for 6 or 12 months. Samples of the gastric tissue were examined and found that the administration of vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and reduced tumors in the rats. The authors conclude that vitamin C may be useful in the prevention of gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
148. Hepatogastroenterology. 2003 Jan-Feb;50(49):126-31
Antioxidant potential in esophageal, stomach and colorectal cancers.
Skrzydlewska E, Kozuszko B, Sulkowska M, Bogdan Z, Kozlowski M, Snarska J, Puchalski Z, Sulkowski S, Skrzydlewski Z.
Poland.
Antioxidants are important in combating free radicals, which make the gastrointestinal tract susceptible to cancer. The presence of antioxidants, including vitamin C was measured in tumors and normal tissue of 18 patients with esophageal cancer, 18 patients with stomach tumor and 62 patients with colorectal cancer. The findings indicated that in all cases, the presence of vitamin C was decreased. The authors conclude that antioxidant function is compromised in cancerous tumors, leaving them more susceptible to growth.

HUMAN RESEARCH
149. Biomed Environ Sci. 2002 Sep;15(3):223-32.
Redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells induced by ascorbic acid and sodium selenite.
Zheng QS, Sun XL, Wang CH.
China
Human gastric cancer cells were treated with ascorbic acid and sodium selenite and the effects were measured. The results indicated a significant decrease in the growth rate of the cancer cells. The authors concluded that a combination of ascorbic acid and sodium selenite work as an antioxidant to change the gastric cancer cells and may prove to be a powerful preventative blend.

HUMAN RESEARCH
150. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11 Suppl):3467S-3470S
Diet, obesity and reflux in the etiology of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia in humans.
Mayne ST, Navarro SA.
USA
Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers were examined in case-control studies in USA and Sweden. Obesity and reflux disease are the predominant risk factors along with diets with high saturated fat and cholesterol content. However, foods high in vitamin C, beta-carotene, fiber, and folate were shown to reduce risk of these cancers. The authors call for studies to examine the interaction of the risk factors

HUMAN RESEARCH
151. Nutr Cancer. 2002;42(1):33-40.
Nutrient intakes and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and distal stomach.
Chen H, Tucker KL, Graubard BI, Heineman EF, Markin RS, Potischman NA, Russell RM, Weisenburger DD, Ward MH.
USA.
In this study, vitamin C was found to positively affect the risk of stomach cancer. Saturated fats increased the risk of esophageal cancer. The authors concluded that increased consumption of fiber, vitamins and carotenoids could reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
152. Br J Nutr. 2002 Sep;88(3):265-71.
Dietary antioxidants and DNA damage in patients on long-term acid-suppression therapy: a randomized controlled study.
White KL, Chalmers DM, Martin IG, Everett SM, Neville PM, Naylor G, Sutcliffe AE, Dixon MF, Turner PC, Schorah CJ.
UK
One hundred subjects being tested for disorders of the lining of the oesophagus (a precursor to stomach cancer) were randomly allocated to two groups and given either a placebo or a combination of vitamins C and E. Upon completion of the study the supplemented group had higher levels of vitamins C and E in the bloodstream.

HUMAN RESEARCH
153. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2002 Jul;8(7):438-41.
Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori.
Akyon Y.
Turkey.
Heliocobacter pylori bacteria results in the production of free radicals which are linked to chronic disease. Studies have indicated that vitamin C and carotenoids have acted as antioxidants and have had antimicrobial properties against the bacteria. The authors suggest that further research be initiated to ascertain the effect of antioxidants on the Heliocobacter pylori bacteria.

HUMAN and ANIMAL RESEARCH
154. Gastric Cancer. 2002;5(1):6-15.
Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.
Kikuchi S.
Japan
This review of research on the Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)bacteria as a precursor to gastric cancer indicates that there is a relationship but that not everybody infected with H pylori develops gastric cancer. One of the influencing factors in the development of gastric cancer is the supplementation of vitamin C, which has been found to inhibit its development.

HUMAN RESEARCH
155. Med Sci Monit. 2002 Feb;8(2):CR96-103.
Vitamin C concentration in gastric juice in patients with precancerous lesions of the stomach and gastric cancer.
Dabrowska-Ufniarz E, Dzieniszewski J, Jarosz M, Wartanowicz M.
Poland.
Levels of vitamin C in the gastric juices of 3 groups patients with H. pylori infection, with metaplasia and gastric cancer were measured. The fourth group was a control. The results indicated that the measures of vitamin C were significantly different among the 4 groups indicating that low levels of vitamin C in gastric juices may be a function in early stages of cancer development.

HUMAN RESEARCH
156. Nutr Rev. 2002 Jan;60(1):34-6.
Does vitamin C intake slow the progression of gastric cancer in Helicobacter pylori-infected populations?
Feiz HR, Mobarhan S.
USA
This paper reviews the role that vitamin C plays in inhibiting the development of gastric cancer in high-risk populations.

HUMAN RESEARCH
157. Hepatogastroenterology. 2001 Nov-Dec;48(42):1548-51.
Helicobacter pylori infection and precancerous lesions of the stomach.
Valle J, Gisbert JP.
Spain.
This review briefly cites that increasing dietary vitamin C is a prevention against H. pylori infection advancing into gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
158. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Oct;10(10):1055-62.
Nutrient intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer.
Mayne ST, Risch HA, Dubrow R, Chow WH, Gammon MD, Vaughan TL, Farrow DC, Schoenberg JB, Stanford JL, Ahsan H, West AB, Rotterdam H, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr.
USA
Patients with four types of esophagus and gastric cancer and a control group were interviewed about their diets to determine the relationship between intake of vitamin C, B6, folate, beta-carotene and fiber and cancer risk. There was an inverse relationship between the intake of these vitamins and cancer risk. Supplementation of vitamin C was linked to a lower risk of gastric cancer.


==50 ---158

HUMAN RESEARCH
159. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999 Nov;14(11):1070-3
Gastric juice ascorbic acid is related to Helicobacter pylori infection but not ethnicity.
Fraser AG, Woollard GA.
New Zealand
The concentration of ascorbic acid in gastric juices was measured in 89 patients whose gastric inflammation and atrophy was graded. The results indicated that the level of ascorbic acid present was related to the level of acute inflammation as well as atrophy. The authors conclude that the presence of helicobacter pylori infection is concurrent with low levels of ascorbic acid.

HUMAN RESEARCH
160. Cancer Lett. 1999 Feb 8;136(1):89-93
Serum antioxidative vitamin levels and lipid peroxidation in gastric carcinoma patients.
Choi MA, Kim BS, Yu R.
South Korea.
Vitamin C, E, beta-carotene and retinal were measured in the blood from the stomach of gastric cancer patients. the results were compared with a control group. Those with stomach cancer had significantly low levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene in their blood; less that 1/5 the amount of the control group. Low levels of vitamins C and E were also found in patients with a preference for spicy and salty foods. The authors conclude that vitamins A and E and beta-carotene act as antioxidants in combating gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
161. Int J Cancer. 1998 Nov 9;78(4):415-20.
Nutrient intake patterns and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in Belgium.
Kaaks R, Tuyns AJ, Haelterman M, Riboli E.
France.
Dietary assessments were undertaken on 301 Belgian men and women with stomach tumors. Those at increase risk had a diet rich in mono- and disaccharides. Those with low gastric cancer risk had high intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamins B1, B3 and B6. These findings were consistent with those of colon and rectum cancer studies.

HUMAN RESEARCH
162. Gut. 1998 Sep;43(3):322-6.
The relation between gastric vitamin C concentrations, mucosal histology, and CagA seropositivity in the human stomach.
Zhang ZW, Patchett SE, Perrett D, Katelaris PH, Domizio P, Farthing MJ.
UK
Studies have indicated that while vitamin C may reduce the risk of gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori infection reduces gastric vitamin C values. Vitamin C concentrations were measured in 115 patients being tested for dyspepsia. The results indicated that those infected with H pylori had significantly lower levels of vitamin C compared with uninfected subjects. Those with low levels of vitamin C had more severe gastritis and had more gastric atrophy and metaplasia.

HUMAN RESEARCH
163. Control Clin Trials. 1998 Aug;19(4):352-69.
Factorial trial of three interventions to reduce the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in Shandong, China: design issues and initial data.
Gail MH, You WC, Chang YS, Zhang L, Blot WJ, Brown LM, Groves FD, Heinrich JP, Hu J, Jin ML, Li JY, Liu WD, Ma JL, Mark SD, Rabkin CS, Fraumeni JF Jr, Xu GW.
USA/China
In the fall of 1995, 3411 subjects in 13 rural villages in Linqu County, Shandong Province, China, were entered into a blinded, randomized 23 factorial trial to determine whether interventions can reduce the prevalence of dysplasia and other precancerous gastric lesions. One intervention is treatment for infection by Helicobacter pylori with amoxicillin and omeprazole. A second is dietary supplementation with capsules containing vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium. A third is dietary supplementation with capsules containing steam-distilled garlic oil and Kyolic aged garlic extract. Initial data from pill counts and sampled blood levels of vitamin E, vitamin C, and S-allylcysteine indicate excellent compliance.

HUMAN RESEARCH
164. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1997 Dec;98(12):674-7.
Precancerous conditions and carcinomas of the stomach and colorectum--blood levels of selected micronutrients
Beno I, Ondreicka R, Magalova T, Brtkova A, Grancicova E.
Slovakia.
The blood levels of vitamins A, C and E, beta-carotene, zinc and selenium in 249 patients with precancerous stomach and colorectal polyps was compared with 96 patients with stomach or colorectal cancer and with 130 control subjects. Precancerous patients had diminished levels of vitamins C E and A, selenium and beta-carotene. All patients with cancer had diminished levels of vitamins C E and A and beta-carotene. The conclusion is that these nutrients are essential to the prevention of these cancers and the recommendation is increased amounts of fruits and vegetables.

HUMAN RESEARCH
165. Cancer. 1997 Nov 15;80(10):1897-903.
Vitamin C inhibits the growth of a bacterial risk factor for gastric carcinoma: Helicobacter pylori.
Zhang HM, Wakisaka N, Maeda O, Yamamoto T.
Japan
This study examined the effect of vitamin C on in vitro and in vivo samples of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria. The results indicated that vitamin C hindered the growth of 90% of the H pylori bacteria strains and the number of viable bacteria decreased. The authors conclude that vitamin C inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori infection.

HUMAN RESEARCH
166. Cancer Causes Control. 1997 Sep;8(5):786-802.
Vitamin supplements and cancer risk: the epidemiologic evidence.
Patterson RE, White E, Kristal AR, Neuhouser ML, Potter JD.
USA
The authors acknowledge that although the literature on nutrition and cancer is vast, few reports to date have addressed supplemental nutrients directly (seven clinical trials, 16 cohort, and 36 case-control studies). Case-control studies have reported an inverse association between bladder cancer and vitamin C. Overall, there is modest evidence for protective effects of nutrients from supplements against several cancers. They recommend future studies of supplement use and cancer however, they acknowledge that there is a methodology in studying supplements and cancer risk.

HUMAN RESEARCH
167. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 1997 Jul-Sep;60(3):217-9.
Ascorbic acid metabolism and cancer in the human stomach.
Schorah CJ.
U.K.
This brief review cites the evidence supporting the relationship of vitamin C rich foods and the decreased risk for gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
168. Int J Cancer. 1996 Apr 10;66(2):145-50
Prediction of male cancer mortality by plasma levels of interacting vitamins: 17-year follow-up of the prospective Basel study.
Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF, Ludin E, Bernasconi F.
Germany.
In 1971-1973, the plasma values of 2,974 men were measured for vitamins C, E and A and carotene. In 1990 the status of participants was evaluated and 290 men had died of cancer during this time. Death from cancer was linked to low levels of vitamin C and carotene. Deficiency in vitamin C and E, A and carotene were linked to increased risk of and death from lung cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
169. Carcinogenesis. 1996 Mar;17(3):559-62.
Ascorbic acid may protect against human gastric cancer by scavenging mucosal oxygen radicals.
Drake IM, Davies MJ, Mapstone NP, Dixon MF, Schorah CJ, White KL, Chalmers DM, Axon AT.
UK.
Ascorbic acid is a recognized antioxidant that destroys free radicals in gastric juices. In this study, 37 of 82 patients were infected with H pylori. The gastric juices of all patients were measured for levels of ascorbic acid to determine whether they have an antioxidant effect on the infected cell. The authors conclude that ascorbic acid protects against gastric cancer by scavenging reactive radical species, which would otherwise react with DNA, with resultant genetic damage.

HUMAN RESEARCH
170. Cad Saude Publica. 1996 Jan;12(1):53-59.
Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study.
Sichieri R, Everhart JE, Mendonca GA.
Brasil.
In this review of mortality rates from the most common cancers and diet, some correlations are described. Negative correlations indicate that the presence of certain nutrients inhibits cancers. There was a negative correlation between stomach cancer and the consumption of vitamin C, A and fruits. There was a negative correlation between prostate cancer and vitamin C.

HUMAN RESEARCH
171. Cancer Causes Control. 1996 Jan;7(1):41-55.
Nutrition and stomach cancer.
Kono S, Hirohata T.
Japan.
This brief review indicates that diet is an important factor in stomach cancer risk. Diets high in fruits and vegetables and vitamin C reduce risk of stomach cancer. The authors call for more studies exploring the effect of diet on stomach cancer

HUMAN RESEARCH
172. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Dec;14(6):565-78.
Ascorbic acid and gastrointestinal cancer.
Cohen M, Bhagavan HN.
USA.
This brief review suggests that ascorbic acid is even more effective in hindering gastric cancer than in halting esophageal and colorectal cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
173. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995 Jul;29(4):198-201
Relationship between serum micronutrients and precancerous gastric lesions
Zhang L, Zhao L, Ma J.
China
Six hundred subjects living in a high risk area for gastric cancer were measured for blood levels of nutrients vitamin C, A, E, beta-carotene and selenium. The results indicated that a high level of vitamin C or beta-carotene was associated with lower odds of developing intestinal dysplasia and metaplasia. The increase of both vitamin C and beta-carotene further reduced the odds. The authors concluded that vitamin C and beta-carotene play a significant role in protecting precancerous cells from developing into cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
174. Cancer Lett. 1995 Jun 29;93(1):17-48.
Role of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and N-nitrosation in etiology of gastric, esophageal, nasopharyngeal and bladder cancer and contribution to cancer of known exposures to NOC.
Mirvish SS.
USA
In a review of gastric cancer, the author questions whether and how N-nitroso compounds (NOC) may be inducing cancer in humans and acknowledges that vitamin C and polyphenols (flavinoids) inhibit gastric nitrosation.

HUMAN RESEARCH
175. Int J Cancer. 1995 Mar 16;60(6):748-52.
Attributable risks for stomach cancer in northern Italy.
La Vecchia C, D'Avanzo B, Negri E, Decarli A, Benichou J.
Italy.
Risks for gastric cancer including the low intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene were measured in 746 gastric cancer cases and 2,053 controls. Low intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and high intake of traditional Italian foods account for 73% of the cases of gastric cancer. The authors conclude that increase intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene and a reduction in consumption of traditional foods would result in a significant decline in mortality from stomach cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
176. Int J Cancer. 1994 Jun 1;57(5):638-44.
Nutrients and gastric cancer risk. A population-based case-control study in Sweden.
Hansson LE, Nyren O, Bergstrom R, Wolk A, Lindgren A, Baron J, Adami HO.
Sweden.
Interviews about dietetic history and vitamin supplement intake were conducted with 338 subjects and 679 controls. The results indicated that ascorbic acid and beta-carotene protected against risk of gastric cancer as did vitamin E and nitrate. ascorbic acid was the most significant factor in risk prevention of gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
177. Cancer Res. 1994 Apr 1;54(7 Suppl):1948s-1951s
Experimental evidence for inhibition of N-nitroso compound formation as a factor in the negative correlation between vitamin C consumption and the incidence of certain cancers.
Mirvish SS.
USA
The author establishes that there is one theory that ascorbic acid is a preventative of certain cancers has been overlooked. A review of the literature establishes that the more vitamin C consumed the lower the incidence of certain cancers, which is due to ascorbic acid inhibition of in vivo nitrosation.

HUMAN RESEARCH
178. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar 1;139(5):466-73.
Nutritional factors and gastric cancer in Spain.
Gonzalez CA, Riboli E, Badosa J, Batiste E, Cardona T, Pita S, Sanz JM, Torrent M, Agudo A.
Spain
Foods high in nitrites pose a risk to gastric cancer. In this study of 354 of gastric cancer patients and 354 controls, it was determined that those with gastric cancer reported high level of consumption of nitrites, fats and cholesterol. However, cancer risk was reduced with higher intake of vitamin C and carotene. In fact, high levels of vitamin C appeared to reduce the negative effects of the high nitrite diet. The authors support the increase of fruits and vegetables in the diet.

HUMAN RESEARCH
179. Int J Cancer. 1994 Mar 1;56(5):650-4.
Serum micronutrients in relation to pre-cancerous gastric lesions.
Zhang L, Blot WJ, You WC, Chang YS, Liu XQ, Kneller RW, Zhao L, Liu WD, Li JY, Jin ML, et al.
China.
The blood levels of 600 adults with precancerous gastric lesions was measured for levels of vitamins C, E, A, beta-carotene and minerals. Levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene were significantly lower in subjects with intestinal metaplasia (IM) (a precursor to cancer). Chronic atropic gastritis (CAG) is another precursor to cancer and it can develop into IM. However, the likelihood of CAG developing into IM was 1/6 as high in subjects with high levels of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene than those with lower levels of these nutrients. The authors conclude that nutrients like vitamin C and beta-carotene have a significant impact on risk prevention in gastric cancers.

HUMAN RESEARCH
180. Nutr Rev. 1994 Mar;52(3):75-83.
Diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, food preservation and gastric cancer risk: are there new roles for preventative factors?
Hwang H, Dwyer J, Russell RM.
USA
Risk factors for gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori infection, consumption of nitrites, alcohol, salted, pickled, fermented and smoked foods. Conversely, the increase of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in the diet through fruits and vegetables may be crucial to risk reduction of gastric cancers.

HUMAN RESEARCH
181. Br J Cancer. 1993 Dec;68(6):1195-8
Micronutrients in gastrointestinal cancer.
Georgiannos SN, Weston PM, Goode AW.
U.K.
Pre- and post-surgery patients with gastric cancer who were losing weight had lower blood levels of vitamin C and thiamine compared to patients whose weight was stable. There was a significant correlation between plasma levels of vitamin C and the intake of vitamin C. the authors suggest a correlation between intake of vitamin C and plasma levels of vitamin C during surgery.

HUMAN RESEARCH
182. Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Dec;22(6):983-8.
Nutrient intake and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in Spain.
Ramon JM, Serra-Majem L, Cerdo C, Oromi J.
Spain
Telephone interviews were conducted with 117 subjects with gastric cancer and 188 controls to gather information about diet. Results indicated that the risk of gastric cancer was lower in subjects with vitamin C intake. It was concluded that the consumption of vitamin C may reduce the risk of gastric cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
183. Epidemiology. 1992 May;3(3):194-202.
Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population.
Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA.
USA
According to the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) the mortality for all causes of death decreased strongly with the increase in taking vitamin C. this relationship was strong in males and weaker in females.

HUMAN RESEARCH
184. EXS. 1992;62:398-410.
Inverse correlation between essential antioxidants in plasma and subsequent risk to develop cancer, ischemic heart disease and stroke respectively: 12-year follow-up of the Prospective Basel Study.
Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF.
Switzerland.
This 12-year follow-up study of 2,974 participants saw 204 cancer cases, 132 deaths from heart disease and 31 deaths from cerebral vascular disease. The data showed that overall deaths from cancer were connected to low levels of vitamin C and carotene. Deaths from stomach cancer and cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease were both associated with low levels of vitamin C.

HUMAN RESEARCH
185. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1310S-1314S
Epidemiologic evidence regarding vitamin C and cancer.
Block G.
USA
This review cites results from 90 studies, which verify the function of vitamin C in cancer prevention. Most studies found that vitamin C has significant benefit in the prevention of cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, and pancreas, cervix, rectum, lung and breast. vitamin C is recognized as a significant antioxidant.

HUMAN RESEARCH
186. Ital J Gastroenterol. 1991 Sep-Oct;23(7):429-35.
Gastric cancer in Italy.
Cipriani F, Buiatti E, Palli D.
Italy.
Of dietary factors studied as related to gastric cancer in Italy, traditional foods (meats, salted foods, cheeses and nitrites) were seen as risk factors. However, vitamin C, fresh fruit and vegetables, garlic olive oil and beta-carotene were seen as protective factors.

HUMAN RESEARCH
187. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Apr 15;133(8):766-75.
Plasma antioxidant vitamins and subsequent cancer mortality in the 12-year follow-up of the prospective Basel Study.
Stahelin HB, Gey KF, Eichholzer M, Ludin E, Bernasconi F, Thurneysen J, Brubacher G.
Switzerland.
This 12-year follow-up study of 2,974 men saw 204 deaths from cancer. Overall deaths from cancer were attributed to low levels of vitamin C and carotene. Those with stomach cancer had lower levels of vitamin C and vitamin A than survivors and in fact it was found that low levels of vitamin C increased the risk of stomach cancer. In general, low levels of antioxidants were associated with higher risk of death from cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
188. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):287S-293S
Gastric juice ascorbic acid: effects of disease and implications for gastric carcinogenesis.
Schorah CJ, Sobala GM, Sanderson M, Collis N, Primrose JN.
UK.
The authors acknowledge that N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are highly implicated in the causation of cancer of the stomach and that ascorbic acid might reduce the risk of gastric cancer by preventing their formation within gastric juice. However, until recently there have been no measurements of gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. The authors measured both gastric juice ascorbic and total vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid). Their findings suggest that ascorbic acid is secreted into the gastric lumen so that gastric juice concentrations are often greater than those in plasma. Gastric pathology affects this secretion, leading to values in gastric juice that are lower than plasma levels. The authors discuss the role of ascorbic acid in preventing formation of NOC and protecting against gastric cancer in the light of these findings.

HUMAN RESEARCH
189. IARC Sci Publ. 1991;(105):139-42.
Effect of ascorbic acid on the intragastric environment in patients at increased risk of developing gastric cancer.
Reed PI, Johnston BJ, Walters CL, Hill MJ.
UK.
The gastric juices of 62 patients at high risk for gastric cancer was sampled before, during and after being treated with high-dose ascorbic acid 4 times daily for 4 weeks. The results indicated a reduction in nitrate-reducing bacteria and a reduction in nitrites, both of which are related to gastric acid formation.

HUMAN RESEARCH
190. Mutat Res. 1990 May;238(3):255-67
Exposure of humans to endogenous N-nitroso compounds: implications in cancer etiology.
Bartsch H, Ohshima H, Shuker DE, Pignatelli B, Calmels S.
France
In a study measuring endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and/or methylating agents it was found that Vitamin C efficiently lowered the body burden of intragastrically formed NOC. The authors conclude that their results point to an etiological role of endogenously formed NOC in certain human cancers, and provide an interpretation of epidemiological findings that have shown protective effects of fruits and vegetables against several malignancies.

HUMAN RESEARCH
191. Int J Cancer. 1989 Nov 15;44(5):823-7.
Urinary excretion of N-nitrosamino acids and nitrate by inhabitants of high- and low-risk areas for stomach cancer in Poland.
Zatonski W, Ohshima H, Przewozniak K, Drosik K, Mierzwinska J, Krygier M, Chmielarczyk W, Bartsch H.
Poland
Urine samples were collected from 96 people of a high-risk rural area and a low-risk urban area for stomach cancer in Poland, according to the following protocol: (1) when they were undosed; (2) after ingestion of proline (a protein, amino acid) 3 times a day; and (3) after ingestion of proline together with vitamin C 3 times a day. After intake of proline, the NPRO(N-nitrosoproline) level increased only in subjects in the high-risk area; intake of vitamin C tended to inhibit this increase in NPRO and lowered the levels of other nitrosamino acids.

HUMAN RESEARCH
192. Gut. 1989 Apr;30(4):436-42.
Vitamin C in the human stomach: relation to gastric pH, gastroduodenal disease, and possible sources.
O'Connor HJ, Schorah CJ, Habibzedah N, Axon AT, Cockel R.
UK
In 73 patients undergoing endoscopy, vitamin C levels were significantly depleted in subjects with low levels of hydrochloric acid in their gastric juices (hypochlorhydria). Vitamin C levels were higher in subjects with normal endoscopy results than those with gastric cancer. Subjects with chronic atrophic gastritis tented to have low levels of gastric vitamin C.

HUMAN RESEARCH
193. Cancer Surv. 1989;8(2):423-42.
N-nitroso compound formation in human gastric juice.
Kyrtopoulos SA.
Greece
The gastric formation of N-nitroso compounds probably constitutes a major source of human exposure to this important class of environmental carcinogens whereas ingestion of 1 g ascorbic acid brings about a significant reduction in the gastric concentration of N-nitroso compounds.

HUMAN RESEARCH
194. Cancer Surv. 1989;8(2):335-62.
Human exposure to endogenous N-nitroso compounds: quantitative estimates in subjects at high risk for cancer of the oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach and urinary bladder.
Bartsch H, Ohshima H, Pignatelli B, Calmels S.
France
In this study higher exposures to endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) were found in high-risk subjects, but individual exposure was greatly affected by diet or disease state. Vitamin C efficiently lowered the body burden of intragastrically formed NOC. The results point to an etiological role of NOC in these human cancers and help to understand epidemiological findings that have shown protective effects of fruits and vegetables against several malignancies.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
195. Mutat Res. 1989 Jan;210(1):1-8.
Crude tea extracts decrease the mutagenic activity of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in vitro and in intragastric tract of rats.
Jain AK, Shimoi K, Nakamura Y, Kada T, Hara Y, Tomita I.
Japan
The authors studied the effects of tea extracts and their ingredients, catechins and L-ascorbic acid (AsA), on the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in vitro and in the stomachs of rats using E. coli WP2 and S. typhimurium TA100. The extracts of green tea and black tea leaves decreased the mutagenic activity of MNNG to E. coli. The effectiveness of tea extracts for the decrease of MNNG-induced mutagenesis in vitro and in vivo suggests that the habitual drinking of tea may reduce the tumor-initiating potency of MNNG-type nitrosoureido compounds if they are formed in the stomach.

HUMAN RESEARCH
196. Soz Praventivmed. 1989;34(2):75-7.
Vitamins and cancer: results of a Basel study
Stahelin HB.
Germany
This nutrition survey of 2974 men, 204 of whom died of cancer in the 12-year study revealed that there was a decrease in the number of all cancer deaths in proportion to the intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene and vitamin A. The study confirmed the relationship between antioxidant vitamins and death from cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
197. Vopr Onkol. 1989;35(4):436-41
The role of ascorbic acid in the combined preoperative preparation of cancer patients
Gorozhanskaia EG, Gromova EG, Sviridova SP.
Russia
Ascorbic acid levels in blood and urine were compared between a control group of healthy subjects (40) and individuals with stomach, lung and esophagus cancer (118). The results indicated that ascorbic acid levels were low in all cancer patients, especially those with stomach and esophagus cancer. In addition, those with low levels of ascorbic acid had a greater frequency of postoperative complications. Administering ascorbic acid until blood levels returned to normal proved to prevent postoperative complications.

HUMAN RESEARCH
198. Vopr Onkol. 1989;35(10):1242-5.
Prevention of postoperative complications in patients with stomach cancer using an antioxidant complex
Sukolinskii VN, Morozkina TS.
Russia
The authors gave a complex administration of antioxidants (vitamins C, E and A) for prevention of postoperative complications in a randomized study of 197 patients with gastric cancer. The treatment resulted in a lowering of lipid peroxidation process. In a sub-group of 95 patients who had received the drugs preoperatively, the postoperative complication rate dropped from 30.9 to 1.9%.
PMID: 2596070

ANIMAL RESEARCH
199. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Aug;285(2):H822-32. Epub 2003
Antioxidants attenuate myocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac function in CHF: association with changes in MAPK pathways.
Qin F, Shite J, Liang CS.
USA
Congestive heart failure (CHF) was brought about in rabbits who were given either a placebo, vitamin E, or antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene) for 8 weeks. They were compared with a control group and the CHF animals had high levels of oxidative stress which was alleviated with the antioxidant and with the vitamin E. cardiac dysfunction was also alleviated with the antioxidant combination and with vitamin E.

HUMAN RESEARCH
200. Am Heart J. 2003 Jan;145(1):E2.
Reduction of oxidative stress augments natriuretic effect of furosemide in moderate heart failure.
Tomiyama H, Watanabe G, Yoshida H, Doba N, Yamashina A.
Japan.
Eight patients with moderate congestive heart failure (CHF) were given either intravenous vitamin C or a placebo. Vitamin C was found to reduce thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. vVtamin C also enhanced the diuretic effect of furosemide. The conclusion was that vitamin C may counteract oxidative stress.

HUMAN RESEARCH
201. Circulation. 2002 Dec 10;106(24):3073-8.
Vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure: role of xanthine-oxidase and extracellular superoxide dismutase.
Landmesser U, Spiekermann S, Dikalov S, Tatge H, Wilke R, Kohler C, Harrison DG, Hornig B, Drexler H.
Germany.
Flow-dependent, endothelium-mediated vasodilation (FDD) was measured before and after administering vitamin C in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). It was concluded that vitamin C has a positive effect on FDD in patients with CHF.

HUMAN RESEARCH
202. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002 Jun;282(6):H2414-21.
Vitamin C prevents hyperoxia-mediated vasoconstriction and impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation.
Mak S, Egri Z, Tanna G, Colman R, Newton GE.
Canada.
High oxidant stress can result in blood vessel dysfunction . the aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin C would prevent narrowing in the blood vessels. The results indicated that vitamin C protected the blood vessels from the effects for hyperoxia.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
203. Herz. 2002 Mar;27(2):174-8.
Conditioned nutritional requirements: therapeutic relevance to heart failure.
Sole MJ, Jeejeebhoy KN.
Canada
in a study on late-stage cardiomyopathy in hamsters the authors randomized placebo diet against a supplement containing taurine, coenzyme Q10, carnitine, thiamine, creatine, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium. Three months of supplementation markedly improved myocyte sarcomeric structure and developed pressure. The authors concluded that future studies in this area are of clinical importance.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
204. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15;38(6):1734-40.
Antioxidant vitamins attenuate oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
Shite J, Qin F, Mao W, Kawai H, Stevens SY, Liang C.
USA.
Cardiac disease was induced in rabbits and they were given either vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, vitamin E or a placebo for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was measured weekly. The results indicated that the combination antioxidants reduced myocardial oxidative stress, alleviated cardiac dysfunction. Vitamin E alone produced similar but less significant. The authors conclude that human congestive heart failure may be helped by antioxidants.

HUMAN RESEARCH
205. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Nov 1;88(9):1001-5.
Reversibility of coronary endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: acute effects of vitamin C.
Richartz BM, Werner GS, Ferrari M, Figulla HR.
Germany.
The aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin C would improve the heart blood vessel function. Vasomotor response was measured in 11 patients before and after administering 3 g of intravenous vitamin C. After vitamin C, the diameter of blood vessels increased and coronary blood flow increased from 38% to 82%. It can be concluded that vitamin C reversed endothelium-dependent dysfunction.

HUMAN RESEARCH
206. Circulation. 2001 Oct 30;104(18):2182-7.
Vitamin C inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis in congestive heart failure.
Rossig L, Hoffmann J, Hugel B, Mallat Z, Haase A, Freyssinet JM, Tedgui A, Aicher A, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S.
Germany.
The effects of vitamin C on endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis was examined in vitro as this oxidative stress is apparent in congestive heart failure (CHF). It was found that vitamin C inhibited endothelial cell death. In addition, a double-blind study was conducted to determine whether vitamin C would protect the EC in CHF patients versus control group. vitamin C was also found to inhibit EC apoptosis in humans.

HUMAN RESEARCH
207. Cancer Causes Control. 2001 Feb;12(2):163-72.
Dietary patterns, nutrient intake and gastric cancer in a high-risk area of Italy.
Palli D, Russo A, Decarli A.
Italy
In this study of 382 gastric cancer patients and 561 controls, the results indicated that the incidence of gastric cancer were lower in those who had high intakes of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene. Incidence of gastric cancer were higher in those subjects who had high intakes of protein, nitrite and sodium.

HUMAN RESEARCH
208. Can J Gastroenterol. 2000 Nov;14 Suppl D:51D-54D.HUMAN RESEARCH
Nutrition and gastric cancer.
La Vecchia C, Franceschi S.
Italy
This author cites changes in diet as a rationale for the drop in stomach cancer. Studies support the increase in dietary fruits and vegetables and the supplementation of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and selenium. Studies of the effects of these supplements on cancer risk is warranted.


==50 ---208

September 2, 2003

HUMAN RESEARCH
209. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003 Aug;2(4):435-41.
Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.
Kockaert M, Neumann M.
The Netherlands.
This brief article indicates that vitamin C is one of the frequently used substances used in treating aging skin, both topically and systemically. Other substances used include retinoids, beta and alpha hydroxy acids, antioxidants and tocopherol.
PMID: 12884471

HUMAN RESEARCH
210. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jul 16;42(2):246-52.
Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women.
Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, Spiegelman D, Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC.
USA
In 1980, 85,118 female nurses completed a comprehensive survey about food and vitamin consumption, including that of vitamin C. After 16 years, follow-up identified 1,356 cases of non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). The researchers found that the incidence of CHD decreased in proportion to the intake of vitamin C. They concluded that the intake of vitamin C was associated with lower risk of CHD in women.
PMID: 12875759

HUMAN RESEARCH
211. Toxicology. 2003 Jul 15;189(1-2):75-88.
Free radicals and lipid peroxidation mediated injury in burn trauma: the role of antioxidant therapy.
Horton JW.
USA
Burn victims experience a heightened production of free radicals and a decline in protection from antioxidants as indicated by lower levels of vitamin C and E. Antioxidants including vitamins C and E and A, alone or in combination have reduced burn-related death and prevented burn-related cardiac problems. The authors conclude that antioxidant therapy including vitamin C may serve to protect organs in burn victims.
PMID: 12821284

HUMAN RESEARCH
212. Acta Orthop Belg. 2002 Dec;68(5):481-4.
Vitamin C and prevention of reflex sympathetic dystrophy following surgical
management of distal radius fractures
Cazeneuve JF, Leborgne JM, Kermad K, Hassan Y.
France.
Two groups of patients with fractures were part of this study. One group did not receive vitamin C while the second group received 1g vitamin C daily for 45 days beginning on the day of fracture. The group who did not receive vitamin C had a 5 times greater incidence of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, a complication of fractures, than those who received vitamin C. Thus the authors recommend the use of vitamin C for fractures and surgeries requiring fracturing.
PMID: 12584978

HUMAN RESEARCH
213. Ann Surg. 2002 Dec;236(6):814-22.
Randomized, prospective trial of antioxidant supplementation in critically ill
surgical patients.
Nathens AB, Neff MJ, Jurkovich GJ, Klotz P, Farver K, Ruzinski JT, Radella F,
Garcia I, Maier RV.
USA.
Critically ill surgery patients (595) were given either antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) or received standard care. Those receiving the antioxidant were significantly less likely to experience organ failure, had less time using mechanical ventilation and they had shorter times in the ICU. Thus it is recommended that vitamins C and E be administered early to critically ill surgery patients.
PMID: 12454520

HUMAN RESEARCH
214. Atherosclerosis. 2002 Dec;165(2):277-83.
Vitamin C prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by acute exercise in patients
with intermittent claudication.
Silvestro A, Scopacasa F, Oliva G, de Cristofaro T, Iuliano L, Brevetti G.
Italy.
Exercise causes oxidative stress in patients with claudication (limping). The flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 31 claudicant patients and 8 patients were given vitamin C. The patients exercised and after receiving vitamin C, the exercise induced FMD problems were eliminated. The authors conclude that vitamin C eliminates the acute exercise-induced FMD problems.
PMID: 12417278

HUMAN RESEARCH
215. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Dec;86(12):1369-73.
Protective role of oral antioxidant supplementation in ocular surface of diabetic patients.
Peponis V, Papathanasiou M, Kapranou A, Magkou C, Tyligada A, Melidonis A,
Drosos T, Sitaras NM.
Greece.
Diabetic patients have a high rate of oxidative stress indicated by high levels of nitric oxide (NO), which is a free radical. In this study 50 non-insulin diabetics were given vitamin C and vitamin E for 10 days and the levels of nitrite were measured before and after supplementation. The results indicated a significant reduction in nitrite levels after 10 days of vitamin C and vitamin E. Thus, these vitamins are seen has having a protecting role from free radical damage.
PMID: 12446368

ANIMAL RESEARCH
216. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Dec;80(12):1199-202.
Vitamin C lowers blood pressure and alters vascular responsiveness in salt-induced hypertension.
Ettarh RR, Odigie IP, Adigun SA.
Nigeria.
Rats were fed either a normal rat diet, a normal rat diet plus vitamin C, a high sodium diet or a high sodium diet plus vitamin C for 6 weeks. The rats on the high sodium diet experienced high blood pressure, which was alleviated by vitamin C. The results indicated that vitamin C was a viable antihypertensive, reducing the nitric oxide in rats.
PMID: 12564647

HUMAN RESEARCH
217. Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Dec;8(12):3658-68.
Feasibility and correlates of arsenic trioxide combined with ascorbic acid-mediated depletion of intracellular glutathione for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
USA.
Six patients with relapsed multiple myeloma were given a combination of arsenic trioxide (As(2)0(3)) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) for 25 days to determine whether the vitamin C would increase the activity of the (As(2)0(3) and reduce glutathoine (GSH). The results indicated that this combination could be tolerated by patients without toxicity. The ascorbic acid reduced levels of GSH and there is reportedly potential for the use of ascorbic acid in relapsed multiple myeloma.
PMID: 12473574

ANIMAL RESEARCH
218. Curr Med Chem. 2002 Dec;9(24):2271-85.
Potential therapeutic application of the association of vitamins C and K3 in
cancer treatment.
Calderon PB, Cadrobbi J, Marques C, Hong-Ngoc N, Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J, Summers JL, Taper HS.
Belgium.
A combination of vitamin C and vitamin K was given to rats with tumors, and tested in vitro. This combination was found to inhibit growth of tumors and increase the rats’ life span. It halted metastases of cancer. In addition, the combination of vitamins C and K sensitized the tumors to drugs that to which they had previously been resistant. Thus the recommendation is to use vitamin C and vitamin K in cancer therapy.
PMID: 12470246

ANIMAL RESEARCH
219. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Dec;40(12):1781-8.
Sodium fluoride-induced hypoproteinemia and hypoglycemia in parental and
F(1)-generation rats and amelioration by vitamins.
Verma RJ, Guna Sherlin DM.
India
The administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) to rats resulted in body weight and appetite reduction. In addition, the blood-glucose and protein levels were elevated as compared to the control group. Either vitamins C and D or vitamins C, D, E and NaF were administered and both supplement combinations resulted in increased body weight and appetite. Thus vitamins C and D were more effective than vitamin E in combating the effects of NaF.
PMID: 12419692

HUMAN RESEARCH
220. Hypertension. 2002 Dec;40(6):804-9.
Ascorbic acid reduces blood pressure and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes.
Mullan BA, Young IS, Fee H, McCance DR.
Ireland
In this double-blind random study, 30 diabetic patients were given either placebo or ascorbic acid daily. The results indicated that ascorbic acid significantly reduced blood pressure compared to placebo, which had no effect. Thus, ascorbic acid is seen as a viable treatment for diabetics as it may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in diabetes.
PMID: 12468561

HUMAN RESEARCH
221. J Trop Pediatr. 2002 Dec;48(6):366-70.
Blood pressure, hematologic and erythrocyte fragility changes in children
suffering from sickle cell anemia following ascorbic acid supplementation.
Jaja SI, Ikotun AR, Gbenebitse S, Temiye EO.
Nigeria.
Fifteen children with sickle cell anemia were given ascorbic acid and it was found to reduce blood pressure, increased hemoglobin and diminished the amount of irreversible sickle cells.
PMID: 12521281

ANIMAL RESEARCH
222. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Dec;241(1-2):107-14.
Dietary vitamin E and C supplementation prevents fructose induced hypertension in rats.
Vasdev S, Gill V, Parai S, Longerich L, Gadag V.
Canada.
Rats were fed either normal food and water, normal food and fructose water, food with vitamin E and fructose water or food with vitamin C and fructose water to determine whether any diets prevent hypertension. It was found that rats receiving vitamin C and vitamin E had significantly lower blood pressure than those receiving fructose. The vitamin C and E rats also had smoother arterial muscle cells. Thus, vitamin C and E reduced blood pressure in rats.
PMID: 12482032

ANIMAL RESEARCH
223. Hum Reprod. 2002 Nov;17(11):2972-6.
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury of rat ovary and the effects of vitamin C, mannitol and verapamil.
Sagsoz N, Kisa U, Apan A.
Turkey
In this study of rats, the effects of vitamin C in restoring blood-flow to a surgical area was studied. Rats treated with vitamin C had less ischaemia-reperfusion injury than other groups.
PMID: 12407059

HUMAN RESEARCH
224. Nutr Rev. 2002 Nov;60(11):368-71.
Combined vitamin C and E supplementation retards early progression of arteriosclerosis in heart transplant patients.
Liu L, Meydani M.
USA.
The survival of patients with heart transplants can be limited by the development of oxidative stress-induced arteriosclerosis. A clinical trial of the administration of vitamins C and E concluded that these vitamins inhibit the progress of coronary arteriosclerosis after heart transplant.

HUMAN RESEARCH
225. Cardiovasc Res. 2002 Oct;56(1):118-25.
Effects of a 'healthy' diet and of acute and long-term vitamin C on vascular
function in healthy older subjects.
Singh N, Graves J, Taylor PD, MacAllister RJ, Singer DR.
UK.
Subjects in this randomized study, subjects were administered either a “healthy” Mediterranean diet, vitamin C, or placebo for 6 weeks and the endothelial function of participants was measured. The results indicated that a vitamin C-rich diet improved endothelial function.
PMID: 12237172

HUMAN RESEARCH
226. Circ J. 2002 Oct;66(10):908-12.
Evaluation by high-resolution ultrasonography of endothelial function in
brachial artery after Kawasaki disease and the effects of intravenous
administration of vitamin C.
Deng YB, Xiang HJ, Chang Q, Li CL.
China.
Children with Kawasaki disease (KD) (39) and a healthy control group (17) were measured for vascular endothelial function. Those with KD had brachial arteries with significantly smaller diameter. The subjects were given intravenous vitamin C, which resulted in a significant change in the diameter of the brachial artery compared to placebo.
PMID: 12381083

ANIMAL RESEARCH
227. Hum Reprod. 2002 Oct;17(10):2686-93.
Addition of ascorbate during cryopreservation stimulates subsequent embryo development.
Lane M, Maybach JM, Gardner DK.
USA.
The cryopreservation of embryos results in oxidative stress. Therefore mouse embryos were frozen with either ascorbate (vitamin C) or no ascorbate. The results indicated that ascorbate reduced the amount of hydrogen peroxide in the embryos. When frozen with ascorbate, the embryos had more mass cell development and higher metabolism rates than those without ascorbate.
PMID: 12351549

HUMAN RESEARCH
228. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2002 Oct;128(10):575-80. Epub 2002 Sep 24.
Vitamin intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal cancer in Germany.
Bollschweiler E, Wolfgarten E, Nowroth T, Rosendahl U, Monig SP, Holscher AH.
Germany.
In this study, 99 males with esophageal cancer were compared with 50 healthy males. Their dietary habits were recorded and the results indicated that the risk of esophageal cancer reduced with increased intake of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and folic acid. Those taking more than 100 mg/day of vitamin C had lower risk of esophageal cancer.
PMID: 12384802

HUMAN RESEARCH
229. Circulation. 2002 Sep 17;106(12):1460-4.
High doses of vitamin C reverse Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced hyporeactivity to acetylcholine in the human forearm.
Pleiner J, Mittermayer F, Schaller G, MacAllister RJ, Wolzt M.
Austria.
In this study, 8 healthy subjects were given low doses of E-coli bacteria (LPS) and then given either vitamin C or placebo. The LPS caused an increase in body temperature, increase in white blood count, a decrease in vitamin C levels, and caused dilation in blood vessels. The authors concluded that high dose vitamin C can counteract the effects of E-coli bacteria.
PMID: 12234948

HUMAN RESEARCH
230. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;76(3):549-55.
Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on in vivo lipid peroxidation: results of a
randomized controlled trial.
Huang HY, Appel LJ, Croft KD, Miller ER 3rd, Mori TA, Puddey IB.
USA.
Lipid peroxidation may lead to the development of atherosclerosis. This study set out to determine whether vitamin C and vitamin E can prevent lipid peroxidation. This placebo-controlled study was conducted on the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on 184 nonsmokers for 2 months. Both vitamin C and vitamin E were found to reduce lipid peroxidation.
PMID: 12197998