Whole Body Health Sale

Arthritis - Osteoarthritis References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Arthritis. Meeting the Challenge of Living Well At A Glance 2012. Updated 4/12/2012. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/arthritis.htm#aag. Accessed 5/7/2012.
  2. National Institutes of Health. Aspirin: AHFS Consumer Medication Information. PubMed Health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [Last updated March 2011; Accessed April 2012]
  3. Mayo Clinic. Osteoarthritis. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/osteoarthritis/DS00019. Accessed 5/7/2012.
  4. Seed SM, Dunican KC, Lynch AM. Treatment options for osteoarthritis: considerations for older adults. Hosp Pract. 2011;39(1):62-73.
  5. Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(1):26-35.
  6. Lane NE, Brandt K, Hawker G, et al. OARSI-FDA initiative: defining the disease state of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19(5):478-482.
  7. Ziskoven C, Jager M, Kircher J, et al. Physiology and pathophysiology of nitrosative and oxidative stress in osteoarthritic joint destruction. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;89(7):455-466.
  8. Busija L, Bridgett L, Williams SR, et al. Osteoarthritis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24(6):757-768.
  9. Woodcock J. A difficult balance--pain management, drug safety, and the FDA. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(22):2105-7.
  10. Vista ES, Lau CS. What about supplements for osteoarthritis? A critical and evidenced-based review. Int J Rheum Dis. 2011;14(2):152-158.
  11. Bijlsma JW, Berenbaum F, Lafeber FP. Osteoarthritis: an update with relevance for clinical practice. Lancet. 2011;377(9783):2115-2126.
  12. Kapoor M, Martel-Pelletier J, Lajeunesse D, Pelletier JP, Fahmi H. Role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7(1):33-42.
  13. Min SY, Park KS, Cho ML, et al. Antigen-induced, tolerogenic CD11c+,CD11b+ dendritic cells are abundant in Peyer’s patches during the induction of oral tolerance to type II collagen and suppress experimental collagen induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Mar;54(3):887-98.
  14. Wang Y, Prentice LF, Vitetta L, Wluka AE, Cicuttini FM. The effect of nutritional supplements on osteoarthritis. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9(3):275-296.
  15. Palmieri B, Lodi D, Capone S. Osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease: local treatment options update. Acta Biomed. 2010;81(2):94-100.
  16. Gregory PJ, Sperry M, Wilson AF. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(2):177-184.
  17. Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(1):39-48.
  18. Sengupta K, Krishnaraju AV, Vishal AA, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 5-Loxin and Aflapin Against osteoarthritis of the knee: a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study. Int J Med Sci. 2010;7(6):366-77.
  19. Sengupta K, Kolla JN, Krishnaraju AV, et al. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effect of Aflapin: a novel Boswellia serrata extract. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;354(1-2):189-97.
  20. Briant P, Andriacchi T. (2008) Chapter 6: Joint Biomechanics: The Role of Mechanics in Joint Pathology (pg. 107). In: Gary Firestein (Ed.), Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology (8th ed.). Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier.
  21. Pearle AD, Warren RF, Rodeo SA. Basic science of articular cartilage and osteoarthritis. Clin Sports Med. 2005;24(1):1-12.
  22. Henrotin Y and Dubuc JE. Cartilage repair in osteoarthritic patients: utopia or real opportunity? 1000 Med Rep. 2009 Nov 26;1. pii: 88.
  23. Felson DT. The sources of pain in knee osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005 Sep;17(5):624-8.
  24. Mayo Clinic. Bone spurs. Sometimes, a source of pain. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2009;27(6):7.
  25. Strand V, Bloch DA, Leff R, Peloso PM, Simon LS. Safety issues in the development of treatments for osteoarthritis: recommendations of the Safety Considerations Working Group. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19(5):493-499.
  26. Kalunian K. Clinical manifestations of osteoarthritis. In: UpToDate, Tugwell P., Romain P. (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-of-osteoarthritis?source=search_result&search=Clinical+manifestations+of+osteoarthritis&selectedTitle=1%7E150
  27. Hunter DJ, McDougall JJ, Keefe FJ. The symptoms of osteoarthritis and the genesis of pain. Med Clin North Am. 2009;93(1):83-100.
  28. Kalunian K. Risk factors for and possible causes of osteoarthritis. In: UpToDate, Tugwell P., Romain P. (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012a. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/risk-factors-for-and-possible-causes-of-osteoarthritis?source=search_result&search=Risk+factors+for+and+possible+causes+of+osteoarthritis&selectedTitle=1%7E150
  29. Rai MF, Sandell LJ. Inflammatory mediators: tracing links between obesity and osteoarthritis. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2011;21(2):131-142.
  30. Sowers MR, Karvonen-Gutierrez CA. The evolving role of obesity in knee osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010;22(5):533-537.
  31. Velasquez MT, Katz JD. Osteoarthritis: another component of metabolic syndrome? Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8(4):295-305.
  32. Katz JD, Agrawal S, Velasquez M. Getting to the heart of the matter: osteoarthritis takes its place as part of the metabolic syndrome. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010;22(5):512-519.
  33. Brosseau L, Wells GA, Tugwell P, et al. Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of osteoarthritis in adults who are obese or overweight. Phys Ther. 2011;91(6):843-861.
  34. Gill RS, Al-Adra DP, Shi X, Sharma AM, Birch DW, Karmali S. The benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2011;12(12):1083-1089.
  35. Goldring MB and Otero M. Inflammation in osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011 Sep;23(5):471-8.
  36. Liagre B, Moalic S, Vergne P, et al. Effects of alumina and zirconium dioxide particles on arachidonic acid metabolism and proinflammatory interleukin production in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid synovial cells. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002 Aug;84(6):920-30.
  37. Devillier P. [Pharmacology of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ENT pathology]. Presse Med. 2001 Dec 22-29;30(39-40 Pt 2):70-9.
  38. Kawakami M, Matsumoto T, Tamaki T. Roles of thromboxane A2 and leukotriene B4 in radicular pain induced by herniated nucleus pulposus. J Orthop Res. 2001 May;19(3):472-7.
  39. Vaamonde-García C, Riveiro-Naveira RR, Valcárcel-Ares MN, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction increases the inflammatory responsiveness to cytokines in normal human chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 May 1. doi: 10.1002/art.34508. [Epub ahead of print]
  40. Cillero-Pastor B, Caramés B, Lires-Deán M, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction activates cyclooxygenase 2 expression in cultured normal human chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Aug;58(8):2409-19.
  41. Blanco FJ, López-Armada MJ, and Maneiro E. Mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis. ondrion. 2004 Sep;4(5-6):715-28. Epub 2004 Oct 1.
  42. Ziskoven C, Jäger M, Zilkens C, et al. Oxidative stress in secondary osteoarthritis: from cartilage destruction to clinical presentation? Orthop Rev (Pavia). 2010 Sep 23;2(2):e23.
  43. Tanamas SK, Wijethilake P, Wluka AE, et al. Sex hormones and structural changes in osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Maturitas. 2011;69(2):141-156.
  44. Parazzini F. Menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy use and risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed osteoarthritis in women attending menopause clinics in Italy. Maturitas. 2003;46(3):207-12.
  45. Song YJ, Lin SQ, Wu ZH, Weng XS, Qiu GX, Chen FL. [Effect of combined continued hormone replacement therapy on knee osteoarthritis symptom of postmenopausal women]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2004;26(5):571-5.
  46. Aldámiz-Echevarría L, Prieto JA, Andrade F, et al. Arachidonic acid content in adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance in healthy children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007 Jan;44(1):77-83.
  47. Wixted JJ, Fanning P, Rothkopf I, et al. Arachidonic acid, eicosanoids, and fracture repair. J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Sep;24(9):539-42.
  48. Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet: the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and the brain. Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Oct;44(2):203-15. Epub 2011 Jan 29.
  49. Schror K. Pharmacology and cellular/molecular mechanisms of action of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAIDs in colorectal cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Aug;25(4-5):473-84.
  50. Bengmark S. Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006 Jan-Feb;30(1):45-51.
  51. Murias M, Handler N, Erker T, et al. Resveratrol analogues as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: synthesis and structure-activity relationship. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Nov 1;12(21):5571-8.
  52. Oz HS and Chen TS. Green-tea polyphenols downregulate cyclooxygenase and Bcl-2 activity in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Nov;53(11):2980-8. Epub 2008 Mar 29.
  53. Keicher U, Koletzko B, and Reinhardt D. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress the enhanced production of 5-lipoxygenase products from polymorph neutrophil granulocytes in cystic fibrosis. Eur J Clin Invest. 1995 Dec;25(12):915-9.
  54. Prasad NS, Raghavendra R, Lokesh BR, et al. Spice phenolics inhibit human PMNL 5-lipoxygenase. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004 Jun;70(6):521-8.
  55. Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J, et al. Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Jun;261(3):1143-6.
  56. Murphy L, Helmick CG. The impact of osteoarthritis in the United States: a population-health perspective. Am J Nurs. 2012;112(3 Suppl 1):S13-19.
  57. Siversson C, Chan J, Tiderius CJ, et al. Effects of B1 inhomogeneity correction for three-dimensional variable flip angle T1 measurements in hip dGEMRIC at 3 T and 1.5 T. Magn Reson Med. 2012;67(6):1776-81.
  58. Taylor C, Carballido-Gamio J, Majumdar S, Li X. Comparison of quantitative imaging of cartilage for osteoarthritis: T2, T1rho, dGEMRIC and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;27(6):779-784.
  59. Sinusas K. Osteoarthritis: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(1):49-56.
  60. Egan BA, Mentes JC. Benefits of physical activity for knee osteoarthritis: a brief review. J Gerontol Nurs. 2010;36(9):9-14.
  61. Jansen MJ, Viechtbauer W, Lenssen AF, Hendriks EJ, de Bie RA. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2011;57(1):11-20.
  62. Ng NT, Heesch KC, Brown WJ. Efficacy of a progressive walking program and glucosamine sulphate supplementation on osteoarthritic symptoms of the hip and knee: a feasibility trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(1):12.
  63. Lim AY, Doherty M. What of guidelines for osteoarthritis? Int J Rheum Dis. 2011;14(2):136-144.
  64. Scheiman JM, Sidote D. Which NSAID for your patient with osteoarthritis? J Fam Pract. 2010;59(11):E1-6.
  65. Howes F, Buchbinder R, Winzenberg TB. Opioids for osteoarthritis? Weighing benefits and risks: a Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group review. J Fam Pract. 2011;60(4):206-212.
  66. Hersh EV, Pinto A, Moore PA. Adverse drug interactions involving common prescription and over-the-counter analgesic agents. Clin Ther. 2007;29(97):2477-97.
  67. Wilcox CM, Cryer B, Triadafilopoulos G. Patterns of use and public perception of over-the-counter pain relievers: focus on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. J Rheumatol. 2005;32(11):2218-24.
  68. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Acetaminophen: background and overview. Meeting material from the June 29, 2009, joint meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee with the Anesthetic and Life Support Advisory Committee and Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee. Silver Spring, MD, 2009.
  69. Saccomano S, Deluca DA. Too toxic. Nurs Manage. 2008;39(9):32A-H.
  70. Abenavoli L, Capasso R, Milic N, et al. Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Phytother Res. 2010 Oct;24(10):1423-32.
  71. Bajt ML, Knight TR, Lemasters JJ et al. Acetaminophen-induced oxidant stress and cell injury in cultured mouse hepatocytes: protection by N-acetyl cysteine. Toxicol Sci. 2004 Aug;80(2):343-9. Epub 2004 Apr 28.
  72. Peterson K, McDonagh M, Thakurta S, et al. Drug Class Review: Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Final Update 4 Report. National Institute of Health (NIH) PubMed Health. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US).
  73. Weir MR. Renal effects of nonselective NSAIDs and coxibs. Cleve Clin J Med. 2002;69 Suppl 1:SI53-8.
  74. Ejaz P, Bhojani K, Joshi VR. NSAIDs and kidney. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004 Aug;52:632-40.
  75. Cattaneo A. Tanezumab, a recombinant humanized mAb against nerve growth factor for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2010;12(1):94-106.
  76. Felson DT. Osteoarthritis in 2010: New takes on treatment and prevention. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7(2):75-6.
  77. Lane NE, Schnitzer TJ, Birbara CA, et al. Tanezumab for the treatment of pain from osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(16):1521-1531.
  78. Wood JN. Nerve Growth Factor and Pain. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363(16):1572-1573.
  79. Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D. Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Pain Physician. 2008 May-Jun;11(3):343-53.
  80. Jorgensen C, Gordeladze J, Noel D. Tissue engineering through autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2004 Oct;15(5):406-10.
  81. Ringe J, Sittinger M. Tissue engineering in the rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11(1):211.
  82. Chen FH, Tuan RS. Mesenchymal stem cells in arthritic diseases. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10(5):223.
  83. Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D. Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Med Hypotheses. 2008 Dec;71(6):900-8.
  84. Alqutub AN, Masoodi I, Alsayari K, Alomair A. Bee sting therapy-induced hepatotoxicity: A case report. World J Hepatol. 2011;3(10):268-270.
  85. Mayo Clinic Letters. I accidentally disturbed a beehive in my yard and was stung extensively. It was a frightening experience, but it amazingly seems to have cured my arthritis. Is there any medical basis for this? Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2009;27(2):8.
  86. Kwon YB, Kim JH, Yoon JH, et al. The analgesic efficacy of bee venom acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis: a comparative study with needle acupuncture. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(2):187-199.
  87. Ameye LG, Chee WS. Osteoarthritis and nutrition. From nutraceuticals to functional foods: a systematic review of the scientific evidence. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8(4).
  88. Sanders M, Grundmann O. The use of glucosamine, devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), and acupuncture as complementary and alternative treatments for osteoarthritis. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16(3):228-238.
  89. Aghazadeh-Habashi A, Jamali F. The glucosamine controversy; a pharmacokinetic issue. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011;14(2):264-273.
  90. Fouladbakhsh J. Complementary and Alternative Modalities to Relieve Osteoarthritis Symptoms: A review of the evidence on several therapies often used for osteoarthritis management. Orthop Nurs. 2012;31(2):115-121.
  91. Miller KL, Clegg DO. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2011;37(1):103-118.
  92. Herrero-Beaumont G, Ivorra JA, Del Carmen Trabado M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56(2):555-567.
  93. Wiley-Blackwell (2011, September 6). Chondroitin sulfate improves hand function, relieves morning stiffness caused by osteoarthritis, study finds. ScienceDaily. Accessed April 24, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com-/releases/2011/09/110906085340.htm
  94. Uebelhart D. Clinical review of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16(3):31.
  95. Wildi LM, Raynauld JP, Martel-Pelletier J, et al. Chondroitin sulphate reduces both cartilage volume loss and bone marrow lesions in knee osteoarthritis patients starting as early as 6 months after initiation of therapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study using MRI. Ann Rheum Dis.2011;70(6):982-989.
  96. Iannitti T, Lodi D, Palmieri B. Intra-articular injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis: focus on the clinical use of hyaluronic acid. Drugs R D. 2011;11(1):13-27.
  97. Huang SL, Ling PX, Zhang TM. Oral absorption of hyaluronic acid and phospholipids complexes in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(6):945-949.
  98. McIlwraith CW, Foerner JJ, Davis DM. Osteochondritis dissecans of the tarsocrural joint: results of treatment with arthroscopic surgery. Equine Vet J. 1991 May;23(3):155-62.
  99. Bergin BJ, Pierce SW, Bramlage LR, Stromberg A. Oral hyaluronan gel reduces post operative tarsocrural effusion in the yearling Thoroughbred. Equine Vet J. 2006 Jul;38(4):375-8.
  100. Kalman DS, Heimer M, Valdeon A, Schwartz H, Sheldon E. Effect of a natural extract of chicken combs with a high content of hyaluronic acid (Hyal-Joint) on pain relief and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. 2008 Jan 21;7:3.
  101. Alternative Medicine Review. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM). Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2003;8(4):438-441.
  102. Debbi EM, Agar G, Fichman G, et al. Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:50.
  103. Hill P, Brantley H, Van Dyke M. Some properties of keratin biomaterials: kerateines. Biomaterials. 2010;31(4):585-593.
  104. Quaglini M. Evaluation of the efficacy of a food supplement to strengthen hair growth. 2010. Data on file.
  105. Aitken R. Technical Summary of Cynatine® FLX Clinical Trial. 2010. Data on file.
  106. Hardy ML, Coulter I, Morton SC, et al. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for treatment of depression, osteoarthritis, and liver disease. Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2003;64:1-3.
  107. Kim J, Lee EY, Koh EM, et al. Comparative clinical trial of S-adenosylmethionine versus nabumetone for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, Phase IV study in Korean patients. Clin Ther. 2009;31(12):2860-2872.
  108. Soeken KL, Lee WL, Bausell RB, Agelli M, Berman BM. Safety and efficacy of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for osteoarthritis. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(5):425-430.
  109. Hosea Blewett HJ. Exploring the mechanisms behind S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008;48(5):458-463.
  110. Rutjes AW, Nuesch E, Reichenbach S, Juni P. S-Adenosylmethionine for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;7(4).
  111. Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006;60(9):502-507.
  112. Knott L, Avery NC, Hollander AP, Tarlton JF. Regulation of osteoarthritis by omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a naturally occurring model of disease. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19(9):1150-1157.
  113. Zainal Z, Longman AJ, Hurst S, et al. Relative efficacies of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing expression of key proteins in a model system for studying osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009;17(7):896-905.
  114. Gruenwald J, Petzold E, Busch R, et al. Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis. Adv Ther. 2009 Sep;26(9):858-71.
  115. AMR (Alternative Medicine Review). Krill oil. Monograph. Altern Med Rev.2010;15(1):84-86.
  116. Crowley DC, Lau FC, Sharma P, et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6(6):312-321.
  117. Heinegard D, Saxne T. The role of the cartilage matrix in osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7(1):50-56.
  118. Gupta RC, Canerdy TD, Skaggs P, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II) in comparison to glucosamine and chondroitin in arthritic horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2009;32(6):577-584.
  119. Kucharz EJ. Application of avocado/soybean unsaponifiable mixtures (piascledine) in treatment of patients with osteoarthritis. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2003;5(2):248-251.
  120. Priotta M. Arthritis disease - the use of complementary therapies. Aust Fam Physician. 2010 Sep;39(9):638-40.
  121. Christensen R, Bartels EM, Astrup A, Bliddal H. Symptomatic efficacy of avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16(4):399-408.
  122. Long L, Soeken K, Ernst E. Herbal medicines for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Rheumatology. 2001;40(7):779-793.
  123. Henrotin Y. Avocado/soybean unsaponifiable (ASU) to treat osteoarthritis: a clarification: Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 Sep;16(9):1118-9; author reply 1120. Epub 2008 Mar 4.
  124. Singh S. From Exotic Spice to Modern Drug? Cell. 2007;130(5):765-768.
  125. Henrotin Y, Clutterbuck AL, Allaway D, et al. Biological actions of curcumin on articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010;18(2):141-149.
  126. Lev-Ari S, Strier L, Kazanov D, et al. Curcumin synergistically potentiates the growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of celecoxib in osteoarthritis synovial adherent cells. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Feb;45(2):171-7. Epub 2005 Oct 25.
  127. Mathy-Hartert M, Jacquemond-Collet I, Priem F, Sanchez C, Lambert C, Henrotin Y. Curcumin inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators and metalloproteinase-3 production by chondrocytes. Inflamm Res. 2009;58(12):899-908.
  128. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, et al. Efficacy and safety of Meriva(R), a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(4):337-344.
  129. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, et al. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva(R), a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):55-62.
  130. Butt MS, Sultan MT. Ginger and its health claims: molecular aspects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51(5):383-393.
  131. Terry R, Posadzki P, Watson LK, Ernst E. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials. Pain Med. 2011;12(12):1808-1818.
  132. Haghighi M, Khalvat A, Toliat T, Jallaei S. Comparing the effects of ginger (zingiber officinale) extract and ibuprofen on patients with osteoarthritis. Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2005;8(4):267–271.
  133. Therkleson T. Ginger compress therapy for adults with osteoarthritis. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66(10):2225-2233.
  134. Clayton JJ. Nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis. Orthopedics. 2007;30(8):624-9.
  135. Abdel-Tawab M, Werz O, Schubert-Zsilavecz M. Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011;50(6):349-69.
  136. Siddiqui MZ. Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):255-61.
  137. Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(1):3-7.
  138. Kim JH, Jeong JH, Jeon ST, et al. Decursin inhibits induction of inflammatory mediators by blocking nuclear factor-kappaB activation in macrophages. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Jun;69(6):1783-90.
  139. 139.Choi SS, Han KJ, Lee JK, et al. Antinociceptive mechanisms of orally administered decursinol in the mouse. Life Sci. 2003 Jun 13;73(4):471-85.
  140. Seo YJ, Kwon MS, Park SH, et al. The analgesic effect of decursinol. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32(6):937-43.
  141. Nakamura S, Hashimoto Y, Mikami M, et al. Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase in patients with chronic airway disease. Respirology. 2003 Sep;8(3):316-20.
  142. Ritz B. Multi-Center Study Evaluating the Efficacy of Wobenzym(R)N in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis (Clinical Trial). Study First Received: September 9, 2009. ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 24, 2012.
  143. Singer F and Oberleitner H. [Drug therapy of activated arthrosis. On the effectiveness of an enzyme mixture versus diclofenac]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1996;146(3):55-8.
  144. Brien S, Lewith G, Walker A, et al. Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: a Review of Clinical Studies. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2004 Dec;1(3):251-257.
  145. Akhtar NM, Naseer R, Farooqi AZ, Aziz W, Nazir M. Oral enzyme combination versus diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee—a double-blind prospective randomized study. Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Oct;23(5):410-5.
  146. Dusso AS, Brown AJ, Slatopolsky E. Vitamin D. American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology. July 1, 2005 2005;289(1):F8-F28.
  147. Manson JE. Pain: sex differences and implications for treatment. Metabolism. 2010;59(1):S16-20.
  148. Muraki S, Dennison E, Jameson K, et al. Association of vitamin D status with knee pain and radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011 Nov;19(11):1301-6.
  149. Heidari B, Heidari P, and Hajian-Tilaki K. Association between serum vitamin D deficiency and knee osteoarthritis. Int Orthop. 2011 Nov;35(11):1627-31.
  150. Selfridge NJ. Vitamin D and Pain: Making Sense of It All. Alternative Medicine Alert. 2010;13(7):77-78.
  151. Nakao R, Nelson OL, Park JS, Mathison BD, Thompson PA, Chew BP. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on inflammation and cardiac function in BALB/c mice. Anticancer Res. 2010;30(7):2721-2725.
  152. Breidenassel C, Valtuena J, Gonzalez-Gross M, et al. Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and beta-carotene) in European adolescents - the HELENA Study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011;81(4):245-255.
  153. Rosenbaum CC, O'Mathuna DP, Chavez M, Shields K. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Altern Ther Health Med. 2010;16(2):32-40.
  154. Akhtar N, Haqqi TM. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the global interleukin-1beta-induced inflammatory response in human chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13(3).
  155. Katiyar SK, Raman C. Green tea: a new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritis: Arthritis Res Ther. 2011 Aug 10;13(4):121.
  156. Newnham RE. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;7:83-85.
  157. Jonas WB, Rapoza CP, and Blair WF. The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Inflamm Res. 1996 Jul;45(7):330-4.
  158. McCarty MF, Russell AL. Niacinamide therapy for osteoarthritis--does it inhibit nitric oxide synthase induction by interleukin 1 in chondrocytes? Med Hypotheses. 1999;53(4):350-360.
  159. Frestedt JL, Kuskowski MA, Zenk JL. A natural seaweed derived mineral supplement (Aquamin F) for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, placebo controlled pilot study. Nutr J. 2009;8:7.
  160. Bohlooli S, Jastan M, Nakhostin-Roohi B, et al. A pilot double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial of topical virgin olive oil versus piroxicam gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. J Clin Rheumatol. 2012 Mar;18(2):99-101.
  161. Johnson MM, Swan DD, Surette ME, et al. Dietary supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid alters fatty acid content and eicosanoid production in healthy humans. J Nutr. 1997 Aug;127(8):1435-44.
  162. Ziboh VA, Naguwa S, Vang K, et al. Suppression of leukotriene B4 generation by ex-vivo neutrophils isolated from asthma patients on dietary supplementation with gammalinolenic acid-containing borage oil: possible implication in asthma. Clin Dev Immunol. 2004 Mar;11(1):13-21.
  163. Chang CS, Sun HL, Lii CK, Chen HW, Chen PY, Liu KL. Gamma-linolenic acid inhibits inflammatory responses by regulating NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Inflammation. 2010 Feb;33(1):46-57.
  164. Soeken KL. Selected CAM therapies for arthritis-related pain: the evidence from systematic reviews. Clin J Pain. 2004 Jan-Feb;20(1):13-8.