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Organ Transplantation References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration; U.S. Department of Health & Human Services). OPTN/SRTR Annual Report. (Data as of 2008) Accessed 10/14/2010.
  2. Malhotra P et al. Immunology of Transplant Rejection. emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed 10/14/2010.
  3. Hanidziar D and Koulmanda M. Inflammation and the balance of Treg and Th17 cells in transplant rejection and tolerance. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2010 Aug;15(4):411-5.
  4. Walker LS. Natural Treg in autoimmune diabetes: all present and correct? Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008 Nov;8(11):1691-703.
  5. Demirkiran A et al. Low circulating regulatory T-cell levels after acute rejection in liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2006 Feb;12(2):277-84.
  6. Kimura A and Kishimoto T. IL-6: regulator of Treg/Th17 balance. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jul;40(7):1830-5.
  7. Sikora E et al. Curcumin, inflammation, ageing and age-related diseases. Immun Ageing. 2010 Jan 17;7(1):1.
  8. Jurrmann N et al. Curcumin blocks interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling by inhibiting the recruitment of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase IRAK in murine thymoma EL-4 cells. J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1859-64.
  9. Kim W et al. Dietary curcumin and limonin suppress CD4+ T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 production in mice. J Nutr. 2009 May;139(5):1042-8.
  10. Zhang QY et al. [Reducing effect of curcumin on expressions of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 in rats with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2010a Jan;16(1):84-8.
  11. Xie L et al. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by curcumin treatment through inhibition of IL-17 production. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 May;9(5):575-81.
  12. Chueh SC et al. Curcumin enhances the immunosuppressive activity of cyclosporine in rat cardiac allografts and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. Transplant Proc. 2003 Jun;35(4):1603-5.
  13. Bharti AC et al. Clinical relevance of curcumin-induced immunosuppression in living-related donor renal transplant: an in vitro analysis. Exp Clin Transplant. 2010 Jun;8(2):161-71.
  14. Tirkey N et al. Curcumin, a diferuloylmethane, attenuates cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rat kidneys. BMC Pharmacol. 2005 Oct 15;5:15.
  15. Cooper AL et al. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on fever and cytokine production in human volunteers. Clin Nutr. 1993 Dec;12(6):321-8.
  16. Manzoni J et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of parenteral fish oil lipid emulsion on human activated mononuclear leukocytes. Nutr Hosp. 2009 May-Jun;24(3):288-96.
  17. Wang J et al. Inhibitory effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to intestinal IL-15 expression is associated with reduction of TCRalphabeta+CD8alpha+CD8beta-intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Jul;19(7):475-81.
  18. Muurling M et al. A fish oil diet does not reverse insulin resistance despite decreased adipose tissue TNF-alpha protein concentration in ApoE-3*Leiden mice. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3350-5.
  19. Fleischhauer FJ et al. Fish oil improves endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in heart transplant recipients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Mar 15;21(4):982-9.
  20. Homan van der Hide JJ et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and the course of early postoperative rejection episodes in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 1992 Aug;54(2):257-63.
  21. Singer P et al. Renal effects of parenteral fish oil administered to heart-beating organ donors and renal-transplant recipients: a tolerance study. Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;23(4):597-603.
  22. Kun Z et al. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can inhibit expression of granzyme B, perforin, and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor receptor in rat model of small bowel transplant chronic rejection. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Jan-Feb;32(1):12-7.
  23. Krauss-Etschmann S et al. Decreased cord blood IL-4, IL-13, and CCR4 and increased TGF-beta levels after fish oil supplementation of pregnant women. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Feb;121(2):464-470.e6.
  24. Shakibaei M et al. Resveratrol inhibits IL-1 beta-induced stimulation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP in human articular chondrocytes in vitro. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jan;1095:554-63.
  25. Yu ES et al. Regulatory mechanisms of IL-2 and IFNgamma suppression by quercetin in T helper cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 1;76(1):70-8.
  26. Wung BS et al. Resveratrol suppresses IL-6-induced ICAM-1 gene expression in endothelial cells: effects on the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. Life Sci. 2005 Dec 12;78(4):389-97.
  27. Leiro JM et al. The anti-inflammatory activity of the polyphenol resveratrol may be partially related to inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) pre-mRNA splicing. Mol Immunol. 2010 Feb;47(5):1114-20.
  28. Wu SL et al. Apoptosis of lymphocytes in allograft in a rat liver transplantation model induced by resveratrol. Pharmacol Res. 2006 Jul;54(1):19-23.
  29. Hsieh YH et al. Resveratrol attenuates ischemia - reperfusion-induced leukocyte - endothelial cell adhesive interactions and prolongs allograft survival across the MHC barrier. Circ J. 2007 Mar;71(3):423-8.
  30. de Mejia EG et al. Bioactive components of tea: cancer, inflammation and behavior. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Aug;23(6):721-31.
  31. Wheeler DS et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea-derived polyphenol, inhibits IL-1 beta-dependent proinflammatory signal transduction in cultured respiratory epithelial cells. J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1039-44.
  32. Wu D et al. Green tea EGCG suppresses T cell proliferation through impairment of IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Sep 1;47(5):636-43.
  33. Hosokawa Y et al. Tea polyphenols inhibit IL-6 production in tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Jul;54 Suppl 2:S151-8.
  34. Yuan GJ et al. Tea polyphenols inhibit expressions of iNOS and TNF-alpha and prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2006 May;5(2):262-7.
  35. Morris ST et al. Endothelial dysfunction in renal transplant recipients maintained on cyclosporine. Kidney Int. 2000 Mar;57(3):1100-6.
  36. Ardalan MR et al. Black tea improves endothelial function in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2007 May;39(4):1139-42.
  37. Ying B et al. Quercetin inhibits IL-1 beta-induced ICAM-1 expression in pulmonary epithelial cell line A549 through the MAPK pathways. Mol Biol Rep. 2009 Sep;36(7):1825-32.
  38. Yu Y et al. [The effects of resveratrol on the activation, proliferation and cytokine expression of murine T lymphocytes] Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Nov;21(6):697-9, 703.
  39. Liu J et al. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on IL-6 production by LPS-stimulated neutrophils. Cell Mol Immunol. 2005 Dec;2(6):455-60.
  40. Karlsen A et al. Bilberry juice modulates plasma concentration of NF-kappaB related inflammatory markers in subjects at increased risk of CVD. Eur J Nutr. 2010 Sep;49(6):345-55.
  41. Ruiz PA et al. Quercetin inhibits TNF-induced NF-kappaB transcription factor recruitment to proinflammatory gene promoters in murine intestinal epithelial cells. J Nutr. 2007 May;137(5):1208-15.
  42. Mostafavi-Pour Z et al. Protective effects of a combination of quercetin and vitamin E against cyclosporine A-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatol Res. 2008 Apr;38(4):385-92.
  43. Hushmendy S et al. Select phytochemicals suppress human T-lymphocytes and mouse splenocytes suggesting their use in autoimmunity and transplantation. Nutr Res. 2009 Aug;29(8):568-78.
  44. Spolidorio LC et al. Intermittent therapy with 1,25 vitamin D and calcitonin prevents cyclosporin-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010 Sep;87(3):236-45.
  45. Zhang AB et al. Strong additive effect of calcitriol and cyclosporine A on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and rat liver allotransplantations in vivo. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006 Dec 20;119(24):2090-5.
  46. Zittermann A et al. Calcitriol deficiency and 1-year mortality in cardiac transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2009 Jan 15;87(1):118-24.
  47. Ma HL et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade exacerbates murine psoriasis-like disease by enhancing Th17 function and decreasing expansion of Treg cells. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Feb;62(2):430-40.
  48. Afzali B et al. The role of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in human organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007 Apr;148(1):32-46.
  49. Zhang W et al. Combined administration of a mutant TGF-beta1/Fc and rapamycin promotes induction of regulatory T cells and islet allograft tolerance. J Immunol. 2010b Oct 15;185(8):4750-9.
  50. Chu Z et al. Influence of immunosuppressive drugs on the development of CD4(+)CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells in liver transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2010 Sep;42(7):2599-601.
  51. Park MK et al. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE) differentially regulates Foxp3(+) regulatory and IL-17(+) pathogenic T cell in autoimmune arthritis. Immunol Lett. 2010 Oct 5.
  52. McGuire SO et al. Dietary supplementation with blueberry extract improves survival of transplanted dopamine neurons. Nutr Neurosci. 2006 Oct-Dec;9(5-6):251-8.
  53. Vandergheynst A et al. High prevalence of nocturnal arterial hypertension and non-dipping in lung transplant recipients. Acta Cardiol. 2010 Aug;65(4):395-400.
  54. Vrochides D et al. Re-vascularization may not increase graft survival after hepatic artery thrombosis in liver transplant recipients. Hippokratia. 2010 Apr;14(2):115-8.
  55. Connolly GM et al. Elevated homocysteine is a predictor of all-cause mortality in a prospective cohort of renal transplant recipients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;114(1):c5-11.
  56. Biselli PM et al. Effect of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intake and MTHFR C677T polymorphism on homocysteine concentrations of renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2007 Dec;39(10):3163-5.
  57. Marcuzzi R et al. Vitamin supplementation reduces the progression of atherosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinemic renal-transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2003 May 15;75(9):1551-5.
  58. Winkelmayer WC et al. Associations between MTHFR 1793G>A and plasma total homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B in kidney transplant recipients. Kidney Int. 2005 May;67(5):1980-5.
  59. Yilmaz H et al. Effects of folic acid and N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Acta Cardiol. 2007 Dec;62(6):579-85.
  60. Bucuvalas JC et al. Effect of treatment with prostaglandin E1 and N-acetylcysteine on pediatric liver transplant recipients: a single-center study. Pediatr Transplant. 2001 Aug;5(4):274-8.
  61. Rymarz A et al. Intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine reduces plasma total homocysteine levels in renal transplant recipients. Ann Transplant. 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):5-9.
  62. Duru M et al. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on cyclosporine-A-induced nephrotoxicity. Ren Fail. 2008;30(4):453-9.
  63. Hulten LM et al. Butylated hydroxytoluene and N-acetylcysteine attenuates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in alveolar macrophages from human lung transplant recipients in vitro. Transplantation. 1998 Aug 15;66(3):364-9.
  64. Flammer AJ et al. Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion and reduces platelet reactivity. Circulation. 2007 Nov 20;116(21):2376-82.
  65. de Nigris F et al. Pomegranate juice reduces oxidized low-density lipoprotein downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human coronary endothelial cells. Nitric Oxide. 2006 Nov;15(3):259-63.
  66. Pari L and Sivasankari R. Effect of ellagic acid on cyclosporine A-induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;22(4):395-401.
  67. Dlugosz A et al. Oxidative stress and coenzyme Q10 supplementation in renal transplant recipients. Int Urol Nephrol. 2004;36(2):253-8.
  68. van den Dorpel MA et al. Conversion from cyclosporine A to azathioprine treatment improves LDL oxidation in kidney transplant recipients. Kidney Int. 1997 May;51(5):1608-12.
  69. Fang JC et al. Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2002 Mar 30;359(9312):1108-13.
  70. Williams MJ et al. Vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in renal allograft recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Jun;16(6):1251-5.
  71. de Arriba G et al. Vitamin E protects against the mitochondrial damage caused by cyclosporin A in LLC-PK1 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009 Sep 15;239(3):241-50.
  72. Lake KD et al. Effect of oral vitamin E and C therapy on calcineurin inhibitor levels in heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005 Aug;24(8):990-4.
  73. Ou ZJ et al. L-arginine restores endothelial nitric oxide synthase-coupled activity and attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary artery hypertension in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;298(6):E1131-9.
  74. Orea-Tejeda A et al. The effect of L-arginine and citrulline on endothelial function in patients in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Cardiol J. 2010;17(5):464-70.
  75. Doutreleau S et al. L-arginine supplementation improves exercise capacity after a heart transplant. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1261-7.
  76. Hollenbeak CS et al. The effect of surgical site infections on outcomes and resource utilization after liver transplantation. Surgery. 2001 Aug;130(2):388-95.
  77. Cainelli F and Vento S. Infections and solid organ transplant rejection: a cause-and-effect relationship? Lancet Infect Dis. 2002 Sep;2(9):539-49.
  78. Rayes N et al. Early enteral supply of lactobacillus and fiber versus selective bowel decontamination: a controlled trial in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2002 Jul 15;74(1):123-7.
  79. Rayes N et al. Supply of pre- and probiotics reduces bacterial infection rates after liver transplantation--a randomized, double-blind trial. Am J Transplant. 2005 Jan;5(1):125-30.
  80. Mazzaferro S et al. Ionised and total serum magnesium in renal transplant patients. J Nephrol. 2002 May-Jun;15(3):275-80.
  81. Holzmacher R et al. Low serum magnesium is associated with decreased graft survival in patients with chronic cyclosporin nephrotoxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005 Jul;20(7):1456-62.
  82. Gupta BK et al. Magnesium repletion therapy improved lipid metabolism in hypomagnesemic renal transplant recipients: a pilot study. Transplantation. 1999 Jun 15;67(11):1485-7.
  83. Hermann M et al. Intake of grapefruit juice alters the metabolic pattern of cyclosporin A in renal transplant recipients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Oct;40(10):451-6.
  84. Bauer S et al. Alterations in cyclosporin A pharmacokinetics and metabolism during treatment with St John's wort in renal transplant patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;55(2):203-11.
  85. Neff GW et al. Consumption of dietary supplements in a liver transplant population. Liver Transpl. 2004 Jul;10(7):881-5.