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Abstracts

Vitamin E: 55 Abstract Summaries

HUMAN RESEARCH
1. Int Urol Nephrol. 2002;34(2):207-14.
Chemoprevention of carcinoma prostate: a review.
Ansari MS, Gupta NP, Hemal AK.
India
A twenty-year review of the literature on chemoprevention of prostate cancer was undertaken by the authors. They found that nutritional factors including reduced fat intake, supplemental vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, Lycopene and selenium may have a protective effect against prostate cancer. The authors concluded that on the basis of numerous studies, dietary and nutritional intervention should occur at the onset of prostate cancer.

HUMAN RESEARCH
2. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;9(1):49-80.
The Roche European American Cataract Trial (REACT): a randomized clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of an oral antioxidant micronutrient mixture to slow progression of age-related cataract.
USA
An antioxidant combination of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene was administered to 445 cataract patients from the U.S. and the U.K. to determine whether the supplement would hinder the progression of cataracts. After 3 years, a small positive effect was evident in the U.S. group indicating that the antioxidant mixture could hinder growth of cataracts.

HUMAN RESEARCH
3. J Intern Med. 2000 Nov;248(5):377-86.
Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis.
Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, Lakka HM, Kaikkonen J, Porkkala-Sarataho E, Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, Rissanen T, Leskinen L, Tuomainen TP, Valkonen VP, Ristonmaa U, Poulsen HE.
Finland
In this double-blind study, 520 smoking and non-smoking men and women were given either vitamin E, vitamin C, a combination C and E or a placebo twice daily for three years. The thickness of their carotid arteries was measured twice yearly and the results indicated that both vitamins E and C slowed the advancement of atherosclerosis in men.

HUMAN RESEARCH
4. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Apr;96(4):1080-4.
Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C.
Kennedy M, Bruninga K, Mutlu EA, Losurdo J, Choudhary S, Keshavarzian A.
USA.
In this pilot study, 20 patients who had received pelvic radiation and were diagnosed with radiation proctitis (rectal bleeding, pain, diarrhea, fecal urgency) were treated with antioxidants (vitamins E and C). The severity and frequency of the symptoms were documented before and after treatment. There was a significant improvement in the symptoms and these improvements were sustained at a one-year follow-up. The authors recommend that a double-blind placebo controlled study be conducted to verify results.

HUMAN RESEARCH
5. Clin Excell Nurse Pract. 1998 Jan;2(1):10-22.
A review of vitamins A, C, and E and their relationship to cardiovascular disease.
Brown DJ, Goodman J.
USA
The authors of this review of studies of vitamins E, C and A and cardiovascular disease (CVD) find significant evidence to support the supplementation of vitamins E, C and A to lower the risk of death from CVD. They also concluded that diabetics, smokers and those with hypertension would benefit from taking vitamin C.

HUMAN RESEARCH
6. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Sep;36(3):758-65.
Effect of folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.
Title LM, Cummings PM, Giddens K, Genest JJ Jr, Nassar BA.
Canada
High homocysteine levels in the blood can contribute to atherosclerosis by damaging blood vessels. In this double-blind placebo controlled study, folic acid, folic acid plus antioxidants (vitamins E and C) or placebo was administered to 75 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Folic acid increased plasma folate by 475%, improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and reduced homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid plus antioxidants had similar positive results.

BASIC RESEARCH
7. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jun 15;28(12):1806-14
The role of natural antioxidants in preserving the biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide.
Carr A, Frei B.
USA
Most cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) are linked with oxidative stress. The presence of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO), a vaso relaxant can control the progress of atherosclerosis. Supplementation with antioxidants (vitamins E and C) can stabilize EDNO, a positive therapy in the prevention of CAD.

HUMAN RESERACH
8. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000 Nov-Dec;40(6):785-99.
Antioxidant nutrients: current dietary recommendations and research update.
McDermott JH.
USA
This review concludes that significant health benefits can be derived by consuming antioxidants (vitamins E and C) as found in fruits and vegetables. These antioxidants may improve immune function and decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, cataracts and asthma.

HUMAN RESEARCH
9. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2000 Fall;40(4):93-111
Nutrition and retinal degenerations.
Berson EL.
USA.
The successful use of nutritional supplements in the treatment of retina disease is reported. A trial is currently in progress to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamins E and C) and trace minerals in treating retinal degenerative diseases.

HUMAN RESEARCH
10. Harefuah. 2001 Nov;140(11):1062-7, 1117.
Micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) supplementation for the elderly, suggested by a special committee nominated by Ministry of Health
Dror Y, Stern F, Berner YN, Kaufmann NA, Berry E, Maaravi Y, Altman H, Cohen A, Leventhal A, Kaluski DN.
Israel
A committee on nutrition lists the supplements in the suggested preparatory composition that may soon be distributed to the elderly. In mg: vitamin A, 0.450; vitamin D, 0.015; vitamin E, 10; thiamin, 0.6 riboflavin, 0.7; biotin, 0.030; pantothenic acid, 3; niacin, 8; vitamin c, 60; vitamin B6, 0.8; folic acid, 0.120; vitamin B12, 0.0024; choline up to 275; zinc, 8; copper, 0.9; fluorine, 0.5; manganese, 1.2; chromium 0.020; molybdenum, 0.045; selenium, 0.030; and iodine, 0.075. Fat-soluble vitamins should be microencapsulated.

HUMAN RESEARCH
11. Clin Chim Acta. 1998 Nov;278(1):55-60
Antioxidant vitamins and coronary artery disease risk in South African males.
Delport R, Ubbink JB, Human JA, Becker PJ, Myburgh DP, Vermaak WJ.
South Africa
Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) had significantly lower blood levels of vitamins E, C and A compared with healthy control group.

HUMAN RESEARCH
12. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jun 1;79(11):1558-60.
Intake of antioxidants among American cardiologists.
Mehta J.
USA
This survey of cardiologists indicated that they supplemented with the antioxidant vitamin E more than vitamin c and their risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and supplementation of antioxidants both increase with age.

HUMAN RESEARCH
13. Am J Cardiol. 1995 Dec 15;76(17):1233-8.
Dietary intake, plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, and oxidative stress in relation to coronary artery disease in elderly subjects.
Singh RB, Ghosh S, Niaz MA, Singh R, Beegum R, Chibo H, Shoumin Z, Postiglione A.
India.
A survey of 595 elderly subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) indicated that the blood levels of antioxidants (vitamins E, C, A and beta-carotene) were low.

HUMAN RESEARCH
14. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Jan-Feb;97(1):109-14.
Effects of multimicronutrient supplementation on helminth reinfection: a randomized, controlled trial in Kenyan schoolchildren.
Olsen A, Thiong'o FW, Ouma JH, Mwaniki D, Magnussen P, Michaelsen KF, Friis H, Geissler PW.
Kenya
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out among 977 schoolchildren from 19 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya from February 1995 to February 1996 to determine effects on worm infestation. The treatments included vitamin A and are as follows:(vitamin A, 1000 micrograms; vitamin B1, 1.4 mg; vitamin B2, 1.6 mg; vitamin B6, 1.7 mg; vitamin B12, 2.0 micrograms; folate, 150 micrograms; niacin, 16 mg; vitamin c, 50 mg; vitamin D, 5 micrograms; vitamin E, 8 mg; iron, 18 mg; zinc, 20 mg; copper, 2.0 mg; iodine, 150 micrograms; selenium, 40 micrograms) and multihelminth chemotherapy (albendazole 600 mg in a single dose and/or praziquantel 40 mg/kg in a single dose). Children given multimicronutrients had a slightly, but significantly, lower intensity of Schistosoma mansoni reinfection compared with children given placebo.

HUMAN RESEARCH
15. Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Oct;38(5):450-37.
Anti-oxidant vitamins and steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome in Indian children.
Mathew JL, Kabi BC, Rath B.
India
The authors acknowledge that nephrotic syndrome may be a consequence of an imbalance between oxidant and anti-oxidant activity. In the present study, the levels of micronutrient anti-oxidant vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin C, carotene and riboflavin) in 30 Indian children with steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome were investigated and 30 sibling controls. The authors found that mean vitamin E, vitamin C and carotene were significantly lower during the proteinuric phase of the disease, and there was decreased erythrocyte riboflavin activity. The vitamin levels improved during hospitalization but did not become normal. The authors concluded that these vitamins were active in performing their anti-oxidant function, as indicated by significant depression in their levels during the acute (proteinuric) phase, followed by partial recovery during remission. They conclude that steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome in children is associated with oxidative stress.
PMID: 12354259

HUMAN RESEARCH
16. Nutr Rev. 1994 Mar;52(3):75-83.
Diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, food preservation and gastric cancer risk: are there new roles for preventative factors?
Hwang H, Dwyer J, Russell RM.
USA
Risk factors for gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori infection, consumption of nitrites, alcohol, salted, pickled, fermented and smoked foods. Conversely, the increase of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in the diet through fruits and vegetables may be crucial to risk reduction of gastric cancers.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
17. Herz. 2002 Mar;27(2):174-8.
Conditioned nutritional requirements: therapeutic relevance to heart failure.
Sole MJ, Jeejeebhoy KN.
Canada
in a study on late-stage cardiomyopathy in hamsters the authors randomized placebo diet against a supplement containing taurine, coenzyme Q10, carnitine, thiamine, creatine, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium. Three months of supplementation markedly improved myocyte sarcomeric structure and developed pressure. The authors concluded that future studies in this area are of clinical importance.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
18. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15;38(6):1734-40.
Antioxidant vitamins attenuate oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
Shite J, Qin F, Mao W, Kawai H, Stevens SY, Liang C.
USA.
Cardiac disease was induced in rabbits and they were given either vitamins E and C and beta-carotene, vitamin E or a placebo for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was measured weekly. The results indicated that the combination antioxidants reduced myocardial oxidative stress, alleviated cardiac dysfunction. Vitamin E alone produced similar but less significant. The authors conclude that human congestive heart failure may be helped by antioxidants.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
19. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Aug;285(2):H822-32.
Antioxidants attenuate myocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac function in CHF: association with changes in MAPK pathways.
Qin F, Shite J, Liang CS.
USA
Congestive heart failure (CHF) was brought about in rabbits who were given either a placebo, vitamin E, or antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene) for 8 weeks. They were compared with a control group and the CHF animals had high levels of oxidative stress which was alleviated with the antioxidant and with the vitamin E. cardiac dysfunction was also alleviated with the antioxidant combination and with vitamin E.

HUMAN RESEARCH
20. Int J Cancer. 1994 Jun 1;57(5):638-44.
Nutrients and gastric cancer risk. A population-based case-control study in Sweden.
Hansson LE, Nyren O, Bergstrom R, Wolk A, Lindgren A, Baron J, Adami HO.
Sweden.
Interviews about dietetic history and vitamin supplement intake were conducted with 338 subjects and 679 controls. The results indicated that ascorbic acid and beta-carotene protected against risk of gastric cancer as did vitamin E and nitrate. Ascorbic acid was the most significant factor in risk prevention of gastric cancer.

BASIC RESEARCH
21. Nutr Cancer. 2001;39(2):284-91
Antioxidants prevent the lymphocyte DNA damage induced by PMA-stimulated monocytes.
Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Rosignoli P, Morozzi G.
Italy
White blood cell DNA damage was measured again the use of several antioxidants. All compounds tested were able to protect the white blood cells to a certain degree. There was 41% protection with ascorbic acid, 55% protection with alpha-tocopherol, 50% protection with -carotene, and 56% protection with quercetin. The authors concluded that this "ex vivo model," more closely related to physiological conditions, could be used to test the antioxidant activity of different compounds.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
22. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002 Feb;10(2):119-26.
Dietary vitamins and selenium diminish the development of mechanically induced osteoarthritis and increase the expression of antioxidative enzymes in the knee joint of STR/1N mice.
Kurz B, Jost B, Schunke M.
Germany
This study assessed the effect of dietary vitamins and selenium on mechanically-induced osteoarthritis (OA) over a 12 month period in a group of mice. Their special diet was supplemented with the vitamins E, C, A, B6, B2, and selenium). The authors found that a diet supplemented with vitamins/selenium might be important in prevention or therapy of mechanically induced OA. They hypothesize that free oxygen radical species might be involved in the mechanical induction of OA.
PMID: 11869071

HUMAN RESEARCH
23. Vopr Pitan. 2001;70(1):12-4.
Effects of biologically active supplements on the antioxidant and vitamin status of patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease.
Tutel'ian VA, Pogozheva AV, Rumiantseva OI, Akol'zina SE, Lysikova SL, Kodentsova VM, Mal'tsev GIu.
Russia
In this study patients of 91 patients with heart disease were treated with an anti-arteriosclerotic diet and vitamins C, E, B2, B6, beta-carotene, zinc, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and calcium. After 4 weeks the author noted improvement in clinical symptoms, lowering of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increasing levels of vitamins A, E, C, B2, and B6.
PMID: 11338339

HUMAN RESEARCH
24. Free Radic Res. 2003 Feb;37(2):213-23.
The impact of different antioxidant agents alone or in combination on reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines in a series of advanced cancer patients at different sites: correlation with disease progression.
Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Mura L, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Murgia V, Camboni P, Ferreli L, Mocci M, Massa E.
Italy
The authors set out to test the capacity of several different antioxidants to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, increase glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduce the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFalpha. Fifty-six patients with advanced stage cancer were studied. The authors used the following antioxidants: alpha lipoic acid or carboxycysteine-lysine salt, amifostine, reduced glutathione, vitamin A plus vitamin E plus vitamin C. Antioxidant treatment was given for 10 consecutive days. Results of the study showed that all single antioxidants tested were effective in reducing the ROS levels and three of them in increasing GPx activity.

HUMAN RESEARCH
25. Lancet. 2002 Mar 30;359(9312):1108-13.
Effect of vitamins E and C on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial.
Fang JC, Kinlay S, Beltrame J, Hikiti H, Wainstein M, Behrendt D, Suh J, Frei B, Mudge GH, Selwyn AP, Ganz P.
USA
In this double-blind study, 40 heart transplant patients were administered either vitamin C and E, or a placebo for one year following transplant. The results concluded vitamins E and C are beneficial in preventing the advancement of arteriosclerosis in heart transplant patients.

HUMAN RESEARCH
26. J Cell Mol Med. 2002 Oct-Dec;6(4):570-82.
Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant mechanisms and serum cytokine levels in cancer patients: impact of an antioxidant treatment.
Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, Mura L, Massa E, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Murgia V, Camboni P, Ferreli L.
Italy
Researchers gave oral doses of selected antioxidants for 10 days to cancer patients to determine reaction on reactive oxygen species. The antioxidants were: alpha lipoic acid 200 mg/day orally, N-acetylcysteine 1800 mg/day i.v. or carboxycysteine-lysine salt 2.7 g/day orally, amifostine 375 mg/day i.v., reduced glutathione 600 mg/day i.v., vitamin A 30000 IU/day orally plus vitamin E 70 mg/day orally plus Vitamin c 500 mg/day orally in cancer patients, administered for 10 consecutive days. The authors found that antioxidants tested were effective in reducing reactive oxygen species levels. The antioxidant treatment also reduced serum levels of IL-6 and TNF.

BASIC RESEARCH
27. Nutr Cancer. 2002;44(2):104-26.
Diet and Oral, Pharyngeal, and Esophageal Cancer.
Chainani-Wu N.
USA
Cancers of the upper digestive tract, including those arising in the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, present a significant public health problem worldwide. These cancers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and identification of protective factors is very important. The results of 35 epidemiological studies were examined to determine the protective role of dietary components against development of oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. It was concluded that there is sufficient evidence to point to a preventive role of vegetable intake, including green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and yellow vegetables, total fruit intake, and citrus fruit intake. Yellow fruits are likely to be protective. Carotene, vitamin c, and vitamin E are protective, most likely in combination with each other and other micronutrients.

HUMAN RESEARCH
28. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2003 Mar-Apr;14(2):81-9.
Dietary Markers of Hypertension Associated With Pulse Pressure and Arterial Compliance in Black South African Children: The THUSA Bana Study.
Schutte AE, Van Rooyen JM, Huisman HW, Kruger HS, Malan NT, De Ridder JH.
South Africa.
Dietary intake below recommended levels for various nutrients were found to be risk markers in the development of hypertension in black children, ages 10-15 years. Researchers concluded that there were strong associations between low level of protein, polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin c, vitamin E, nicotinic acid, vitamin B(12), biotin and phosphorus with the rate of hypertension in black South African children.

HUMAN RESEARCH
29. Bull Math Biol. 2002 Jan;64(1):65-95.
Lipoprotein oxidation and its significance for atherosclerosis: a mathematical approach.
Cobbold CA, Sherratt JA, Maxwell SR.
UK
The authors used a mathematical model of existing studies to conclude that although both vitamin C and vitamin E are effective antioxidants.

HUMAN RESEARCH
30. Gynecol Oncol. 2003 Mar;88(3):434-9.
The use of antioxidant therapies during chemotherapy.
Drisko JA, Chapman J, Hunter VJ.
USA
This study was undertaken because many cancer patients use alternative medicine along with their conventional therapy. The authors reviewed four common antioxidants: vitamin E (mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols), beta-carotene (natural mixed carotenoids), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and vitamin A (retinoic acid). They acknowledge that antioxidants act as electron acceptors as well as therapeutic biologic response modifiers. They conclude that antioxidants may be beneficial when combined with cancer chemotherapy. They recommend randomized controlled trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding antioxidants to chemotherapy. Such a trial they say is now under way in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer at the University of Kansas Medical Center.

HUMAN RESEARCH
31. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):975-84
High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women.
Grodstein F, Chen J, Willett WC.
USA
This study was designed to examine the association between high-dose antioxidant supplements and cognition. Participants in the study were 14,968 women aged 70-79 years from the Nurses' Health Study. Findings showed that long-term, current users of vitamin E with vitamin C had significantly better mental performance than did women who had never used vitamin E or vitamin C, and the longer these nutrients were used the better.

HUMAN RESEARCH
32. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 May 15;151(10):975-81.
Antioxidant nutrients and pulmonary function: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
Hu G, Cassano PA.
USA.
This study looks at the function of antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and selenium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data from a national health survey was examined for 18,162 adults. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) of subjects was significantly better in subjects who consumed any of the tested antioxidants. The conclusion was that antioxidant supplementation improves lung function.

HUMAN RESEARCH
Neurology. 2000 Mar 28;54(6):1265-72.
33. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men.
Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, Foley DJ, Ross GW, Petrovitch H, Havlik R, White LR.
USA.
In this longitudinal study, the use of vitamins E and C was measured in 3,385 men between 1982 and 1993. The results were compared with incidence of dementia and cognitive functioning. The results indicated that those taking vitamins E and C were at lower risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease and they had better cognitive functioning values than those not taking vitamins E and C. Authors conclude that vitamins E and C may prevent dementia and improve cognitive functioning in later life.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
34. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 Dec;70(3):223-32.
Protective role of intraperitoneally administered vitamins E and C and selenium on the levels of lipid peroxidation in the lens of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin.
Naziroglu M, Dilsiz N, Cay M.
Turkey.
The lenses of diabetic rats were studied after administering vitamin C or vitamin E or selenium.

HUMAN RESEARCH
35. Ren Fail. 1999 Nov;21(6):581-91.
Antioxidants in the prevention of renal disease.
Wardle EN.
This review recommends the use of antioxidant-rich (vitamins E and C) foods in atherosclerosis and renal disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
36. Can J Gastroenterol. 2000 Nov;14 Suppl D:51D-54D.
Nutrition and gastric cancer.
La Vecchia C, Franceschi S.
Italy
This author cites changes in diet as a rationale for the drop in stomach cancer. Studies support the increase in dietary fruits and vegetables and the supplementation of vitamins E and C, beta-carotene and selenium. Studies of the effects of these supplements on cancer risk is warranted.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
37. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15;38(6):1734-40.
Antioxidant vitamins attenuate oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
Shite J, Qin F, Mao W, Kawai H, Stevens SY, Liang C.
USA.
Cardiac disease was induced in rabbits and they were given either vitamins E and C and beta-carotene, vitamin E or a placebo for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was measured weekly. The results indicated that the combination antioxidants reduced myocardial oxidative stress, alleviated cardiac dysfunction. Vitamin E alone produced similar but less significant. The authors conclude that human congestive heart failure may be helped by antioxidants.

HUMAN RESEARCH
38. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Oct;18(5):451-61.
Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Anderson JW, Gowri MS, Turner J, Nichols L, Diwadkar VA, Chow CK, Oeltgen PR.
USA.
Diabetic men were assessed for LDL oxidation levels and treated with vitamins E and C, and beta-carotene for 12 weeks. As a result, all factors of LDL oxidation were significantly decreased. This decreased risk of LDL oxidation can significantly decrease risk of coronary heart disease.

HUMAN RESEARCH
39. Am Surg. 1999 May;65(5):478-83.
Antioxidant therapy in the prevention of organ dysfunction syndrome and infectious complications after trauma: early results of a prospective randomized study.
Porter JM, Ivatury RR, Azimuddin K, Swami R.
USA.
Studies have shown that trauma patients have decreased antioxidant defenses. In this study 18 trauma patients were either in a control group or in a group receiving antioxidant supplements including vitamins E and C for 7 days. The antioxidant group had fewer infections, fewer organ dysfunctions vs. the control group. The authors call for larger trials to confirm the use of vitamins E and C on severely injured patients to prevent multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

HUMAN RESEARCH
40. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Mar 17;91(6):547-56.
Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer.
Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Willett WC.
USA.
In this Nurses’ Health Study, data regarding 83,234 women was reviewed and 2,697 incidence of breast cancer were reported. Analysis of the long-term intake of vitamins C, A and E revealed a decline in breast cancer risk with the increase intake of vitamin C. Women with intake of 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables had a lower risk of breast cancer.

ANIMAL RESEARCH
Neuroreport. 1999 Jul 13;10(10):2039-43.
41. Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol attenuate methylmalonic acid-induced convulsions.
Fighera MR, Queiroz CM, Stracke MP, Brauer MC, Gonzalez-Rodriguez LL,
Frussa-Filho R, Wajner M, de Mello CF.
Brazil.
Rats were given vitamin E, melatonin, or placebo for 7 days. They were then given ascorbic acid before being injected with methylmalonic acid (MMA). The rats were monitored for convulsions and rotational behavior. The vitamins E and C resulted in a decrease in convulsions and rotational behavior in the rats. Thus vitamins E and C may reduce the convulsive effects of MMA.

HUMAN RESEARCH
42. Vopr Pitan. 2000;69(1-2):44-6.
Biologically active food supplements in comprehensive therapy of patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension and the background of overweight
Rumiantseva OI, Tutel'ian VA, Pogozheva AV, Askol'zina SE, Lysenkova SL.
Russia
This brief article indicates that an anti-atherosclerotic diet rich in antioxidants including vitamins E and C, beta-carotene and minerals resulted in lower cholesterol and triglycerides in 80 patients with hypertension.

HUMAN RESEARCH
43. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Feb;21(2):146-50.
Nutrition antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional basketball players: effects of a three compound antioxidative supplement.
Schroder H, Navarro E, Tramullas A, Mora J, Galiano D.
Spain.
Professional basketball players were given either vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene or placebo for 32 days during competition season. Blood samples indicated that there was lower oxidative stress in the supplemented groups than in the control group. Also, the vitamin C concentration in the control group dropped significantly indicating increased oxidative stress. Thus, antioxidants including vitamin E are noted to decrease oxidative stress in competitive athletes.

HUMAN RESEARCH
44. Cancer Lett. 2000 Apr 3;151(1):1-5.
Salubrious effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on tamoxifen-treated women in breast cancer with reference to plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels.
Babu JR, Sundravel S, Arumugam G, Renuka R, Deepa N, Sachdanandam P.
India.
This study examines the use of an antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen, which has negative effects on blood cholesterol, in conjunction with vitamins E and C, which have been found to have a positive effect on lipid values. The results indicated that the effectiveness of tamoxifen is increased when combined with vitamins E and C as they diminish the effects of triglyceridemia.

HUMAN RESEARCH
45. Ann Surg. 2002 Dec;236(6):814-22.
Randomized, prospective trial of antioxidant supplementation in critically ill
surgical patients.
Nathens AB, Neff MJ, Jurkovich GJ, Klotz P, Farver K, Ruzinski JT, Radella F,
Garcia I, Maier RV.
USA.
Critically ill surgery patients (595) were given either antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) or received standard care. Those receiving the antioxidant were significantly less likely to experience organ failure, had less time using mechanical ventilation and they had shorter times in the ICU. Thus it is recommended that vitamins E and C be administered early to critically ill surgery patients.
PMID: 12454520

HUMAN RESEARCH
46. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 Dec;86(12):1369-73.
Protective role of oral antioxidant supplementation in ocular surface of diabetic patients.
Peponis V, Papathanasiou M, Kapranou A, Magkou C, Tyligada A, Melidonis A,
Drosos T, Sitaras NM.
Greece.
Diabetic patients have a high rate of oxidative stress indicated by high levels of nitric oxide (NO), which is a free radical. In this study 50 non-insulin diabetics were given vitamin C and vitamin E for 10 days and the levels of nitrite were measured before and after supplementation. The results indicated a significant reduction in nitrite levels after 10 days of vitamin C and vitamin E. Thus these vitamins are seen has having a protecting role from free radical damage.
PMID: 12446368

ANIMAL RESEARCH
47. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Dec;241(1-2):107-14.
Dietary vitamin E and C supplementation prevents fructose induced hypertension in rats.
Vasdev S, Gill V, Parai S, Longerich L, Gadag V.
Canada.
Rats were fed either normal food and water, normal food and fructose water, food with vitamin E and fructose water or food with vitamin C and fructose water to determine whether any diets prevents hypertension. It was found that rats receiving vitamin C and vitamin E had significantly lower blood pressure than those receiving fructose. The vitamin C and E rats also had smoother arterial muscle cells. Thus, vitamin C and E reduced blood pressure in rats.
PMID: 12482032

ANIMAL RESEARCH
48. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Dec;40(12):1781-8.
Sodium fluoride-induced hypoproteinemia and hypoglycemia in parental and
F(1)-generation rats and amelioration by vitamins.
Verma RJ, Guna Sherlin DM.
India
The administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) to rats resulted in body weight and appetite reduction. In addition the blood-glucose and protein levels were elevated as compared to the control group. Either vitamins C and D or vitamins C, D, E and NaF were administered and both supplement combinations resulted in increased body weight and appetite.
PMID: 12419692

HUMAN RESEARCH
49. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;76(3):549-55.
Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on in vivo lipid peroxidation: results of a
randomized controlled trial.
Huang HY, Appel LJ, Croft KD, Miller ER 3rd, Mori TA, Puddey IB.
USA.
Lipid peroxidation may lead to the development of atherosclerosis. This study set out to determine whether vitamin C and vitamin E can prevent lipid peroxidation. This placebo-controlled study was conducted on the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on 184 nonsmokers for 2 months. Both vitamin C and vitamin E were found to reduce lipid peroxidation.
PMID: 12197998

HUMAN RESEARCH
50. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Sep;187(3):777-84.
Vitamin C and E supplementation in women at risk of preeclampsia is associated
with changes in indices of oxidative stress and placental function.
Chappell LC, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Briley A, Hunt BJ, Charnock-Jones DS, Mallet A, Poston L.
UK.
In previous studies, vitamin C and vitamin E were found to reduce preeclampsia. This study looked at 79 high-risk women who were taking vitamins, 81 women taking placebos and they were compared with 32 low risk women who were not taking vitamins. The results indicated abnormal oxidative stress, placenta function, and low ascorbic acid levels in the placebo group compared with the low risk women. The women who received the vitamins had similar values as the low risk women. Thus, antioxidants improved the biochemistry of high risk preeclampsia women.
PMID: 12237663

ANIMAL RESEARCH
51, Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Jun;40(6):735-8.
Effect of antioxidants (vitamin C, E and turmeric extract) on methimazole-induced hypothyroidism in rats.
Deshpande UR, Joseph LJ, Patwardhan UN, Samuel AM.
India.
The degree to which antioxidants protect against the effects of methimazole (MMI) was the subject of this study on rats. Rats were fed either MMI, MMI plus vitamin C, MMI plus vitamin E or MMI plus turmeric extract. Rats, which were fed MMI plus vitamins or turmeric had reduced thyroid gland weight, had less suppressed T3 and T4 levels and less increase in cholesterol levels. Thus antioxidants were found to have positive effects on the thyroid gland.
PMID: 12587721

HUMAN RESEARCH
52. Diabetes Metab. 2002 Apr;28(2):107-14.
Effects of young barley leaf extract and antioxidative vitamins on LDL oxidation and free radical scavenging activities in type 2 diabetes.
Yu YM, Chang WC, Chang CT, Hsieh CL, Tsai CE.
Taiwan.
Diabetic patients (36) received either barley leaf extract (BL), or vitamin C and vitamin E (CE), or BL +CE daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatment on LDL levels was measured. The results indicated that vitamin C and E with BL are more effective antioxidants and my help prevent vascular diseases in type II diabetics.
PMID: 11976562

HUMAN RESEARCH
53. Early Hum Dev. 2002 Apr;67(1-2):47-53.
Antenatal supplementation of antioxidant vitamins to reduce the oxidative stress at delivery--a pilot study.
Bolisetty S, Naidoo D, Lui K, Koh TH, Watson D, Whitehall J.
Australia.
Premature babies are deficient in antioxidants and therefore at risk of free-radical related diseases. In this pilot study, 5 mothers at risk of premature delivery were given vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene daily until delivery. The control group received no supplements. The results indicated that the vitamins reduced oxidative stress at birth. The author calls for larger scale studies of this relationship.
PMID: 11893435

ANIMAL RESEARCH
54. Radiat Res. 2002 Apr;157(4):402-9.
Topical antioxidant vitamins E and C prevent UVB-radiation-induced peroxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid in pig skin.
Moison RM, Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM.
Netherlands.
While eicosapentaenoic acid protects against UV-radiation, it is also likely to undergo oxidative degradation thus reducing its effects. Pig skin was used to test whether vitamins E and C protected against the oxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid. It was found that both vitamin C and vitamin E completely protected against peroxidation from UVB radiation making these antioxidants beneficial in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid.
PMID: 11893242

ANIMAL RESEARCH
55. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002 Mar;61(3):385-97.
Oral antioxidants counteract the negative effects of female aging on oocyte
quantity and quality in the mouse.
Tarin JJ, Perez-Albala S, Cano A.
Spain.
In this study of female mice, vitamin C and vitamin E combated the negative effect of aging on the number of ovarian oocytes.
PMID: 11835584