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Raynaud’s Phenomenon References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

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  8. Rajagopalan S, Pfenninger D, et al. Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine and endothelin 1 levels in secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon: implications for vascular dysfunction and progression of disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2003a Jul;48(7):1992-2000.
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  34. Keefe FJ, Surwit RS, et al. Biofeedback, autogenic training, and progressive relaxation in the treatment of Raynaud's disease: a comparative study. J Appl Behav Anal. 1980 Spring;13(1):3-11.
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  39. Holti G. An experimentally controlled evaluation of the effect of inositol nicotinate upon the digital blood flow in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. J Int Med Res. 1979;7(6):473-83.
  40. Ring EF, Bacon PA. Quantitative thermographic assessment of inositol nicotinate therapy in Raynaud's phenomena. J Int Med Res. 1977;5(4):217-22.
  41. Murphy R. The effect of inositol nicotinate (Hexopal) in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon: a placebo-controlled study. Clin Trials J. 1985;22(6):521-9.
  42. Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Shils M, Olson JA, et al, eds. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:169-92.
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  44. Leppert J, Aberg H, et al. The concentration of magnesium in erythrocytes in female patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon: fluctuation with the time of year. Angiology. 1994 Apr;45(4):283-8.
  45. Belch JJ, Shaw B, et al. Evening primrose oil (Efamol) in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a double blind study. Thromb Haemost. 1985 Aug 30;54(2):490-4.
  46. DiGiacomo RA, Kremer JM, et al. Fish-oil dietary supplementation in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon: a double-blind, controlled, prospective study. Am J Med. 1989 Feb;86(2):158-64.
  47. Rembold C, Ayers C. Oral L-arginine can reverse digital necrosis in Raynaud’s phenomenon. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb;244(1-2):139-41.
  48. Muir AH, Robb R, et al. The use of ginkgo biloba in Raynaud’s disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vasc Med. 2002;7(4):265-7.
  49. Sambo P, Amico D, et al. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine for treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis: a pilot study. J Rheumatol. 2001 Oct;28(10):2257-62.
  50. Salsano F, Litizia C, et al. Significant changes of peripheral perfusion and plasma adrenomedullin levels in N-acetylcysteine long term treatment of patients with sclerodermic Raynauds phenomenon. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct-Dec;18(4):761-70.
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