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Vitamin C: 460 Abstract Summaries

231. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Sep;187(3):777-84.
Vitamin C and E supplementation in women at risk of preeclampsia is associated
with changes in indices of oxidative stress and placental function.
Chappell LC, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Briley A, Hunt BJ, Charnock-Jones DS, Mallet A, Poston L.
In previous studies, vitamin C and vitamin E were found to reduce preeclampsia. This study looked at 79 high-risk women who were taking vitamins, 81 women taking placebos and they were compared with 32 low risk women who were not taking vitamins. The results indicated abnormal oxidative stress, placenta function, and low ascorbic acid levels in the placebo group compared with the low risk women. The women who received the vitamins had similar values as the low risk women. Thus, antioxidants improved the biochemistry of high risk preeclampsia women.
PMID: 12237663

232. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep 1;166(5):703-9.
Antioxidant supplementation and lung functions among children with asthma
exposed to high levels of air pollutants.
Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Tellez-Rojo MM, Moreno-Macias H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, del Rio-Navarro BE, Ruiz-Navarro MX, Hatch G, Slade R, Hernandez-Avila M.
In this double blind study of 158 asthmatic children, the effects of vitamins C and E on pulmonary function were measured before and after being exposed to ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The results indicated that the antioxidants may moderate the influence of ozone in children with asthma.
PMID: 12204869

233. Food Nutr Bull. 2002 Sep;23(3):244-7.
Effect of maternal dietary vitamin C intake on the level of vitamin C in
breastmilk among nursing mothers in Baghdad, Iraq.
Tawfeek HI, Muhyaddin OM, al-Sanwi HI, al-Baety N.
In this study of 200 healthy, lactating women, the amount of vitamin C in breast milk was measured. Information about diet was also gathered. It was found that the dietary intake of vitamin C was far below daily requirement and the corresponding levels of vitamin C in breast milk were also low. Levels of vitamin C were higher in the summer and lower in the winter. Thus, there is a need for increased intake of fruit and vegetables in lactating women.
PMID: 12362586

234. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):156-64.
Diet and iron status of nonpregnant women in rural Central Mexico.
Backstrand JR, Allen LH, Black AK, de Mata M, Pelto GH.
Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, New York University, New York, USA.
While studying the iron status of 125 women from a developing country, the authors discovered that women who ate foods with iron and ascorbic acid had higher levels of iron.
PMID: 12081829

235. Am J Ther. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):289-93.
A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of vitamin C in the management of
hypertension and lipids.
Hajjar IM, George V, Sasse EA, Kochar MS.
In this double blind control study, 31 patients were given either 500mg, 1000 mg or 2000 mg of vitamin C daily for 8 months. While taking supplements blood pressure decreased significantly despite the dose of vitamin C. Thus, a 500 mg daily dose of vitamin C is seen as being an effective treatment in mild hypertension
PMID: 12115017

236. Epidemiology. 2002 Jul;13(4):409-16.
Vitamin C and the risk of preeclampsia--results from dietary questionnaire and plasma assay.
Zhang C, Williams MA, King IB, Dashow EE, Sorensen TK, Frederick IO, Thompson ML, Luthy DA.
Women with preeclampsia (109) and 259 controls were tested for vitamin C levels and dietary intake. Women with below the RDA intake of vitamin C had double the preeclampsia risk as compared to others. Women with the lowest intake of vitamin C had quadruple the risk of preeclampsia. Thus the conclusion is that antioxidant-rich foods and vitamin C could reduce the risk of preeclampsia.
PMID: 12094095

237. Dermatol. 2002 Jul;29(7):455-8.
Induction of Darier's disease by repeated irradiation by ultraviolet B;
protection by sunscreen and topical ascorbic acid.
Heo EP, Park SH, Yoon TJ, Kim TH.
This brief review indicates that sunscreen and topical ascorbic acid could prevent Darier’s disease from being aggravated by sun exposure
PMID: 12184648

238. Mutat Res. 2002 Jun 27;518(1):1-7.
In vivo antimutagenic effect of vitamins C and E against rifampicin-induced
chromosome aberrations in mouse bone-marrow cells.
Aly FA, Donya SM.
This study measures the genotoxic effect of the drug rifampicin (RMP) and whether vitamin C and vitamin E can protect the DNA from the toxic effect of RMP. Mice were fed either RMP, or RMP with vitamins C and/or E. The results indicated that there was a significant decrease in chromosome abnormalities in the mice treated with RMP and vitamin C. Vitamin C significantly protected bone marrow from the damaging effects of RMP.
PMID: 12063062

239. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Jun;40(6):735-8.
Effect of antioxidants (vitamin C, E and turmeric extract) on methimazole-induced hypothyroidism in rats.
Deshpande UR, Joseph LJ, Patwardhan UN, Samuel AM.
The degree to which antioxidants protect against the effects of methimazole (MMI) was the subject of this study on rats. Rats were fed either MMI, MMI plus vitamin C, MMI plus vitamin E or MMI plus turmeric extract. Rats, which were fed MMI plus vitamins or turmeric had reduced thyroid gland weight, had less suppressed T3 and T4 levels and less increase in cholesterol levels. Thus, antioxidants were found to have positive effects on the thyroid gland.
PMID: 12587721

240. Korean J Intern Med. 2002 Jun;17(2):131-7.
Improvement of endothelial function by amlodipine and vitamin C in essential
On YK, Kim CH, Sohn DW, Oh BH, Lee MM, Park YB, Choi YS.
Patients with hypertension were tested to see whether vitamin C has any effect on the endothelial function and they were compared with healthy subjects. The forearm blood flow response was significantly improved in subjects taking vitamin C. The conclusion is that endothelial function was improved acutely by vitamin C.
PMID: 12164090

241. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 May 15;63(10):1773-83.
Autoschizis: a novel cell death.
Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J, Taper HS, Calderon PB, Summers JL.
According to this review, a combination of vitamin C and vitamin K kills tumor cells. It also states that a combination of vitamin C and vitamin K increasing the life span of mice with tumors.
PMID: 12034362

242. Adv Ther. 2002 May-Jun;19(3):151-9.
Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: a double-blind,placebo-controlled survey.
Van Straten M, Josling P.
United Kingdom.
In this study, 168 subjects received either a placebo or vitamin C supplement for 60 days during the winter months to determine the effects of vitamin C on the common cold. Those receiving vitamin C had significantly fewer colds, if they got a cold, the severity and duration of symptoms were less than the placebo group. The authors conclude that vitamin C was effective in dealing with the common cold.
PMID: 12201356

243. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2002 May-Jun;26(3):197-202.
Effects of a vitamin pool (vitamins A, E, and C) on the tissue necrosis process: experimental study on rats.
Porto da Rocha R, Lucio DP, Souza Tde L, Pereira ST, Fernandes GJ.
A combination of vitamins C, A and E was applied to rats following skin flap surgery. The control group did not receive the vitamins. The results briefly indicate that the group receiving the vitamins had better results
PMID: 12140699

244. J Endocrinol. 2002 May;173(2):273-84.
gamma-Linoleic acid and ascorbic acid ameliorate the effects of experimental
diabetes on electrolyte and bone homeostasis in pregnant rats.
Braddock R, Siman CM, Hamilton K, Devlin H, Garland H, Sibley CP.
Pregnant diabetic rats were given gamma-linoleic acid (GLA), ascorbate, or a combination of the two to determine whether the supplements affected the loss of electrolytes. The results concluded that vitamin C and GLA, together or alone, reduce urine production and electrolyte loss in rats
PMID: 12010635

245. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):647-52.
Gamma-linoleic acid and ascorbate improves skeletal ossification in offspring of diabetic rats.
Braddock R, Siman CM, Hamilton K, Garland HO, Sibley CP.
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT,
United Kingdom.
This study seeks to determine whether ascorbate and gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) improves skeletal development in diabetic rat offspring. The results indicated that ascorbate and/or GLA were effective in combating ossification in fetal rats.
PMID: 11978891

246. Artif Organs. 2002 Apr;26(4):366-70.
Intravenous ascorbic acid administration for erythropoietin-hyporesponsive
anemia in iron loaded hemodialysis patients.
Sezer S, Ozdemir FN, Yakupoglu U, Arat Z, Turan M, Haberal M.
Iron-overloaded hemodialysis patients were studied to determine whether ascorbic acid could effect recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) resistance. Two groups of hemodialysis patients received ascorbic acid twice weekly for 8 weeks. After the 8 weeks, one group received ascorbic acid weekly and the second group received no ascorbic acid. After the initial 8 weeks, both groups had significant positive results and the results were maintained in the subsequent 8 weeks. The authors conclude that ascorbic acid overrides (rHuEPO) resistance.
PMID: 11952508

247. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2002 Apr;131(4):917-22.
The effect of vitamin C on the non-specific immune response of the juvenile
soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis).
Zhou X, Niu C, Sun R, Li Q.
Bacterial immunity and vitamin C supplements were tested on soft-shelled turtles. The results indicated that immune function was improved at doses of 2500mg/kg.
PMID: 11897203

248. Diabetes Metab. 2002 Apr;28(2):107-14.
Effects of young barley leaf extract and antioxidative vitamins on LDL oxidation and free radical scavenging activities in type 2 diabetes.
Yu YM, Chang WC, Chang CT, Hsieh CL, Tsai CE.
Diabetic patients (36) received either barley leaf extract (BL), or vitamin C and vitamin E (CE), or BL +CE daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatment on LDL levels was measured. The results indicated that vitamin C and E with BL are more effective antioxidants and my help prevent vascular diseases in type II diabetics.
PMID: 11976562

249. Early Hum Dev. 2002 Apr;67(1-2):47-53.
Antenatal supplementation of antioxidant vitamins to reduce the oxidative stress at delivery--a pilot study.
Bolisetty S, Naidoo D, Lui K, Koh TH, Watson D, Whitehall J.
Premature babies are deficient in antioxidants and therefore at risk of free-radical related diseases. In this pilot study, 5 mothers at risk of premature delivery were given vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene daily until delivery. The control group received no supplements. The results indicated that the vitamins reduced oxidative stress at birth. The author calls for larger scale studies of this relationship.
PMID: 11893435

250. Metabolism. 2002 Apr;51(4):514-7.
Vitamin C supplementation decreases insulin glycation and improves glucose
homeostasis in obese hyperglycemic (ob/ob) mice.
Abdel-Wahab YH, O'Harte FP, Mooney MH, Barnett CR, Flatt PR.
Obese and hyperglycemic mice were fed vitamin C for 14 days as were lean mice. The food intake in the obese mice reduced 26%-48% as did the blood levels compared with untreated obese mice. In addition the insulin levels in the obese mice reduced as did the percentage of glycated insulin in the mice’s circulation.
PMID: 11912563

251. Radiat Res. 2002 Apr;157(4):402-9.
Topical antioxidant vitamins C and E prevent UVB-radiation-induced peroxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid in pig skin.
Moison RM, Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM.
While eicosapentaenoic acid protects against UV-radiation, it is also likely to undergo oxidative degradation thus reducing its effects. Pig skin was used to test whether vitamins C and E protected against the oxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid. It was found that both vitamin C and vitamin E completely protected against peroxidation from UVB radiation making these antioxidants beneficial in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid.
PMID: 11893242

252. Surgery. 2002 Apr;131(4):408-12.
Hemorrhage associated with vitamin C deficiency in surgical patients.
Blee TH, Cogbill TH, Lambert PJ.
Vitamin C deficiency may result in diffuse hemorrhage in surgical patients. vitamin C was given to surgical patients who experienced diffuse hemorrhage and within 24 hours there was no evidence of bleeding or need for transfusions. Diffuse hemorrhaging is quickly reversed with vitamin C, which may become deficient following extended hospitalization and poor food.
PMID: 11935131

253. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Mar;75(3):540-9.
Long-term intake of vitamins and carotenoids and odds of early age-related
cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities.
Taylor A, Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, Hankinson SE, Khu PM, Rogers G, Friend J, Tung W, Wolfe JK, Padhye N, Willett WC.
The effects of nutrition on cataract development were tested on 492 non-diabetic women who tracked food and vitamin intake for 13-15 years before eye examination. The results indicated that women under 60 who reported vitamin C intake had a 57% less risk of developing cataracts as compared to no vitamin C. Thus, vitamin C can be a preventative of cataracts in women under 60.
PMID: 11864861

254. Dermatol Surg. 2002 Mar;28(3):231-6.
Double-blind, half-face study comparing topical vitamin C and vehicle for rejuvenation of photodamage.
Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF.
This study measured the effect of vitamin C on reversing photodamage to skin. Ten patients applied a vitamin C solution to the face and a non-vitamin C solution to the other side of the face. There was a significant improvement in the side of the face treated with vitamin C.
PMID: 11896774

255. Int Psychogeriatr. 2002 Mar;14(1):7-15.
Endogenous antioxidant activities in relation to concurrent vitamins A, C, and E
intake in dementia.
Tabet N, Mantle D, Walker Z, Orrell M.
This study indicated that dementia patients have a significant decrease in vitamin C levels as compared to controls. This study supports the use of antioxidant vitamins in treating people with dementia.
PMID: 12094909

256. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002 Mar;61(3):385-97.
Oral antioxidants counteract the negative effects of female aging on oocyte
quantity and quality in the mouse.
Tarin JJ, Perez-Albala S, Cano A.
In this study of female mice, vitamin C and vitamin E combated the negative effect of aging on the number of ovarian oocytes.
PMID: 11835584

257. Pflugers Arch. 2002 Mar;443(5-6):791-7. Epub 2002 Jan 31.
Diet supplementation with vitamin E, vitamin C and beta-carotene cocktail enhances basal neutrophil antioxidant enzymes in athletes.
Tauler P, Aguilo A, Fuentespina E, Tur JA, Pons A.
Exercise has been found to stimulate the production of free radicals. This study explores the effect of antioxidants (vitamin E, beta-carotene and vitamin C) on white blood cells. The vitamin C and antioxidant levels in the supplemented group where considerably higher than those in the placebo group.
PMID: 11889577

258. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002 Mar;41(3):274-8.
Adjuvant treatment of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis with vitamins E and C reduces superoxide production by neutrophils.
Harper L, Nuttall SL, Martin U, Savage CO.
White blood cells were taken from patients with systemic vasculitis (blood vessel inflammation) and from healthy donors. The patients were treated with vitamin C and vitamin E. The results indicated that the antioxidant capacity increased with the supplementation of vitamin C as did vitamin C blood levels. The authors suggest a therapeutic role for vitamins C and E in the treatment of vasculitis.
PMID: 11934963

259. Arch Tierernahr. 2002 Feb;56(1):41-9.
Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and ascorbic acid supplementation on egg
production, egg quality and some serum metabolites of laying hens reared under a
low ambient temperature (6 degrees C).
Sahin K, Onderci M, Sahin N, Aydin S.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether ascorbic acid and chromium supplements had an effect on egg quality and production in hens kept in cold temperatures. The results indicated that a combination of ascorbic acid and chromium had a positive effect on the production and weight of eggs compared to hens that did not receive supplements
PMID: 12389221

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Chris Wheeler September 3, 2003

260. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Feb;56(2):96-104.
Are lifestyle factors good predictors of retinol and vitamin C deficiency in apparently healthy adults?
Chiplonkar SA, Agte VV, Mengale SS, Tarwadi KV.
The vitamin C and vitamin A levels of 214 men and 108 women in India were measured. The results indicated that the levels of vitamins C and A were far below normal. Vitamin C deficiency determinants were education, smoking and low intakes of non-sweet fruit. Deficiency determinants for vitamin A were education, environment, low milk and leafy vegetable intake.

261. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2002 Feb;12(2):119-29.
Dietary vitamin C and its derivatives affect immune responses in grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.
Lee MH, Shiau SY.
Three groups of shrimp were fed either no ascorbic acid (AA), adequate AA or high levels of AA for 8 weeks to determine the effects of the vitamin on immune response. Also tested were the 4 derivatives of ascorbic acid. The results indicated that ascorbic acid had a positive effect on the immune response of the shrimp and that the different derivatives of ascorbic acid affected the immune response differently.

262. Poult Sci. 2002 Feb;81(2):265-8.
The effect of dietary ascorbic acid on semen traits and testis histology of male turkey breeders.
Neuman SL, Orban JI, Lin TL, Latour MA, Hester PY.
In this study, 144 male turkey breeders were fed increasing amounts of ascorbic acid over 15 months to determine whether the vitamin C had any effect on the semen. The results indicated that although the semen seemed unaffected by the ascorbic acid, the presence of multinucleated giant cells (MCG) was decreased in the testes of supplemented birds versus control birds. Thus, the development of MCG cells, which are degenerative, may be prevented by ascorbic acid.

263. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6(6):392-404.
Effects of fruits and vegetables on levels of vitamins E and C in the brain and their association with cognitive performance.
Martin A, Cherubini A, Andres-Lacueva C, Paniagua M, Joseph J.
This review cites the importance of vitamins C and E in an aging population. Foods, especially fruits and vegetables, are important sources of vitamins C and E. Vitamins C and E are important to cell function, act as antioxidants in protecting cells and have been found to enhance immune and vascular function, and brain performance. These antioxidants also have been found to combat the cognitive impairments of aging.

264. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46 Suppl 1:28-30.
Severe tardive dyskinesia in affective disorders: treatment with vitamin E and C.
Michael N, Sourgens H, Arolt V, Erfurth A.
Department of Psychiatry, Munster University Hospital, Munster, Germany.
In this clinical trial, 6 patients with schizophrenia who had the antipsychotic drug side effect, tardive dyskinesia, were treated with a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E. In all 6 patients, the tardive dyskinesia symptoms were reduced. The authors call for subsequent studies.

265. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Jan;159(3):319-24. Epub 2001 Nov 20.
A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood
pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress.
Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, Schurmeyer TH.
Previous studies of ascorbic acid have shown that the vitamin reduced stress measures in lab animals. In this double-blind placebo study, 60 healthy adults were given ascorbic acid and 60 were given placebo for 14 days. The blood pressure, cortisol and response rates to stress tests were measured before and after. The results indicated that the ascorbic acid group had lower blood pressure, lower stress test response rates than the placebo group. Thus, high doses of time-released ascorbic acid are seen as being beneficial in treating stress responses.

266. Vopr Pitan. 2002;71(6):42-6.
[Evaluation of the effect of a medical-prophylactic product "Solnyshko" on the vitamin status in humans]
Litvinova EV, Durnev AD.
The Russian product Solnyshko which contains ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was found to improve the supply of these antioxidants.

267. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Dec;20(12):619-23.
Vitamin C ameliorates fluoride-induced embryotoxicity in pregnant rats.
Verma RJ, Sherlin DM.
When sodium fluoride (NaF) was fed to gestating rats, there were lower body weights, lower food consumption and uterine weight and more miscarriages compared to the control group. The NaF rats also had significant skeletal and visceral abnormalities. When vitamin C and vitamin E were given in conjunction with the NaF, vitamin C significantly reduced all of the above-stated abnormalities.

268. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001 Dec;11(4):466-81.
Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise.
Thompson D, Williams C, McGregor SJ, Nicholas CW, McArdle F, Jackson MJ, Powell JR.
In this study 16 males were given either a placebo or vitamin C twice/day for 2 weeks. After 14 days of supplements, the subjects performed a 90-minute exercise test. Those taking supplementation had less muscle soreness and better muscle function after unaccustomed exercise.

269. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Dec;20(6):623-7.
Plasma-Saturating intakes of vitamin C confer maximal antioxidant protection to plasma.
Johnston CS, Cox SK.
This study measured the antioxidant benefits of different doses of vitamin C. Ten subjects were given increasing doses of vitamin C or a placebo over 10 weeks and blood levels were measured every 2 weeks. After 10 weeks, the blood vitamin C levels rose 55% and oxidative stress measures lowered 60%. Positive effects were seen at 500 mg, 1000 mg and 2000 mg doses, but the optimal dose for antioxidant protection was with a 500-1000 mg dose.

270. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Oct;281(4):H1704-10.
Vitamin C and quinapril abrogate LVH and endothelial dysfunction in aortic-banded guinea pigs.
Bell JP, Mosfer SI, Lang D, Donaldson F, Lewis MJ.
United Kingdom.
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was induced in guinea pigs and they were treated with vitamin C and/or enzyme inhibitor quinapril. The results indicated that vitamin C and quinapril were both effective in hindering LVH development.

271. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001 Oct;47(5):323-8.
Effect of supplementation of vitamin E and vitamin C on brain acetylcholinesterase activity and neurotransmitter levels in rats treated with scopolamine, an inducer of dementia.
Lee L, Kang SA, Lee HO, Lee BH, Jung IK, Lee JE, Hoe YS.
Dementia was induced in 50 rats with scopolamine, which reduces essential brain enzyme function. The effects of vitamins C and E were measured and it was found that the brain enzyme function was increased to the level of the control group that did not receive scopolamine. Brain serotonin was also higher in the group treated with vitamin C and scopolamine versus the scopolamine group that did not receive vitamin C.

272. Circ Res. 2001 Sep 14;89(6):E32-8.
Ascorbate attenuates atrial pacing-induced peroxynitrite formation and electrical remodeling and decreases the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation.
Carnes CA, Chung MK, Nakayama T, Nakayama H, Baliga RS, Piao S, Kanderian A, Pavia S, Hamlin RL, McCarthy PM, Bauer JA, Van Wagoner DR.
Atrial fibrillation (AF), a type of arrhythmia, increases the risk of stroke. Ascorbic acid was given to 43 patients before and after cardiac bypass surgery. Those receiving ascorbic acid had a 16.3% occurrence of AF following surgery versus 34.9% occurrence in the control group. The authors conclude that oxidative stress is at the root of AF and that vitamin C proves to be a viable treatment.

273. Atherosclerosis. 2001 Sep;158(1):1-12.
Hyperglycemia-induced ascorbic acid deficiency promotes endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis.
Price KD, Price CS, Reynolds RD.
This discussion paper cites that vitamin C may prevent the oxidation of nitric oxide (a powerful free radical) and therefore slow the process of atherogenesis by improving vasodilation in people with hyperglycemia. The suggestion is made that vitamin C be administered to those with acute and chronic hyperglycemia to protect endothelial function.

274. Diabet Med. 2001 Sep;18(9):756-60.
Double-blind, randomised study of the effect of combined treatment with vitamin C and E on albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients.
Gaede P, Poulsen HE, Parving HH, Pedersen O.
High levels of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) are high-risk predictors for renal disease. This double-blind randomized study tests whether vitamins C and E reduces albuminuria and glomerular hypertrophy in 32 type II diabetics. Subjects received either vitamin C and vitamin E, or a placebo for 4 weeks. The results indicated that vitamins C and E reduced AER by 19%, blood levels of the vitamins increased. The authors conclude that vitamins C and E lowers AER and they call for additional studies to further test this relationship

275. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Sep;12(9):1882-91.
Renal vascular function in hypercholesterolemia is preserved by chronic antioxidant supplementation.
Stulak JM, Lerman A, Porcel MR, Caccitolo JA, Romero JC, Schaff HV, Napoli C, Lerman LO.
Pigs were fed a high cholesterol diet (HC), a normal diet or a HC diet plus vitamins C and E, or a normal diet plus vitamins C and E. The results indicated that LDL oxidizability was increased in the HC diet but lower in the HC plus vitamins diet. Thus, the administration of vitamins C and E may protect the kidney from high cholesterol-induced damage.

276. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):E55.
An orange a day keeps the doctor away: scurvy in the year 2000.
Weinstein M, Babyn P, Zlotkin S.
Scurvy, a deficiency in ascorbic acid, while rare, can affect children with restricted diets and elderly, isolated, alcoholic adults. Symptoms of scurvy can include bone pain, gum disease, hypertension. The administration of vitamin C transforms the symptoms dramatically and clinicians should be made aware of this disease and its cure.

277. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 14;98(17):9842-6.
A new recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C for healthy young women.
Levine M, Wang Y, Padayatty SJ, Morrow J.
This study examines the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamin C for women. The daily dose of vitamin C for women should be 90 mg rather than 75 mg, which was an amount, based on data from men.

278. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul;119(7):1009-19.
Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities.
Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, Hankinson SE, Khu PM, Rogers G, Friend J, Tung W, Wolfe JK, Padhye N, Willett WC, Taylor A.
Nuclear lens opacities, associated with the development of cataracts were measured in 478 nondiabetic women aged 53-73. Information about nutrition and vitamin supplementation was gathered over 13-15 years of the study. The finding indicated that those with the highest nutrient rating (vitamin C, vitamin E, riboflavin, folate, beta-carotene) had the lowest incidence of nuclear opacities. Those with the highest rating of vitamin C had significantly lower incidence of nuclear opacities. Also, the longer the duration of use of vitamin C, the lower the prevalence of nuclear opacities. Thus, authors conclude that vitamin C plays a strong role in preventing nuclear opacities.

279. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001 Jul;121(7):426-8.
The contribution of vitamin C to healing of experimental fractures.
Yilmaz C, Erdemli E, Selek H, Kinik H, Arikan M, Erdemli B.
In this study, 16 rats had their legs broken and some were administered one high dose of vitamin C. The rats with vitamin C healed faster compared with the control group.

280. J Pediatr. 2001 Jul;139(1):79-84.
Long-term clinical outcome in patients with glutathione synthetase deficiency.
Ristoff E, Mayatepek E, Larsson A.
This study examines 28 patients with glutathione synthetase (GS) deficiency and the results of treatment with vitamins C and/or E. The results indicate that early administration of vitamins C and E may improve the outcome of patients with glutathione synthetase (GS) deficiency.

281. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Jul;16(7):1448-51.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of supplementary vitamins E, C and their combination for treatment of haemodialysis cramps.
Khajehdehi P, Mojerlou M, Behzadi S, Rais-Jalali GA.
In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study, the effect of vitamins C and E were measured on haemodialysis (HD) muscle cramps. Sixty patients with (HD) were placed into 4 groups; and received vitamin C, vitamin E, combination C and E or a placebo. All three vitamin groups saw a significant reduction in HD cramps compared to the placebo group and pre-trial measures. The combination of vitamins C and E reduced HD cramps 97% with vitamin C alone reducing cramps 61%. There were no adverse effects from the vitamins.

282. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001 Jun;110(6):585-91.
Topical ascorbic acid reduces myringosclerosis in perforated tympanic membranes. A study in the rat.
Spratley JE, Hellstrom SO, Mattsson CK, Pais-Clemente M.
Free radical production has been associated with myringosclerosis. Twelve rats, which had been myringotomized, were treated with either ascorbic acid, saline, or no treatment. The findings indicated that lesions in the ascorbic acid treated rats were not as extensive as lesions in the control and untreated groups.

283. Artif Organs. 2001 Jun;25(6):430-6.
Effects of a vitamin E-modified dialysis membrane and vitamin C infusion on oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients.
Eiselt J, Racek J, Trefil L, Opatrny K Jr.
Czech Republic.
According to this study, high doses of vitamin C during dialysis prevented a rise in lipid peroxidation.
PMID: 11453871

284. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Jun;40(3):121-6.
Effect of vitamin E and vitamin C on the DNA synthesis of human umbilical arterial endothelial cells.
Totzke G, Metzner C, Ulrich-Merzenich G, Ko Y, Sachinidis A, Vetter H.
Endothelial dysfunction is a precursor of atherosclerosis. The role of antioxidants vitamins C and E on the DNA synthesis of endothelial cells is being studied on human umbilical tissue. The results indicated that there was a complete repression of DNA syntheses in all LDL samples but concludes that the antioxidants must be administered before oxidation begins.
PMID: 11697444

285. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001 Jun;84 Suppl 1:S106-10.
Scurvy: a case report.
Chatproedprai S, Wananukul S.
In this case report of an 8-year-old boy with scurvy, symptoms included a rash on the legs and body, tenderness in extremities, pallor, bleeding and swollen gums and mouth. Vitamin C was administered and the symptoms improved within 2 days with the more severe symptoms improving in 2-3 weeks.

286. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Jun;16(6):1251-5.
Vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in renal allograft recipients.
Williams MJ, Sutherland WH, McCormick MP, de Jong SA, McDonald JR, Walker RJ.
New Zealand.
In this double-blind placebo study, renal allograft recipients were given either a placebo or vitamin C. to determine whether antioxidants would improve endothelial function. After vitamin C blood levels for vitamin C improved compared to placebo. The conclusion is that, for renal patients, vitamin C vastly improves flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent dilation and protects lipoproteins from oxidation.

287. Pediatr Res. 2001 Jun;49(6):755-62.
Combined treatment with vitamin E and vitamin C decreases oxidative stress and improves fetal outcome in experimental diabetic pregnancy.
Cederberg J, Siman CM, Eriksson UJ.
The effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on the fetus in a diabetic rat pregnancy is tested in this study. Pregnant rats were given different amounts of vitamins C and E with their food. The results indicated that a combination of vitamins C and E reduced deformations and tissue damage in rats from diabetic mothers.

288. Toxicology. 2001 May 21;162(3):209-18.
Protective role of ascorbic acid to enhance semen quality of rabbits treated with sublethal doses of aflatoxin B(1).
Salem MH, Kamel KI, Yousef MI, Hassan GA, EL-Nouty FD.
Ascorbic acid has detoxification properties, which were tested on male rabbits that were given sublethal doses of aflatoxin. Rabbits that were given aflatoxin showed lower body weight (LBW), food intake, serum testosterone and testes weight in addition to low sperm concentration and output. When treated with ascorbic acid, there was an improvement in testosterone and sperm and an overall improvement in the negative effects of aflatoxin. Despite aflatoxin, ascorbic acid was able to be of benefit to the male rabbit reproductive system.

289. Am J Cardiol. 2001 May 15;87(10):1154-9.
Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the brachial artery in variant angina pectoris and the effect of intravenous administration of vitamin C.
Hamabe A, Takase B, Uehata A, Kurita A, Ohsuzu F, Tamai S.
The effect of vitamin C on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in 28 angina patients and 24 healthy controls was tested. The results indicated that flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was significantly improved after vitamin C versus placebo. The conclusion was that vitamin C reversed endothelium dysfunction.
PMID: 11356389

290. Arch Environ Health. 2001 May-Jun;56(3):242-9.
Dietary antioxidants and ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults with asthma.
Trenga CA, Koenig JQ, Williams PV.
In this study 17 asthmatic subjects were exposed to ozone for 45 minutes while exercising. Those who were given vitamins C and E were less affected by sulfur dioxide than placebo subjects. Thus asthmatic adults benefit from vitamins C and E when exposed to air pollutants.

291. Br J Nutr. 2001 May;85 Suppl 2:S67-74.
Micronutrients: oxidant/antioxidant status.
Evans P, Halliwell B.
This brief review indicates that antioxidant vitamins C and E provide protection from oxidative stress. In their absence, oxidative stress can lead to infection.

292. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001 May;41(4):225-49.
Delay of natural bone loss by higher intakes of specific minerals and vitamins.
Schaafsma A, de Vries PJ, Saris WH.
Netherlands. l
In this review of nutrients and their role in prevention or halting bone loss, vitamin C is cited as a “stimulus for osteoblast-derived proteins”. Authors recommend increasing vitamin intake to greater than the RDA.

293. Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2001 Feb;10(56):122-5.
Vitamin C in treatment of certain cardiovascular diseases
Grzegorczyk K, Rutkowski M, Drozda R.
This review discusses the fact that vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that cannot be produced in our bodies. It is necessary to ingest vitamin C in food or in supplementation. Vitamin C has been shown to rid the organism of free radicals, influence metabolic processes, and enhance treatments of many diseases. The authors recommend use of vitamin C in the treatment of coronary arterial disease patients, and those with heart attacks, strokes, or hypertension.

294. Nutr Cancer. 2001;40(2):92-8.
Dietary antioxidants, supplements, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Fleischauer AT, Olson SH, Mignone L, Simonsen N, Caputo TA, Harlap S.
In this study of 168 women with ovarian cancer and 159 controls, it was found that vitamins C and E provided protection from ovarian cancer. Those with combined antioxidant intake including foods and vitamin C, had a reduced risk. Vitamins C and E levels greater than the RDA were associated with prevention of ovarian cancer.

295. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 6;92(23):1881-8.
Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-helicobacter pylori therapy.
Correa P, Fontham ET, Bravo JC, Bravo LE, Ruiz B, Zarama G, Realpe JL, Malcom GT, Li D, Johnson WD, Mera R.
Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, USA.
Patients with precancerous gastric lesions were treated with vitamin C or beta-carotene, with anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy and/or supplements, or placebos. The gastric biopsies showed that rates of regression were high with all interventions. Thus, treatment with vitamin C or beta-carotene was as effective as anti-Helicobacter pylori drug treatment.

296. Crit Care Med. 2000 Dec;28(12):3828-32.
Enteral feeding with a solution enriched with antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E enhances the resistance to oxidative stress.
Preiser JC, Van Gossum A, Berre J, Vincent JL, Carpentier Y.
In this double-blind placebo study, 20 patients were given either placebo or a combination of vitamins C, A and E. The results indicated that LDL resistance to oxidative stress was increased. The conclusion is that antioxidant defense is improved with the supplementation of vitamins C, A and E which were absorbed easily in a solution.

297. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Nov;70(5):1684-9.
Ascorbic acid for amelioration of reperfusion injury in a lung autotransplantation model in sheep.
Demertzis S, Scherer M, Langer F, Dwenger A, Hausen B, Schafers HJ.
This study looks at the ability of ascorbic acid to improve reperfusion injury after experimental lung transplant in sheep. Some animals were given ascorbic acid before reperfusion. The conclusion showed that ascorbic acid reduced reperfusion injury in this study.

298. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov;118(11):1556-63.
Vitamin supplement use and incident cataracts in a population-based study.
Mares-Perlman JA, Lyle BJ, Klein R, Fisher AI, Brady WE, VandenLangenberg GM, Trabulsi JN, Palta M.
The relationship between supplementation and the development of cataracts was studied over 5 years. The results indicated that those who had used vitamins C or E or multivitamins for 10 years were 60% less likely to develop cataracts.

299. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000 Nov;130(11):1080-3.
Cerebroprotective effects of diquertin and ascorbic acid.
Plotnikov MB, Logvinov SV, Pugachenko NV, Maslov MY, Aliev OI, Tyukavina NA, Suslov NI, Potapov AV.
This report briefly mentions that ascorbic acid and diquertin improves ishemic damage in the brain cortex of rats.

300. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Nov 1;36(5):1474-82.
Neutrophil superoxide anion--generating capacity, endothelial function and oxidative stress in chronic heart failure: effects of short- and long-term vitamin C therapy.
Ellis GR, Anderson RA, Lang D, Blackman DJ, Morris RH, Morris-Thurgood J,
McDowell IF, Jackson SK, Lewis MJ, Frenneaux MP.
United Kingdom.
It has been established that vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure (CHF). In this study 55 CHF patients and 15 controls were given short-term or long term vitamin C therapy or placebo. The results indicated that those with CHF had higher values of plasma free radicals than controls. Both short and long term vitamin C therapy reduced free radicals and oxidative stress.

301. J Nephrol. 2000 Nov-Dec;13(6):444-9.
Intravenous ascorbic acid in hemodialysis patients with functional iron deficiency: a clinical trial.
Giancaspro V, Nuzziello M, Pallotta G, Sacchetti A, Petrarulo F.
This study examines the effect of intravenous ascorbic acid (IVAA) on recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) resistance and on functional iron deficiency (FID), which is often a precursor to (rHuEpo) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Two groups of HD patients were given vitamin C either in the first 3, or the last 3 months of the study. The conclusion is that IVAA may remedy FID and therefore rHuEpo hyporesponsive anemia.

302. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Oct;14(10):1303-9.
Ascorbic acid and intestinal metaplasia in the stomach: a prospective, randomized study.
Zullo A, Rinaldi V, Hassan C, Diana F, Winn S, Castagna G, Attili AF.
In this study, 32 patients who had Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) treatment and subsequent intestinal metaplasia received ascorbic acid for 6 months. The control group of33 received no treatment. The results indicated that there was no intestinal metaplasia in 31% of the ascorbic acid patients as opposed to 3% of the control group. Thus, ascorbic acid is an effective treatment for patients following H pylori treatment.

303. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Sep;44(9):2452-7.
Astaxanthin-rich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice.
Wang X, Willen R, Wadstrom T.
In this study, mice were infected with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). One group was treated with vitamin C, another with the carotenoid astaxanthin and the other with placebo. The results indicated that vitamin C and the carotenoid both inhibited group of H pylori leading the authors to suggest antioxidant treatment for H pylori infection in humans.

304. Br J Nutr. 2000 Aug;84(2):165-73.
Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or a combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid protects the gastrointestinal tract of iron-deficient rats against iron-induced oxidative damage during iron repletion.
Srigiridhar K, Nair KM.
Female rats were fed an iron-deficient diet for 5 weeks. The control group was fed an iron-sufficient diet. A number of supplements were tested including vitamins C and E. The results indicated that vitamin C and E protect the gastrointestinal tract of iron deficient rats.

305. J Periodontol. 2000 Aug;71(8):1215-23.
Dietary vitamin C and the risk for periodontal disease.
Nishida M, Grossi SG, Dunford RG, Ho AW, Trevisan M, Genco RJ.
In this study of 12,419 adults, dental information and diet information was gathered. The results indicated that those with a low vitamin C intake had a higher risk of periodontal disease. Smokers and former smokers with low vitamin C intake also had high risk of periodontal disease. The lower the intake of vitamin C, the higher the risk of periodontal disease.

306. Nutr Rev. 2000 Aug;58(8):239-41.
Passive smoking induces oxidant damage preventable by vitamin C.
Jacob RA.
This brief review supports the use of the antioxidant vitamin C as protection against damage from tobacco smoke and air pollutants.

307. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jul 15;29(2):115-24.
Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage in vivo.
Panda K, Chattopadhyay R, Chattopadhyay DJ, Chatterjee IB.
Studies have shown that ascorbic acid has prevented cigarette smoke damage to lung, heart and liver proteins in guinea pigs. The results, applied to humans, indicate that humans may be protected by cigarette smoke oxidative damage by supplementing with high doses of ascorbic acid.

308. Oral Dis. 2000 Jul;6(4):241-7.
Role of vitamins C and E as chemopreventive agents in the hamster cheek pouch treated with the oral carcinogen-DMBA.
Sawant SS, Kandarkar SV.
India. Mouth tumors were created in hamsters and vitamins C and E were applied either together or separately. When treated with either vitamins C or E, there was a significant decrease in the number of tumors compared to the group who received the cancer-inducing agent. The conclusion was that both vitamins C and E inhibited tumor growth.

309. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2000 Nov;20(11):1029-35.
Influence of vitamin C supplementation on cytokine changes following an ultramarathon.
Nieman DC, Peters EM, Henson DA, Nevines EI, Thompson MM.
Plasma cytokines, as a measure of oxidative stress in runners of an ultramarathon, were attenuated on high dose (1,500 mg) vitamin C as opposed to low dose (500mg) which were given one week prior to the race and on race day. Runners on 1,500 mg of vitamin C also had significantly less elevation in cortisol after a race.
PMID: 11096461

310. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001 Aug;10(4):357-64
Plant foods and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.
De Stefani E, Correa P, Boffetta P, Ronco A, Brennan P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M.
In this study the association between plant foods intake and gastric cancer risk was investigated. One hundred and sixty patients with gastric cancer were matched with 320 controls. Total vegetable intake was associated with a reduction in gastric cancer risk, with onions and garlic being significantly protective. The authors suggest that vitamins (vitamin C and carotenoids) and bioactive substances (diallyl sulfide) could be involved in the mechanisms of action of plant foods.

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September 4, 2003

311. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Jun;35(7):1860-6.
Improvement of endothelial function and insulin sensitivity with vitamin C in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of reactive oxygen species.
Hirashima O, Kawano H, Motoyama T, Hirai N, Ohgushi M, Kugiyama K, Ogawa H, Yasue H.
Insulin resistance may be linked to CSA. In this study, 22 patients with coronary spastic angina (CSA) and 20 controls were measured for arterial flow-mediated dilation. Their glucose tolerance levels were also measured and those with CSA were more likely to be glucose intolerant. The results indicated that both insulin sensitivity and endothelial function are enhanced with vitamin C use.

312. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 May 15;151(10):975-81.
Antioxidant nutrients and pulmonary function: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
Hu G, Cassano PA.
This study looks at the function of antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and selenium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data from a national health survey was examined for 18,162 adults. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) of subjects was significantly better in subjects who consumed any of the tested antioxidants. The conclusion was that antioxidant supplementation improves lung function.

313. Poult Sci. 2000 May;79(5):680-8.
Ascorbic acid supplementation improved antibody response to infectious bursal disease vaccination in chickens.
Amakye-Anim J, Lin TL, Hester PY, Thiagarajan D, Watkins BA, Wu CC.
In this study, groups of healthy chickens were exposed to the infectious bursal
disease virus (IBDV) after receiving, or not receiving vaccination against the virus. Some of the chickens had ascorbic acid added to their diets while others did not. The results indicated that when unvaccinated chickens who were given ascorbic acid were exposed to IBDV, they did not have symptoms or death from IBDV. Conversely, 100% of the unsupplemented chickens had symptoms and 30% died. Supplemented chickens also had significant weight gain.

314. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2000 Apr 19;74(1-2):145-52.
Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the immune response of chickens vaccinated and challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.
Wu CC, Dorairajan T, Lin TL.
Two groups of chicks were fed identical diets with one group being supplemented with ascorbic acid. Both groups were also vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD) and then exposed to the IBD virus. The chicks supplemented with ascorbic acid had a significantly better immune response than the control group.

315. Cancer Lett. 2000 Apr 3;151(1):1-5.
Salubrious effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on tamoxifen-treated women in breast cancer with reference to plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels.
Babu JR, Sundravel S, Arumugam G, Renuka R, Deepa N, Sachdanandam P.
This study examines the use of an antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen, which has negative effects on blood cholesterol, in conjunction with vitamins C and E, which have been found to have a positive effect on lipid values. The results indicated that the effectiveness of tamoxifen is increased when combined with vitamins C and E as they diminish the effects of triglyceridemia.

316. Neurology. 2000 Mar 28;54(6):1265-72.
Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men.
Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, Foley DJ, Ross GW, Petrovitch H, Havlik R, White LR.
In this longitudinal study, the use of vitamins C and E was measured in 3,385 men between 1982 and 1993. The results were compared with incidence of dementia and cognitive functioning. The results indicated that those taking vitamins C and E were at lower risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease and they had better cognitive functioning values than those not taking vitamins C and E. Authors conclude that vitamins C and E may prevent dementia and improve cognitive functioning in later life.

317. Arch Surg. 2000 Mar;135(3):326-31.
Reduction of resuscitation fluid volumes in severely burned patients using ascorbic acid administration: a randomized, prospective study.
Tanaka H, Matsuda T, Miyagantani Y, Yukioka T, Matsuda H, Shimazaki S.
The effect of vitamin C on the recuperation of burn victims was measured with 37 burn victims, 19 of whom were administered vitamin C in the first 24 hours of injury. The results indicated that those given vitamin C required significantly less fluid replacement, had less weight gain and fluid retention. There was also lower respiratory dysfunction in the vitamin C group than the controls. Authors recommend infusion of vitamin C in the first 24 hours after a burn injury.

318. In Vivo. 2000 Mar-Apr;14(2):363-6.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) effects on withdrawal syndrome of heroin abusers.
Evangelou A, Kalfakakou V, Georgakas P, Koutras V, Vezyraki P, Iliopoulou L,
Vadalouka A.
In previous studies, ascorbic acid was given to cancer patients to reduce pain and narcotic use. In this study, the effects of high-dose vitamin C in heroin withdrawal was examined. Vitamin C and vitamin E was given to two groups of male heroin addicts for 4 weeks. One group was also given the standard drug and a third group was given only the standard drug. The results indicated that 50% of the vitamin C group experienced mild withdrawal symptoms while the control group had 6.6% experiencing mild withdrawal symptoms. The conclusion is that high dose vitamin C improves withdrawal symptoms and more study is needed to determined ideal dosage.

319. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Feb;21(2):146-50.
Nutrition antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional basketball players: effects of a three compound antioxidative supplement.
Schroder H, Navarro E, Tramullas A, Mora J, Galiano D.
Professional basketball players were given either vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene or placebo for 32 days during competition season. Blood samples indicated that there was lower oxidative stress in the supplemented groups than in the control group. Also, the vitamin C concentration in the control group dropped significantly indicating increased oxidative stress. Thus, antioxidants including vitamin C are noted to decrease oxidative stress in competitive athletes.

320. Surg Neurol. 2000 Feb;53(2):110-7; discussion 117-8.
Cisternal irrigation therapy with urokinase and ascorbic acid for prevention of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Outcome in 217 patients.
Kodama N, Sasaki T, Kawakami M, Sato M, Asari J.
Ascorbic acid was used to irrigate subarachnoid clots following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 217 patients to prevent vasospasm. The results indicated that ascorbic acid was effective in decreasing vasospasm flowing SAH.

321. Anticancer Res. 2000 Jan-Feb;20(1A):113-8.
Anti-metastatic effect of an autooxidation-resistant and lipophilic ascorbic acid derivative through inhibition of tumor invasion.
Liu JW, Nagao N, Kageyama K, Miwa N.
The findings of this study indicate that ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid derivatives hindered the growth of human fibrosarcoma cells injected into mice. The authors concluded that these derivatives are anticipated as potent anti-metastatic agents via inhibition of tumor invasion.
PMID: 10769642

322. Cancer Detect Prev. 2000;24(6):508-23.
New evidence for antioxidant properties of vitamin C.
Vojdani A, Bazargan M, Vojdani E, Wright J.
The conclusion of this randomized controlled trial found that ascorbic acid is an antioxidant and even at high doses (5,000mg) does not act as a pro-oxidant and does not induce mutagenic lesions nor have negative effects on NK cell activity, apoptosis, or cell cycle.
PMID: 11198264

323. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2000;(6):41-3.
Ways of antioxidative prevention of complications in immediate postoperative period in children with nephroblastoma
Ordukhanian ZS, Gorozhanskaia EG, Saltanov AI.
Children with kidney tumors were given either small dose of vitamin C or larger dose of vitamins C and E and postoperative antioxidative system (AOS) function was measured. Reportedly, the larger dose of vitamins C and E was significant in preventing AOS.

324. Vopr Pitan. 2000;69(1-2):44-6.
Biologically active food supplements in comprehensive therapy of patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension and the background of overweight
Rumiantseva OI, Tutel'ian VA, Pogozheva AV, Askol'zina SE, Lysenkova SL.
This brief article indicates that an anti-atherosclerotic diet rich in antioxidants including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene and minerals resulted in lower cholesterol and triglycerides in 80 patients with hypertension.

325. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 Dec;70(3):223-32.
Protective role of intraperitoneally administered vitamins C and E and selenium on the levels of lipid peroxidation in the lens of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin.
Naziroglu M, Dilsiz N, Cay M.
The lenses of diabetic rats were studied after administering vitamin C or vitamin E or selenium. The conclusion is that vitamin C is more effective that vitamin E or beta-carotene in preventing oxidative lens damage.

326. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Dec;8(6):501-8.
Dietary iron and cancer of the rectum: a case-control study in Uruguay.
Deneo-Pellegrini H, De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M.
In this study of iron and its effect on colorectal cancer, it was found that low levels of vitamin C increased the risk of high iron intake being implicated in colorectal cancer.

327. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Dec;18(6):582-90.
Intakes of vitamin C, vegetables and fruits: which schoolchildren are at risk?
Hampl JS, Taylor CA, Johnston CS.
This study of American schoolchildren’s vitamin C intake revealed that a extreme number of children have low vitamin C (less than 30mg/day) and low fruit and vegetable intakes. Children with higher intakes also had higher intakes of folate and B6, and had higher fruit juice, vegetable, and milk intake. The conclusion is that children with higher vitamin C had healthier diets than their low vitamin C counterparts. Parents should ensure children consume 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/daily.

328. Burns. 1999 Nov;25(7):569-74.
High dose vitamin C counteracts the negative interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and early edema generation in thermally injured rats.
Tanaka H, Lund T, Wiig H, Reed RK, Yukioka T, Matsuda H, Shimazaki S.
In this study rats were given dermal burns and then administered high dose vitamin C to see if it would have a positive effect on the interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (P(if)) which is exacerbated by edema following burns. The results indicated that vitamin C significantly reduced edema in the burned rats and reduces negative P(if)

329. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1999 Nov-Dec;62(6):45-7.
The correction of the increased blood viscosity syndrome in brain ischemia in rats with a combination of dikvertin and ascorbic acid] Plotnikov MB, Aliev OI, Maslov MIu, Vasil'ev AS, Tiukavkina NA.
This brief report indicated that brain ischemia in rats was reduced with ascorbic acid and enhances the function of the drug dikvertin.

330. Eur Heart J. 1999 Nov;20(22):1676-80.
Vitamin C improves endothelial function of epicardial coronary arteries in patients with hypercholesterolaemia or essential hypertension--assessed by cold pressor testing.
Jeserich M, Schindler T, Olschewski M, Unmussig M, Just H, Solzbach U.
Patients with hypertension or high cholesterol, and healthy controls were given a cold pressor test before and after administering vitamin C. The results indicate that hypertension and hypercholesterol patients experienced reversal of the vasoconstriction of epicardial coronary arteries following the infusion of vitamin C

331. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;34(5):690-3.
Oral vitamin C reduces arterial stiffness and platelet aggregation in humans.
Wilkinson IB, Megson IL, MacCallum H, Sogo N, Cockcroft JR, Webb DJ.
In this double-blind randomized study, the effect of vitamin C on arterial stiffness and platelet aggregation was measured. The results indicated that as vitamin C blood levels increased, arterial stiffness reduced, even in healthy subjects. Thus, vitamin C may prove to be beneficial treatment for those with cardiovascular disease.

332. Microvasc Res. 1999 Nov;58(3):305-11.
A single high dose of vitamin C counteracts the acute negative effect on microcirculation induced by smoking a cigarette.
Zhang J, Ying X, Lu Q, Kallner A, Xiu RJ, Henriksson P, Bjorkhem I.
This study states that cigarette smoking creates an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants resulting in reduced blood flow. The blood cell flow velocity in 24 healthy subjects was measured before and after smoking. Nearly all subjects experienced drastically decreased blood flow after smoking. However, those given vitamin C before smoking had a 50% less decrease in blood flow. The conclusion is that a single high dose of vitamin C can reduce or eliminate the negative effect smoking has on blood flow.

333. Ren Fail. 1999 Nov;21(6):581-91.
Antioxidants in the prevention of renal disease.
Wardle EN.
This review recommends the use of antioxidant-rich (vitamins C and E) foods in atherosclerosis and renal disease.

334. Avian Dis. 1999 Oct-Dec;43(4):656-63.
The effects of ascorbic acid on in vitro heterophil function.
Andreasen CB, Frank DE.
In vitro heterophils were treated with ascorbic acid and it was found that ascorbic acid had a significant bacterial killing function.

335. Free Radic Res. 1999 Oct;31(4):309-18.
Induction of antioxidant stress proteins in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: protective action of vitamin C against atherogenic lipoproteins.
Siow RC, Sato H, Leake DS, Ishii T, Bannai S, Mann GE.
This review reports that dietary vitamin C provides a defense against LDL-induced smooth muscle cell apoptosis and may limit plaque instability in atherosclerosis.

336. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Oct;18(5):451-61.
Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Anderson JW, Gowri MS, Turner J, Nichols L, Diwadkar VA, Chow CK, Oeltgen PR.
Diabetic men were assessed for LDL oxidation levels and treated with vitamins C and E, and beta-carotene for 12 weeks. As a result, all factors of LDL oxidation were significantly decreased. This decreased risk of LDL oxidation can significantly decrease risk of coronary heart disease.

337. Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 Oct;22(8):530-3.
The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections.
Gorton HC, Jarvis K.
In this study test subjects treated cold and flu symptoms with megadoses of vitamin C compared to control subjects who treated symptoms with medications. Those taking vitamin C reported an 85% decrease in cold and flu symptoms, concluding that megadose vitamin C taken before or after onset of cold and flu symptoms alleviated and stopped symptoms.

338. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Sep 1;60(3):895-904.
Antioxidant vitamins and the prevention of coronary heart disease.
Adams AK, Wermuth EO, McBride PE.
In this review, it is cited that antioxidants can help prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) and those who consume more antioxidants have lower risk for CHD. Patients with CHD are recommended to taker vitamin C in a dose of 500 mg or 1000 mg/daily. There is also the recommendation that high-risk patients take antioxidants as a preventative of CHD.

339. J Foot Ankle Surg. 1999 Sep-Oct;38(5):333-8.
The effects of a moderate and high dose of vitamin C on wound healing in a controlled guinea pig model.
Silverstein RJ, Landsman AS.
Male guinea pigs were fed either a moderate or high dose of vitamin C to supplement their diet. An incision was made on each animal and the wounds were examined for 21 days. The results indicated that vitamin C supplementation may result in faster healing and strength in the skin. The higher dose of vitamin C had more significant results than the moderate dose of vitamin C.

340. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Aug;41(2 Pt 1):207-8.
Treatment of progressive pigmented purpura with oral bioflavonoids and ascorbic acid: an open pilot study in 3 patients.
Reinhold U, Seiter S, Ugurel S, Tilgen W.
In this report, 3 patients with chronic progressive pigmented purpura (PPP) were administered a bioflavonoid and ascorbic acid orally for 4 weeks. The results indicated a total clearing of all skin lesions in all 3 patients. The authors call for controlled studies of this therapy.

341. Neuroreport. 1999 Jul 13;10(10):2039-43.
Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol attenuate methylmalonic acid-induced convulsions.
Fighera MR, Queiroz CM, Stracke MP, Brauer MC, Gonzalez-Rodriguez LL,
Frussa-Filho R, Wajner M, de Mello CF.
Rats were given vitamin E, melatonin, or placebo for 7 days. They were then given ascorbic acid before being injected with methylmalonic acid (MMA). The rats were monitored for convulsions and rotational behavior. The vitamins C and E resulted in a decrease in convulsions and rotational behavior in the rats. Thus vitamins C and E may reduce the convulsive effects of MMA.

342. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jun;69(6):1086-107.
Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans.
Carr AC, Frei B.
Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331, USA.
This 1999 report indicates that the RDA for vitamin C is 60 mg/day, which was based on the requirement (46 mg/day) to prevent scurvy. This amount is not seen as being beneficial to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and cataract and so recommends that the RDA be 120 mg/day.

343. Eur Respir J. 1999 Jun;13(6):1439-46.
Modulation of the acute respiratory effects of winter air pollution by serum and dietary antioxidants: a panel study.
Grievink L, van der Zee SC, Hoek G, Boezen HM, van't Veer P, Brunekreef B.
The Netherlands.
The peak expiratory flow (PEF) levels were measured in 227 adults with chronic respiratory symptoms. Their intake of vitamin C and beta-carotene were also measured. The results indicated that vitamin C and beta-carotene might moderate decreases in PEF in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms.

344. Am Surg. 1999 May;65(5):478-83.
Antioxidant therapy in the prevention of organ dysfunction syndrome and infectious complications after trauma: early results of a prospective randomized study.
Porter JM, Ivatury RR, Azimuddin K, Swami R.
Studies have shown that trauma patients have decreased antioxidant defenses. In this study 18 trauma patients were either in a control group or in a group receiving antioxidant supplements including vitamins C and E for 7 days. The antioxidant group had fewer infections, fewer organ dysfunctions vs. the control group. The authors call for larger trials to confirm the use of vitamins C and E on severely injured patients to prevent multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

345. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;53(5):367-74.
Do iron and vitamin C co-supplementation influence platelet function or LDL oxidizability in healthy volunteers?
Yang M, Collis CS, Kelly M, Diplock AT, Rice-Evans C.
The International Antioxidant Research Centre, The Guy's King's College, and UK.
This study showed a moderate benefit of vitamin C and iron supplementation on LDL and platelet function in healthy subjects.
PMID: 10369491

346. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1999 May;69(3):198-205.
The potential preventive effects of vitamins for cataract and age-related macular degeneration.
Jacques PF.
This review recommends the use of antioxidant supplementation in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration, which contribute to blindness.

347. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Apr;18(2):166-70.
The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the blood lead levels of smokers.
Dawson EB, Evans DR, Harris WA, Teter MC, McGanity WJ.
Three groups of male smokers were given either a placebo, 200 mg of ascorbic acid or 1000 mg of ascorbic acid for 4 weeks. Urine and blood levels of ascorbic acid and lead were measured before and after supplementation. The results indicated that there was an 81% decrease in the blood levels of lead in the group receiving 1000 mg of ascorbic acid.

348. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1999 Apr;45(2):163-71.
Contribution of a high dose of L-ascorbic acid to carnitine synthesis in guinea pigs fed high-fat diets.
Otsuka M, Matsuzawa M, Ha TY, Arakawa N.
In this study, guinea pigs were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented with either ascorbic acid or carnitine. Their triglycerides and carnitine synthesis was measured. The results indicated that triglycerides were significantly lower in the ascorbic acid group and that high dose ascorbic acid could enhance carnitine synthesis.

349. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 17;91(6):547-56.
Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer.
Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Willett WC.
In this Nurses’ Health Study, data regarding 83,234 women was reviewed and 2,697 incidence of breast cancer were reported. Analysis of the long-term intake of vitamins C, A and E revealed a decline in breast cancer risk with the increase intake of vitamin C. Women with intake of 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables had a lower risk of breast cancer.

350. Circulation. 1999 Mar 9;99(9):1156-60.
Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia: an effect reversible with vitamin C therapy.
Chambers JC, McGregor A, Jean-Marie J, Obeid OA, Kooner JS.
Arterial diameter was measured in 17 healthy volunteers before and after they were given either vitamin C or methionine. The authors conclude that vitamin C can prevent impairment of vascular endothelial function
PMID: 10069782

351. J Pediatr. 1999 Mar;134(3):352-4.
Respiratory chain complex III [correction of complex] in deficiency with pruritus: a novel vitamin responsive clinical feature.
Mowat D, Kirby DM, Kamath KR, Kan A, Thorburn DR, Christodoulou J.
In this brief report, a child with respiratory chain deficiency, developmental delay and severe pruritus tested for cirrhosis had improvement in symptoms after treatment with vitamin C and menadione (a fat soluble vitamin).

352. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Feb 22;104(3):221-9.
Impact of massive ascorbic acid supplementation on alcohol induced oxidative stress in guinea pigs.
Suresh MV, Sreeranjit Kumar CV, Lal JJ, Indira M.
Alcohol-induced oxidative stress was alleviated in guinea pigs with ascorbic acid. Lipid peroxidation in the liver was reduced with ascorbic acid, as was toxicity. In addition, levels of vitamin E, which were reduced by alcohol, were raised by ascorbic acid given with alcohol. Thus, ascorbic acid reduces the impact of alcohol relative oxidative stress.

353. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1999;119(3-4):121-6.
Large-dose ascorbic acid administration suppresses the development of arthritis in adjuvant-infected rats.
Sakai A, Hirano T, Okazaki R, Okimoto N, Tanaka K, Nakamura T.
In this study, arthritis was induced in rats and they were given doses of ascorbic acid and monitored. The administration of ascorbic acid resulted in a marked reduction in arthritis development compared to the control group. The authors concluded that high doses of ascorbic acid reduced the development of edema and arthritis in rats.

354. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1999 Jan;69(1):41-4.
Substrate utilization and work efficiency during submaximal exercise in vitamin C depleted-repleted adults.
Johnston CS, Swan PD, Corte C.
In this study 9 vitamin C deficient but healthy adults had their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) measured. They were given a placebo for 3 weeks and then were tested in a 90-minute walk then given vitamin C for 2 weeks and tested in the walk again. Following supplementation, blood levels of vitamin C tripled and carontine levels reduced. The walk performed after vitamin C supplementation was at a higher gross efficiency rate than the non-supplemented walk. Thus, vitamin C deficiency leads to reduced work efficiency.

355. J Bone Miner Res. 1999 Jan;14(1):129-35.
Smoking, antioxidant vitamins, and the risk of hip fracture.
Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Holmberg L, Wolk A, Ljunghall S.
In this study, the correlation between vitamins C and E intake, smoking and hip fracture was examined. The results indicated that with the increased intake of vitamins C and E, the risk of hip fracture reduced. Smokers with a low vitamins C and E intake had an even greater risk of hip fracture. Diets deficient in vitamin C and vitamin E can increase the risk of hip fracture in smokers. Appropriate intake of vitamins C and E may prevent hip fracture.

356. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1999;19(1):53-9.
Protection and induction of chromosomal damage by vitamin C in human lymphocyte cultures.
Antunes LM, Takahashi CS.
This study revealed that 500 or 1,000 microg/ml doses of vitamin C can prevent chromosomal damage from chemotherapy

357. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998 Dec;7(6):449-54.
Effects of high dose vitamin C treatment on Helicobacter pylori infection and total vitamin C concentration in gastric juice.
Jarosz M, Dzieniszewski J, Dabrowska-Ufniarz E, Wartanowicz M, Ziemlanski S,
Reed PI.
In this study 60 patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastritis were put into 2 groups; one group treated with antacids and the second group treated with vitamin C. In the control group, the H. pylori infection did not change in any of the patients, nor did the vitamin C levels. In the vitamin C group, the H. pylori infection was eliminated. The authors call for further studies to confirm results.

358. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Dec;25(9):1006-12.
Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation.
Fuchs J, Kern H.
In this placebo controlled study of the effects vitamin C, vitamin E, or vitamins C and E combined have on sunburn indicated that a combination of vitamins C and E suppressed sunburn reaction whereas the vitamins on there own did not have a significant effect.

359. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Jun;52(2):285-92.
Vitamin C decreases intracellular calcium level in human lymphoid cells.
Ozturk G, Mulholland CW, Hannigan BM.
This brief review indicated that vitamin C can minimize cell damage by calcium influx into leukocytes.

360. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 May;15(5):677-87.
Role of reactive oxygen metabolites in aspirin-induced gastric damage in humans: gastroprotection by vitamin C.
Pohle T, Brzozowski T, Becker JC, Van der Voort IR, Markmann A, Konturek SJ, Moniczewski A, Domschke W, Konturek JW.
Patients with gastric damage caused by aspirin were examined. ASA was found to cause lesions, suppressed gastric blood flow, and reduced vitamin C levels. Adding vitamin C reduced gastric damage and reversed negative effects from ASA. Thus the antioxidant properties of vitamin C protect from ASA related gastric damage.

==50 ---359

361. Circulation. 2001 Apr 10;103(14):1863-8.
Serum vitamin C concentration is low in peripheral arterial disease and is associated with inflammation and severity of atherosclerosis.
Langlois M, Duprez D, Delanghe J, De Buyzere M, Clement DL.
In this study, the vitamin C levels of 85 Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients, 106 hypertension patients and 113 healthy subjects. The results indicated that overall vitamin C levels in PAD patients were low and 14% had vitamin C deficiency. This was not so in the other groups. Levels of Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were high in PAD patients and the incidence lowered with increased intake of vitamin C. In conclusion, lower vitamin C levels are related to high CRP levels and severity of PAD.

362. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2001 Apr;92(4):99-104.
High-dose vitamin C therapy for inclusion body myositis.
Yamada T, Minohara M, Imaiso Y, Sakae N, Hara H, Tanaka K, Yamamoto T, Taniwaki T, Furuya H, Kira J.
In this study, 5 patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM), an inflammatory muscle disease, were treated with intravenous vitamin C, 5 times/week for 4 weeks. Muscle weakness improved in 3 cases, thus vitamin C was found to be effective in treating some cases of IBM.

363. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Mar 30;282(2):409-15.
Vitamin C augments chemotherapeutic response of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by stabilizing P53.
Reddy VG, Khanna N, Singh N.
This review indicates that a vitamin C can be used to stabilize P53 to enhance its ability to destroy potentially cancerous cells in the human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

364. JAMA. 2001 Mar 28;285(12):1607-12.
Association of maternal endothelial dysfunction with preeclampsia.
Chambers JC, Fusi L, Malik IS, Haskard DO, De Swiet M, Kooner JS.
Blood vessel dilation was measured in 113 women with previous preeclampsia and 48 women with previous healthy pregnancies. Then 15 women from each group were given ascorbic acid. The results indicated that endothelial function that has been impaired by previous preeclampsia can be reversed with vitamin C.

365. Circulation. 2001 Mar 27;103(12):1618-23.
Ascorbate restores endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by acute hyperglycemia in humans.
Beckman JA, Goldfine AB, Gordon MB, Creager MA.
In this study, endothelium-dependent vasodilation was diminished when hyperglycemia was induced in healthy subjects. However, when vitamin C was administered with the glucose to induce hyperglycemia, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation was restored.

366. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Mar 23;62(6):431-8.
Effects of nickel chloride on human platelets: enhancement of lipid peroxidation, inhibition of aggregation and interaction with ascorbic acid.
This study cites that nickel (Ni) is toxic to human platelet function, increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. When treated with ascorbic acid, the MDA were significantly reduced and the platelet aggregation levels were increased. Thus ascorbic acid is seen as providing protection against Ni in humans.

367. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2001 Mar;90(436):3-5.
Is oxidative stress involved in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia?
Poston L, Chappell LC.
This brief review states that preeclampsia, which often results in premature delivery can be prevented with early supplementation with vitamins C and E in high-risk women.

368. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Mar-Apr;64(3-4):164-71.
Randomized intervention study comparing several regimens for the treatment of moderate anemia among refugee children in Kigoma Region, Tanzania.
Tomashek KM, Woodruff BA, Gotway CA, Bloland P, Mbaruku G.
In this randomized, double-blind study, 215 anemic children who were treated for malaria were then given vitamin and mineral supplements to restore iron levels. It was found that those given a combination of vitamins C and A had a more normal iron store level than the other groups. Thus the recommendation is to use vitamins C and A in combination to fully restore iron levels.

369. Br J Haematol. 2001 Mar;112(3):783-6.
Arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid: synergy with potential implications for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia?
Bachleitner-Hofmann T, Gisslinger B, Grumbeck E, Gisslinger H.
Ascorbic acid has been used to increase the effectiveness of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in killing promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. This study reports that As203, combined with ascorbic acid may also be effective in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

370. Clin Ter. 2001 Mar-Apr;152(2):87-90.
Determination of the blood ascorbic acid level after administration of slow-release vitamin CDe Lorenzo A, Andreoli A, Sinibaldi Salimei P, D'Orazio, Guidi A, Ghiselli A.
Smokers and non-smokers were tested for ascorbic acid levels and all subjects were found to have low levels. This review recommends slow-release vitamin C for smokers and non-smokers to maintain blood levels of ascorbic acid.

371. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001 Mar;13(3):233-7.
Helicobacter pylori infection reduces systemic availability of dietary vitamin C.
Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H, McColl K.
In this study 1106 subjects were tested for Helicobacter pylori infection, vitamin C levels. The results indicated that vitamin C levels in subjects infected with H pylori was 65% of that in uninfected subjects. The presence of infection lowers the bio-availability of vitamin C. Furthermore, low levels of vitamin C in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects may lead to gastric cancer.

372. Free Radic Res. 2001 Mar;34(3):209-19.
Protective effects of vitamins C and E on the number of micronuclei in lymphocytes in smokers and their role in ascorbate free radical formation in plasma.
Schneider M, Diemer K, Engelhart K, Zankl H, Trommer WE, Biesalski HK.
It has been established that vitamin C is an antioxidant that can protect against free radical damage from smoking. In this study 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers were given vitamin C for 7 days and then a combination of vitamins C and E for 7 days. The results indicated that levels of vitamins C and E were lower in smokers than in non-smokers. The DNA damages were reduced and there were higher vitamin C levels. It was concluded that vitamin C reduces DNA damage in smokers.

373. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2001 Mar;38(2):224-8.
Successful treatment of an elderly patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic
purpura accompanied with chronic subdural hematoma, using a Chinese herbal
medicine, EK-49, and ascorbic acid
Hirano A, Ueoka H.
In this review, an 88-year-old woman was diagnosed with Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and treated with a herbal medicine EK-49 and ascorbic acid. The results of the treatment were a increase in platelet count. Thus, a combination of EK-49 and ascorbic acid may be used to treat ITP.

374. Circulation. 2001 Feb 13;103(6):826-30.
Vitamin C augments the inotropic response to dobutamine in humans with normal left ventricular function.
Mak S, Newton GE.
In this study, vitamin C was found to help the muscle contraction response to dobutamine in humans.

375. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2):283-7.
Improving iron absorption from a Peruvian school breakfast meal by adding ascorbic acid or Na2EDTA.
Davidsson L, Walczyk T, Zavaleta N, Hurrell R.
This study concluded that large doses of ascorbic acid increased the absorption of iron in children’s food.

376. Hypertension. 2001 Feb;37(2):261-7.
Ascorbic acid status and subsequent diastolic and systolic blood pressure.
In this study of 68 men with normal blood pressure, they had a controlled diet including fruits and vegetables and one month of vitamin C depletion followed by one month of vitamin C repletion. The results indicated that those with lower intakes of vitamin C had higher blood pressure levels. The conclusion was that ascorbic acid may be important to the maintenance of low blood pressure.

377. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Feb;37(2):517-20.
Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress mechanisms in patients with Behcet's syndrome.
Chambers JC, Haskard DO, Kooner JS.
United Kingdom.
In this study of 12 patients with Behcet's syndrome, a chronic inflammatory disease of the blood vessels, and 12 controls, the blood vessel dilation was measured before and after administration of vitamin C. The results indicated that vitamin C increased the flow-mediated dilation, thus would be a good treatment for those with Behcet's syndrome.

378. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001 Feb;47(1):28-31.
Ascorbic acid protects against peroxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein, maintaining its recognition by LDL receptors.
Sakuma N, Yoshikawa M, Hibino A, Sato A, Kamiya Y, Ohte N, Tamai N, Kijnimatsu M, Kimura G, Inoue M.
The protective effects of ascorbic acid against LDL peroxidation are studied and the results indicate that ascorbic acid protects LDL against oxidative deterioration. This could contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis.

379. Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2001 Feb;14(1):50-3.
Inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols and vitamin C on lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4- cysteine in isolated human plasma and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver free radical injury in mice
Zhang QJ, Li T, Zhan H, Xin YM.
This study showed that vitamin C had an restraining effect on free radical damage in the liver.

380. Acta Biochim Pol. 2001;48(1):233-40.
Protective action of vitamin C against DNA damage induced by selenium-cisplatin conjugate.
Blasiak J, Kowalik J.
This study examines whether vitamin C can prevent toxins in cancer drugs from damaging DNA. Preliminary research indicates that vitamin C has protective agents against toxic anti-cancer drugs but further research is warranted.

381. Adv Perit Dial. 2001;17:215-8.
Oral intake and serum levels of ascorbic acid in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.
Lim SL, Lee EJ, Myint CC, Ong KT, Tay ME, Yusuf N, Ong CN.
Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) lose ascorbic acid through oxidative stress, loss of appetite and through dialysis. Thus it is recommended that CAPD patients supplement with more than the RDA of ascorbic acid.

382. Clin Chim Acta. 2001 Jan;303(1-2):19-24.
Oxidative stress and antioxidants in epilepsy.
Sudha K, Rao AV, Rao A.
In this study, antioxidant blood levels were measured in 29 epileptic patients and 50 healthy controls. The results indicated that lipid peroxidation was higher in epileptics than controls and their vitamins C and A levels were significantly lower. After antioxidant treatment, blood levels became normal suggesting that epilepsy is linked to free radicals and could be improved with antioxidants

383. Diabetes. 2001 Jan;50(1):159-65.
Obesity and body fat distribution induce endothelial dysfunction by oxidative stress: protective effect of vitamin C.
Perticone F, Ceravolo R, Candigliota M, Ventura G, Iacopino S, Sinopoli F,
Mattioli PL.
In this study, the impact of oxidative stress on endothelial dysfunction in obese subjects was examined. The results indicated that obese subjects had significantly lower measured blood flow than non-obese subjects and the blood flow impairment decreased when vitamin C was administered. Thus oxidative stress is seen as being a contributing factor to endothelial dysfunction.

384. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 Jan;16(1):135-40.
Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.
Morton DJ, Barrett-Connor EL, Schneider DL.
In this study the bone mineral density (BMD) of 994 women, 277 of whom were regular vitamin C users was measured. The results indicated that the vitamin C users had greater BMD. Those who were taking vitamin C and estrogen had higher BMD as well. Thus vitamin C is seen as having a positive impact on BMD, especially when used with calcium and estrogen.

385. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001 Jan;49(1):109-20.
In vivo reactivation of DNases in implanted human prostate tumors after administration of a vitamin C/K(3) combination.
Taper HS, Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J, Gwin CA, Gordon T, Summers JL.
This study revealed that administration of a vitamin C and vitamin K(3) combination increased DNase activity in mice injected with human prostate cancer cells.

386. Circulation. 2001 Feb 13;103(6):826-30.
Vitamin C augments the inotropic response to dobutamine in humans with normal left ventricular function.
Mak S, Newton GE.
In patients with normal ventricular function, vitamin C administered with dobutamine increased the left ventricle response to the dobutamine, a cardiac stimulant.

387. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Feb;280(2):H528-34.
Effect of ascorbic acid treatment on conduit vessel endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension.
Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, Hunter LM, Biegelsen ES, Huang A, Keaney JF Jr, Vita JA.
In this double-blind placebo controlled study, 39 patients with hypertension and 89 healthy subjects were measured and vitamin C was found to reduce blood pressure. The authors suggest further study to determine the effect of vitamin C on endothelial dysfunction.

388. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Dec;36(7):2185-91.
Oral glucose loading acutely attenuates endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy adults without diabetes: an effect prevented by vitamins C and E.
Title LM, Cummings PM, Giddens K, Nassar BA.
In this double-blind placebo study, 10 healthy subjects were administered glucose to induce hyperglycemia. When the glucose was administered with vitamins C and E, there was no increase in plasma glucose and insulin levels. The flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also measured and the levels fell after glucose administration but did not change when glucose was administered with vitamins C and E . Thus vitamins C and E helps prevent a decrease in FMD that is glucose induced.

389. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2000 Dec;13(4):408-11.
In vitro activity of ascorbic acid
Lopez-Brea M, Domingo D, Alarcon T.
Samples of Helicobacter pylori bacteria were infused with ascorbic acid in vitro and the results indicated that ascorbic acid was active against the H. pylori bacteria.

390. Toxicology. 2000 Nov 30;155(1-3):45-53.
Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders.
Hanninen, Kaartinen K, Rauma AL, Nenonen M, Torronen R, Hakkinen AS, Adlercreutz H, Laakso J.
This study indicates that an uncooked vegan diet, (called living food, LF) which is high in vitamins C and E, carotene is beneficial to fibromyalgic patients as it reduced inflammation and pain in joints. Similar results were also reported by rheumatoid arthritis patients who also benefited from this antioxidant-rich diet.

391. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72(5):1095-100.
HDL-cholesterol-raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia.
Kurowska EM, Spence JD, Jordan J, Wetmore S, Freeman DJ, Piche LA, Serratore P.
Departments of Biochemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
In this study, consuming 750 ml/day of orange juice proved to increase folate, HDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concentrations and decrease the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio. The authors agree with the recommendation of consuming 5-10 servings of fruit and vegetables/day.

392. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000 Nov;20(11):2401-6.
Effect of vitamin C on forearm blood flow and glucose metabolism in essential hypertension.
Natali A, Sironi AM, Toschi E, Camastra S, Sanna G, Perissinotto A, Taddei S, Ferrannini E.
In this study of patients with hypertension, the infusion of vitamin C created a rise in forearm blood flow. The result was a significant improvement in endothelium functioning.

393. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000 Nov;130(11):1055-7.
Effects of ascorbic acid on lipid peroxidation and functional state of neutrophils at the early period after transurethral resection of the prostate.
Volchegorskii IA, Vasil'kov AY.
This review states that infusing ascorbic acid for 3 days following prostate surgery reduced the risk of infection and inflammation. The ascorbic acid also enhanced the efficiency of prodigiozan, an antibiotic.

394. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Nov;93(1):37-9.
Vitamin E and C in preeclampsia.
Kharb S.
This review indicates that women with preeclampsia had significantly lower levels of vitamins C and E than women without preeclampsia. Thus, antioxidants could be used in treating preeclampsia.

395. J Hypertens. 2000 Nov;18(11):1665-9.
Systemic and renal effect of nicotine in non-smokers: influence of vitamin C.
Halimi JM, Mimran A.
Healthy non-smokers were given either nicotine gum, vitamin C or both. The results indicated that vitamin C prevented a fall in guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is induced by nicotine. Also, vitamin C may reduce the degradation of nitric oxide.

396. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2000 Nov-Dec;57(6):647-55.
Therapeutic value of antioxidants and calcium channel blockers in patients in the acute phase of closed head injuries
Raicevic R, Jovicic A, Markovic T, Marenovic T, Djordjevic D, Magdic B, Peric P.
In this study, 120 patients with closed head injuries (CHI) received vitamins C and E and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB). Sixty CHI patients did not receive any intervention. Those receiving vitamins C and E and CCB had significantly better recovery rates in neurological deficiency, functioning, and consciousness than the control group. Authors conclude that ascorbic acid and CCB should be part of acute treatment for CHI.

397. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Oct;5(5):455-62.
The use of ascorbigen in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients: a preliminary trial.
Bramwell B, Ferguson S, Scarlett N, Macintosh A.
It was found that a blend of ascorbigen and broccoli powder decreased the physical impairment and total fibromyalgia impact scores in 12 women with fibromyalgia. The authors recommend that double-blind studies be conducted to verify the results.

398. Ann Epidemiol. 2000 Oct;10(7):417-23.
Differences and trends in antioxidant dietary intake in smokers and non-smokers, 1980-1992: the Minnesota Heart Survey.
Phillips EL, Arnett DK, Himes JH, McGovern PG, Blackburn H, Luepker RV.
This report indicates that non-smokers take in significantly higher amounts of antioxidants including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene than smokers.

399. Ann Pharmacother. 2000 Oct;34(10):1193-7.
Vitamin C in the prevention of nitrate tolerance.
Daniel TA, Nawarskas JJ.
This review indicates that vitamin C may play a role in preventing nitrate tolerance and that studies to confirm this role are warranted.

400. Biosci Rep. 2000 Oct;20(5):411-7.
Combined vitamins Bl2b and C induce the glutathione depletion and the death of epidermoid human larynx carcinoma cells HEp-2.
Akatov VS, Evtodienko YV, Leshchenko VV, Teplova VV, Potselueva MM, Kruglov AG, Lezhnev EI, Yakubovskaya RI.
When vitamin C and vitamin B12 are used in combination on in vitro tumor cells, hydrogen peroxide is produced. This causes a drop in glutathione and then cell death.

401. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2000 Oct;26(5):377-81.
Antioxidant nutrients and lipid peroxide levels in Thai preeclamptic pregnant women.
Panburana P, Phuapradit W, Puchaiwatananon O.
Vitamins C, A and E levels were measured in 50 women with preeclampsia and 60 normal pregnant women. The results indicated that women with mild and severe preeclampsia had significantly lower vitamin C levels than the control group. The conclusion is that imbalance in levels of lipid peroxides and vitamins C and E increase the severity of preeclampsia.

402. Stroke. 2000 Oct;31(10):2287-94.
Serum vitamin C concentration was inversely associated with subsequent 20-year incidence of stroke in a Japanese rural community. The Shibata study.
Yokoyama T, Date C, Kokubo Y, Yoshiike N, Matsumura Y, Tanaka H.
In this study, 880 men and 1241 women were measured for serum vitamin C levels and followed from 1977 until 1997. During this period, 196 strokes were reported.
The results included that incidence of stroke increased significantly with decreased intake of vitamin C.

403. Thromb Res. 2000 Oct 1;100(1):35-41.
The effect of vitamin C supplementation on coagulability and lipid levels in healthy male subjects.
Tofler GH, Stec JJ, Stubbe I, Beadle J, Feng D, Lipinska I, Taylor A.
In this study, 18 healthy males with low vitamin C levels were given either 2 g of vitamin C or a placebo. Those receiving the placebo high 10% higher cholesterol levels than the vitamin C subjects. Those with low vitamin C levels had higher levels of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, which is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

404. Cas Lek Cesk. 2000 Sep 27;139(19):583-7.
Antioxidative properties of ascorbic acid
Racek J, Holecek V, Trefil L.
In this review, the authors discuss the benefits of vitamin C and that it can work synergistically with other antioxidants to provide prevention against diseases.

405. Med Pregl. 2001 May-Jun;54(5-6):235-40
Erythropoietin-beta in the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency
Dimkovic N.
This review briefly states that vitamin C is beneficial to hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency.

406. Circulation. 2000 Jul 4;102(1):96-103
Alterations by norepinephrine of cardiac sympathetic nerve terminal function and myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in the ferret: normalization by antioxidant vitamins.
Liang C, Rounds NK, Dong E, Stevens SY, Shite J, Qin F.
It was established that excessive amounts of norepinephrine (NE) causes heart abnormalities. In this study, ferrets that had been given NE were fed either antioxidants (vitamins C and E and beta-carotene) or placebo. The results indicated that the antioxidants had reversed all negative NE effects compared to the placebo group. Thus antioxidant therapy is seen as being a beneficial treatment for heart failure.

407. Circulation. 1998 Mar 10;97(9):886-91.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ascorbate on the preventive effect of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure.
Watanabe H, Kakihana M, Ohtsuka S, Sugishita Y.
Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) received either nitroglycerin with placebo or vitamin C. The results indicated that those receiving vitamin C had higher platelet counts, which were maintained 18 hours compared to the control group. Thus, vitamin C may stop nitrate tolerance, which can lead to CHF.

408. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1997 Jan-Feb;39(4):287-324.
Endothelial dysfunction: clinical implications.
Drexler H.
This review cites the use of vitamin C in restoring normal endothelial function which may prevent atherosclerosis .

409. Rev Saude Publica. 1994 Apr;28(2):121-6
Serum levels of vitamin A, E, C and B2, carotenoid and zinc in hospitalized elderly patients]
Vannucchi H, da Cunha DF, Bernardes MM, Unamuno MR.
In this study of 202 hospitalized elderly patients, blood levels for vitamins C, E, A and B2 were measured. The results indicated that a significant number of patients were deficient in most vitamins with 56.5% being deficient in vitamin C. Thus the nutrition of elderly patients needs to be factored into their treatment.

410. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Jul 24 [Epub ahead of print].
Oral Antioxidant Therapy Improves Endothelial Function in Type 1 but not Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Beckman JA, Goldfine AB, Gordon MB, Garrett LA, Keaney JF, Creager MA.
In this study, 49 diabetics received either vitamins C and E or a placebo for 6 months and their endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) was measured. It was determined that vitamins C and E improves EDV in Type I diabetes.

411. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Jul;94(1):61-72.
Enhanced testicular antioxidant capacity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: protective role of vitamins C and E and selenium.
Naziroglu M.
Diabetes is suspected to cause oxidative damage, which can lead to testicular dysfunction and infertility. In this study, diabetic rats were administered combinations of vitamins C, E, and selenium for 21 days. The results indicated that the levels of lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde; MDA) were lower in the vitamins C and E group than in the control group. The authors conclude that vitamins C, E, and selenium significantly protected rat testes from the oxidative damage inflicted by diabetes.

412. Arch Intern Med. 2003 May 12;163(9):1064-8.
Use of medications and dietary supplements in later years among male former top-level athletes.
Kujala UM, Sarna S, Kaprio J.
In this study, it was indicated that former top athletes (from 1920-1965) had lower intakes of heart and stomach medication and higher intakes of vitamins C, A, B, and E.

413. Magnes Res. 2003 Mar;16(1):13-9.
Effect of magnesium supplementation on oxidative stress in alloxanic diabetic rats.
Hans CP, Chaudhary DP, Bansal DD.
In this study, diabetic rats had lower levels of vitamins C and E and magnesium and antioxidant enzymes and higher levels of malondialdehyde (free radicals) as compared to the control group. The supplementation of magnesium significantly increased vitamin C levels and that of other antioxidants in diabetic rats.

414. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Feb;125(2):330-5.
Is vitamin C superior to diltiazem for radial artery vasodilation in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting?
Drossos GE, Toumpoulis IK, Katritsis DG, Ioannidis JP, Kontogiorgi P, Svarna E, Anagnostopoulos CE.
The effectiveness of vitamin C as a vasodilator was compared to diltiazem, a medicinal vasodilator. In this double-blind random study, vitamin C was given to 15 healthy smokers and 15 non-smokers. The results were compared with those of patients with coronary artery disease. Those taking vitamin C had a greater measurement in the dilation of the radial artery than those taking the drug. Thus, vitamin C is a powerful vasodilator in both smokers and non-smokers and is superior to the drug diltiazem.

415. J Thromb Haemost. 2003 Jan;1(1):171-7.
Protective effects of vitamin C on endothelium damage and platelet activation during myocardial infarction in patients with sustained generation of circulating microparticles.
Morel O, Jesel L, Hugel B, Douchet MP, Zupan M, Chauvin M, Freyssinet JM, Toti F.
High levels of procoagulant microparticles (MP) are produced during myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, 61 MI patients were given vitamin C treatment for 5 days before and after measuring MP levels. The results indicated that vitamin C recipients had a reduction in MP levels. Furthermore, patients with diabetes, dyslipidemia, and other cardiovascular risk factors had an MP reduction of 70%. Thus, MI is seen as causing oxidative stress and vitamin C is beneficial in treatment.

416. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Dec;86(12):1369-73
Protective role of oral antioxidant supplementation in ocular surface of diabetic patients.
Peponis V, Papathanasiou M, Kapranou A, Magkou C, Tyligada A, Melidonis A, Drosos T, Sitaras NM.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical that can cause eye damage in diabetic patients. In this study, 50 diabetic patients were given vitamins C and E for 10 days and their nitrite levels were measured. The results indicated that nitrite levels significantly reduced after vitamins C and E treatment. Thus vitamins C and E supplementation is seen as an effective combatant against NO oxidative stress.

417. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 Nov;61(4):527-36.
Effect of social variation on the Irish diet.
Kelleher C, Friel S, Nolan G, Forbes B.
This review indicates that in Ireland, the upper social classes have higher levels of vitamin C.

418. Biomed Environ Sci. 2003 Mar;16(1):1-8.
Protection against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by oral pretreatment with quercetin.
Su JF, Guo CJ, Wei JY, Yang JJ, Jiang YG, Li YF.
This article briefly mentions that ascorbic acid has a positive effect on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

419. Pharmazie. 2002 Apr;57(4):265-9.
Effects of ascorbic acid and sodium selenite on growth and redifferentiation in human hepatoma cells and its mechanisms.
Zheng QS, Zheng RL.
This study reports that the growth rate of liver cancer cells decreased when treated with ascorbic acid and sodium selenite (SS). Thus the combination of ascorbic acid and SS may be a legitimate treatment for liver cancer.

420. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;53(10):1393-401.
Individual and synergistic antioxidative actions of melatonin: studies with vitamin E, vitamin C, glutathione and desferrioxamine (desferoxamine) in rat liver homogenates.
Gitto E, Tan DX, Reiter RJ, Karbownik M, Manchester LC, Cuzzocrea S, Fulia F, Barberi I.
This report cites evidence that melatonin, combined with vitamin C is protective against iron-induced lipid peroxidation.

421. Pediatr Surg Int. 2000;16(4):297-301
The impact of hepatic xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase activities on liver function in chronic cholestasis.
Schimpl G, Pesendorfer P, Kuesz AM, Ratschek M, Hollwarth ME.
This study briefly reports that vitamins C and E administration had a positive effect on glutathione levels in the liver of rats following laparotomy.

422. Hepatology. 1999 Dec;30(6):1454-63.
Kupffer cell-independent acute hepatocellular oxidative stress and decreased bile formation in post-cold-ischemic rat liver.
Kumamoto Y, Suematsu M, Shimazu M, Kato Y, Sano T, Makino N, Hirano KI, Naito M, Wakabayashi G, Ishimura Y, Kitajima M.
This study states that a combination of vitamins C and E reduced the oxidative changes and improved bile functioning in rats.

423. Circulation. 2000 Sep 12;102(11):1233-8.
Coronary heart disease in smokers: vitamin C restores coronary microcirculatory function.
Kaufmann PA, Gnecchi-Ruscone T, di Terlizzi M, Schafers KP, Luscher TF, Camici PG.
In this study, the coronary flow of 11 smokers and 8 controls was measured before and after administering vitamin C. Before vitamin C, smokers had a 21% reduction in coronary flow compared with the controls. After vitamin C, this reduction was corrected. Thus the conclusion indicates that smoking affects the myocardial blood flow and that vitamin C restores this dysfunction.

424. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Sep;279(3):H1172-8.
Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in smokers: effects of vitamin C.
Hirai N, Kawano H, Hirashima O, Motoyama T, Moriyama Y, Sakamoto T, Kugiyama K, Ogawa H, Nakao K, Yasue H.
This study measured the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 16 smokers with normal glucose tolerance, 15 nonsmokers with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 17 nonsmokers with normal glucose tolerance. The results indicated that both smokers and nonsmokers with IGT had decreased SSPG and improved FMD after vitamin C. The conclusion indicated vitamin C may play and important role in endothelial functioning and insulin resistance with smokers and nonsmokers with IGT.

425. Br J Nutr. 2000 Sep;84(3):261-7.
Interactions between vitamins C and E in human subjects.
Hamilton IM, Gilmore WS, Benzie IF, Mulholland CW, Strain JJ.
This double-blind placebo study was designed to measure the interaction between vitamins C and E. The results indicated that after administration of vitamin C only, the vitamin E levels increased and after administration of vitamin E only, the vitamin C levels increased. In both groups, cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased and glutathione and antioxidant power increased.

426. Circ Res. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):349-54.
Potential antiatherogenic mechanisms of ascorbate (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).
Carr AC, Zhu BZ, Frei B.
This review cites evidence that vitamins C and E inhibit LDL oxidation and leukocyte adhesion. Both these vitamins scavenge free radicals. It was observed that vitamin C is more beneficial to prevention of atherosclerosis than vitamin E which may only work effectively in combination with vitamin C.

427. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000 Sep;40(5):371-98.
Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption.
Zijp IM, Korver O, Tijburg LB.
The Netherlands.
This review indicates that ascorbic acid increases absorption rates of iron. Ascorbic acid intake can overcome low iron absorption that is caused by drinking tea. The recommendation is to increase ascorbic acid intake during meals and when drinking tea.

428. Eur Respir J. 2000 Sep;16(3):397-403.
Interaction of vitamin C with the relation between smoking and obstructive airways disease in EPIC Norfolk. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Sargeant LA, Jaeckel A, Wareham NJ.
This study of obstructive airways disease (OAD) and 3714 males and 4256 females indicated that those with an increase in plasma vitamin C had a 13% lower risk of developing OAD. Thus, vitamin C is seen as an important prevention in the risk of OAD.

429. Cancer. 2000 Jul 1;89(1):171-6.
The accumulation of ascorbic acid by squamous cell carcinomas of the lung and larynx is associated with global methylation of DNA.
Piyathilake CJ, Bell WC, Johanning GL, Cornwell PE, Heimburger DC, Grizzle WE.
Cancerous tissues of the larynx and lung were tested for their ability to absorb vitamin C. It was found that these tissues are able to absorb vitamin C and that the absorption has benefit to the cells by increasing methylation of the DNA.

430. Cytometry. 2000 Jul 1;40(3):182-8.
Probe-assisted flow cytometric analysis of erythrocyte membrane response to site-specific oxidant stress.
Chung WY, Benzie IF.
Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
In this study, oxidation was induced in red blood cells and the effects of administering vitamin C or vitamin E were measured. The results indicated that vitamin E slowed membrane oxidation while vitamin C slowed and stopped membrane oxidation.

431. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jul;54(7):573-8.
Low intakes of vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits, lead to inadequate vitamin C intakes among adults.
Taylor CA, Hampl JS, Johnston CS.
In this study of 2472 men and 2334 women, subjects were measured for levels of vitamin C intake. The results indicated that 42% had low or marginal intakes of vitamin C with 58% having desirable intakes. Those with desirable intakes consumed more juice and vegetables and less coffee, tea, alcohol and soft drinks.

432. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jul 1;29(1):79-89.
Synergistic inhibition of LDL oxidation by phytoestrogens and ascorbic acid.
Hwang J, Sevanian A, Hodis HN, Ursini F.
This study on the oxidative effects of phytoestrogens briefly states that the LDL oxidation was inhibited to a greater degree in the presence of ascorbic acid.

433. Mol Cell Biochem. 2000 Jul;210(1-2):65-73.
The effects of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol on the NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria.
Milczarek R, Klimek J, Zelewski L.
This study measured the effects of vitamins C and E on lipid peroxidation in placenta cells. It was found that ascorbic acid almost completely halted lipid peroxidation. Vitamin E also inhibited lipid peroxidation but its effects were enhanced by vitamin C. Thus sufficient amounts of vitamins C and E in the placenta could reduce lipid peroxidation and therefore preeclampsia.

434. Atherosclerosis. 2000 Jun;150(2):275-84.
Ascorbic acid enhances 17 beta-estradiol-mediated inhibition of oxidized low density lipoprotein formation.
Hwang J, Peterson H, Hodis HN, Choi B, Sevanian A.
In this study, estrogen (E(2) is used in conjunction with ascorbic acid to determine the effect of this combination on LDL oxidation. The results indicated that in the presence of ascorbic acid, less E(2) was needed to inhibit LDL oxidation. Thus, ascorbic acid is seen as enhancing the effect of E(2).

435. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jun;23(6):726-32.
Vitamin C and hyperglycemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer--Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study: a population-based study.
Sargeant LA, Wareham NJ, Bingham S, Day NE, Luben RN, Oakes S, Welch A, Khaw KT.
In this study of 2,898 men and 3,560 women the results indicated that those with higher levels of vitamin C had lower incidence and risk of hyperglycemia.

436. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Jun;41(7):1681-3.
Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium.
Brubaker RF, Bourne WM, Bachman LA, McLaren JW.
This report briefly indicates that ascorbic acid can protect the cornea from ultraviolet radiation.

437. Nutr Rev. 2000 Jun;58(6):184-7.
Effect of vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene on stroke risk.
Suter PM.
This review suggests that fruits and vegetables high in vitamins C and E and beta-carotene may reduce the risk of stroke.

438. Use of antioxidants to treat pain in chronic pancreatitis.
De las Heras Castano G, Garcia de la Paz A, Fernandez MD, Fernandez Forcelledo JL.
In this study, patients with pancreatitis were given a combination of L-methionine, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium for one year. The results indicated that 9 out of 10 patients receiving this treatment had a significant reduction in pain and 3 of the 10 reported no pain. Patients reported fewer hospital visits. Thus antioxidant is seen as effective against inflammatory pain from pancreatitis.

439. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;71(5):1194-200.
Direct correlation of glutathione and ascorbate and their dependence on age and season in human lymphocytes.
Lenton KJ, Therriault H, Cantin AM, Fulop T, Payette H, Wagner JR.
In this study, white blood cells in 240 healthy subjects were measured for glutathione, vitamins C, and E. The results indicated that higher levels of glutathione were present when levels of ascorbic acid were higher. Ascorbic acid levels were lower in elderly subjects and ascorbic acid levels were higher in summer than in winter.

440. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2000 May;127(5):510-2.
Scurvy presenting with ecchymotic purpura and hemorrhagic ulcers of the lower limbs
Boulinguez S, Bouyssou-Gauthier M, De Vencay P, Bedane C, Bonnetblanc J.
This article briefly describes 3 cases of scurvy with purpura and lesions in lower limbs. Vitamin C administration rapidly improved the condition.

441. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;54(5):405-8.
Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers.
Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, Gardner PT, McPhail DB, Duthie GG.
This study indicates that consumption of blueberry and cranberry juices leads to an increase in antioxidant capacity in subjects. This is probably due to the increased consumption in vitamin C from the juices.

442. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 May 1;28(9):1421-9.
How does ascorbic acid prevent endothelial dysfunction?
May JM.
This review establishes that vitamin C has a positive effect on malfunctioning endothelium-dependent vasodilation as it breaks down nitric oxide (NO).

443. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 May;35(6):1616-21.
Oral vitamin C and endothelial function in smokers: short-term improvement, but no sustained beneficial effect.
Raitakari OT, Adams MR, McCredie RJ, Griffiths KA, Stocker R, Celermajer DS.
In this study of 20 healthy smokers, it was determined that vitamin C improves short-term endothelial function.

444. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 May;54(5):355-60.
Plasma vitamin C and food choice in the third Glasgow MONICA population survey.
Wrieden WL, Hannah MK, Bolton-Smith C, Tavendale R, Morrison C, Tunstall-Pedoe H.
In this study, 632 men and 635 women who did not take vitamin C supplements had plasma levels assessed. The results indicated that more men than women had low levels of vitamin C. Elderly people and smokers also had low levels of vitamin C. Those with higher levels of vitamin C had higher intakes of fruits and vegetables and juices.

445. Mutagenesis. 2000 May;15(3):229-34.
Induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations by the mycotoxin patulin in mammalian cells: role of ascorbic acid as a modulator of patulin clastogenicity.
Alves I, Oliveira NG, Laires A, Rodrigues AS, Rueff J.
Patulin is a mycotoxic contaminant found in ripe fruit. This report explains that ascorbic acid may alter the carcinogenic effect of patulin on human cells.

446. Nutrition. 2000 May;16(5):330-8.
Sickle cell anemia: a potential nutritional approach for a molecular disease.
Ohnishi ST, Ohnishi T, Ogunmola GB.
This study indicated that 4 – 6 grams of vitamin C and 800-1200 IU of vitamin E per day may be of benefit to patients with sickle cell anemia. These vitamins may stop the formation of “dense cells”.

447. Trends Neurosci. 2000 May;23(5):209-16.
Ascorbate regulation and its neuroprotective role in the brain.
Rice ME.
This review calls for studies, which will contribute to information about how ascorbic acid functions in the central nervous system.

448. Toxicology. 2000 Apr 20;146(1):37-47.
Beta-carotene and protein oxidation: effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.
Zhang P, Omaye ST.
In this study, oxidation was induced in human cells to measure the effect of vitamins C and E, and beta-carotene on the cells. The results indicated that the combination of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene provided better antioxidant protection than any of the vitamins on its own.

449. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Apr 10;160(7):931-6.
Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
Simon JA, Hudes ES.
In this study, data was analyzed of 7042 men and 6088 women between 1988-1994. The analysis indicated that incidence of gallbladder disease was higher in women who had low levels of ascorbic acid. This indicates that ascorbic acid supplementation may help to prevent gallbladder disease in women.

450. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000 Apr;21(4):348-52.
Effects of ascorbic acid and DL-alpha-tocopherol on human hepatoma cell proliferation and redifferentiation.
Kang JH, Shi YM, Zheng RL.
In this study, the effects of vitamins C and E were tested on liver cancer cells. The results indicated that cell growth decreased significantly, cell malignancy was lowered. Thus, vitamins C and E are seen as having reversed liver cancer cell growth and malignancy.

451. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Apr;5(2):93-108.
Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome.
Werbach MR.
This review indicates that deficiency in vitamins, including vitamin C may contribute to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and that such deficiencies may hinder the healing of CFS. The author recommends high doses of vitamin C among other vitamins and minerals.

452. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Apr;9(4):357-65.
A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate intake and male lung cancer risk.
Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, Brants HA, van Poppel GA, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ, van den Brandt PA.
The Netherlands
Antioxidant intake was estimated in 939 male lung cancer patients. The results indicated that vitamin C had the most significant preventative properties against lung cancer. Folate and carotenoids were also seen as having significant preventative properties against lung cancer.

453. Clin Sci (Lond). 2000 Apr;98(4):455-60.
Vitamin C modifies the cardiovascular and microvascular responses to cigarette smoke inhalation in man.
Gamble J, Grewal PS, Gartside IB.
This study establishes that heart rate and blood pressure both increase with cigarette smoke inhalation. The administration of vitamin C before smoking resulted in no increase in blood pressure and the duration of heart rate increase was diminished. Thus, vitamin C is seen as protecting against cardiovascular problems caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

454. Hypertension. 2000 Apr;35(4):936-41.
Pharmacological concentrations of ascorbic acid are required for the beneficial effect on endothelial vasomotor function in hypertension.
Sherman DL, Keaney JF Jr, Biegelsen ES, Duffy SJ, Coffman JD, Vita JA.
This study reports that ascorbic acid significantly decreased blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

455. J Hypertens. 2000 Apr;18(4):411-5.
Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons.
Fotherby MD, Williams JC, Forster LA, Craner P, Ferns GA.
This study of 40 elderly men and women indicated that higher doses of vitamin C had more significant effects on lowering blood pressure. Thus, higher intake of vitamin C could prevent cardiovascular disease and stroke.

456. Thorax. 2000 Apr;55(4):283-8.
Consumption of fresh fruit rich in vitamin C and wheezing symptoms in children. SIDRIA Collaborative Group, Italy (Italian Studies on Respiratory Disorders in Children and the Environment).
Forastiere F, Pistelli R, Sestini P, Fortes C, Renzoni E, Rusconi F, Dell'Orco
V, Ciccone G, Bisanti L.
In this study, the fruit intake of asthmatic children was measured for one year. The results indicated that children who ate fruit high in vitamin C (citrus or kiwi) at least once/week had decreased incidence of wheezing. Children who had 5-7 servings/week of these fruits had significantly reduced incidence of wheezing.

457. Biochem J. 2000 Mar 1;346 Pt 2:491-9.
Vitamin C protects against and reverses specific hypochlorous acid- and chloramine-dependent modifications of low-density lipoprotein.
Carr AC, Tijerina T, Frei B.
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is an oxidant which attacks LDL. This study examines the effect of vitamin C on HOCl. The results indicated that vitamin C protects LDL from HOCl and also reverses damage to LDL caused by HOCl.

458. Eur J Cancer. 2000 Mar;36(5):636-46.
Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet: the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and the intake of associated micronutrients.
Gandini S, Merzenich H, Robertson C, Boyle P.
In this review, it was established that intake of vitamin C, fruits, and vegetables can reduce the risk of breast cancer.

459. Nutr Rev. 2000 Mar;58(3 Pt 1):73-5.
Does vitamin C intake protect against lead toxicity?
Houston DK, Johnson MA.
This review suggests that ascorbic acid may protect against elevated lead levels in humans.

460. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Mar-Apr;(2):31-4.
The effects of the combined use of mineral water with ascorbic acid and rutin experimentally and clinically
Polushina ND, Kartazaeva VA, Botvineva LA, Kozhevnikov SA.
In this study 80 diabetic patients were administered glucose along with ascorbic acid and rutin. The results indicated that levels of ascorbic acid were increased and the need for hyperglycemic drugs was reduced.