Weight Loss Sale

Blood Clot Prevention References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Mannucci PM, Franchini M. Old and new anticoagulant drugs: a minireview. Ann Med. 2011;43(2):116–123.
  2. Dossett LA, Riesel JN, Griffin MR, Cotton BA. Prevalence and implications of preinjury warfarin use: an analysis of the National Trauma Databank. Arch Surg. 2011;146(5):565–570.
  3. Peetz D et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin for venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 18;362(11):1050; author reply 1050-1.
  4. Houston DS et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 31;361(27):2671; author reply 2674-5.
  5. Cushman M, Tsai A, White R. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in two cohorts: the longitudinal investigation of thromboembolism etiology. The American journal of Medicine 2004;117(1):19-25.
  6. Flegel KM et al. When atrial fibrillation occurs with pulmonary embolism, is it the chicken or the egg? CMAJ. 1999 Apr 20;160(8):1181-2.
  7. Silverstein MD, Heit JA, Mohr DN, et al. Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a 25-year population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(6):585–593.
  8. Kahn SR. The post thrombotic syndrome. Thromb. Res. 2011;127 Suppl3:S89–92.
  9. Rajani R, Björnsson E, Bergquist A, et al. The epidemiology and clinical features of portal vein thrombosis: a multicentre study. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2010;32(9):1154–1162.
  10. Ridker PM, Silvertown JD. Inflammation, C-reactive protein, and atherothrombosis. J. Periodontol. 2008;79(8 Suppl):1544–1551.
  11. Lippi G, FavaloroEJ, Montagnana M, Franchini M. C-reactive protein and venous thromboembolism: causal or casual association? Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2010;48(12):1693–1701.
  12. Schmieder, Roland E. "End Organ Damage in Hypertension." DeutschesÄrzteblatt International 2010; 107(49) : 866–873.
  13. Shechter M et al. Blood glucose and platelet-dependent thrombosis in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am CollCardiol. 2000 Feb;35(2):300-7.
  14. den Heijer M, Lewington S, Clarke R. Homocysteine, MTHFR and risk of venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies. J ThrombHaemost 2005; 3:292–299.
  15. Di MinnoMND, Tremoli E, Coppola A, Lupoli R, Di Minno G. Homocysteine and arterial thrombosis: Challenge and opportunity. Thromb. Haemost. 2010;103(5):942–961.
  16. Lippi G, Maffulli N. Biological influence of physical exercise on hemostasis. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 2009;35(3):269–276.
  17. Stamatakis JD, Kakkar VV, Sagar S, et al. Femoral vein thrombosis and total hip replacement. British Medical Journal. 1977;2:223-5.
  18. Baser O. Prevalence and economic burden of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. Am J Manag Care. 2011;17(1 Suppl):S6–8.
  19. XueYZ, Wang LX. Contemporary management of atrial fibrillation: a brief review. Adv Med Sci. 2010;55(2):130–136.
  20. Erem C. Thyroid disorders and hypercoagulability. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 2011;37(1):17–26.
  21. Franchini M. Hemostatic changes in thyroid diseases: haemostasis and thrombosis. Hematology 2006;11(3): 203–208.
  22. Burggraaf J, Lalezari S, EmeisJJ, et al. Endothelial function in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after treatment with propranolol and thiamazole. Thyroid 2001;11(2): 153–160
  23. Erem C, Kavgaci H, Ersooz H. Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic activity in hypothyroidism. Int J ClinPract2003;57(2):78–81.
  24. Folsom AR. Epidemiology of fibrinogen. Eur Heart J. 1995;16(suppl A):21-24
  25. de MaatMPM, de Groot CJM. Thrombophilia and pre-eclampsia. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 2011;37(2):106–110.
  26. Streiff MB. Anticoagulation in the management of venous thromboembolism in the cancer patient. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2011;31(3):282–294.
  27. Murchison JT et al. Excess risk of cancer in patients with primary venousthromboembolism: a national, population-based cohort study. Br J Cancer. 2004 Jul 5;91(1):92-5.
  28. Kirwan CC et al. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism during treatment for cancer: questionnaire survey. BMJ 327 : 597 doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7415.597 (Published 11 September 2003).
  29. Sørensen HT, Mellemkjaer L, Steffensen FH, e al. [Incidence of cancer after primary deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism]. Lakartidningen. 2000;97(16):1961-4.
  30. Kakkar AK et al. Venous thrombosis in cancer patients: insights from the FRONTLINE survey. Oncologist. 2003;8(4):381-8.
  31. Chobanian, Aram V et al. "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 Report." JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 2560–2572.
  32. Vachharajani V et al. Curcumin modulates leukocyte and platelet adhesion in murine sepsis. Microcirculation. 2010 Aug;17(6):407-16.
  33. Mousa SA. Antithrombotic effects of naturally derived products on coagulation and platelet function. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;663:229-40.
  34. Tapiero H et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and eicosanoids in human health and pathologies. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Jul;56(5):215-22.
  35. Philipp CS, Cisar LA, Saidi P, Kostis JB. Effect of niacin supplementation on fibrinogen levels in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82(5):697–9, A9.
  36. Johansson JO, Egberg N, Asplund-Carlson A, Carlson LA. Nicotinic acid treatment shifts the fibrinolytic balance favourably and decreases plasma fibrinogen in hypertriglyceridaemic men. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1997;4(3):165–171.
  37. Khaw T et al. Interrelation of vitamin C, infection, haemostatic factors, and cardiovascular disease. BMJ. 1995 Jun 17;310(6994):1559-63.
  38. WannametheeSG et al. Associations of vitamin C status, fruit and vegetable intakes, and markers of inflammation and hemostasis. Am J ClinNutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):567-74; quiz 726-7.
  39. O'Kennedy N, Crosbie L, Whelan S, et al. Effects of tomato extract on platelet function: a double-blinded crossover study in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep;84(3):561-9.
  40. Fujita M, Hong K, Ito Y, et al. Thrombolytic effect of nattokinase on a chemically induced thrombosis model in rat. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 1995;18(10):1387–139.
  41. Hall R, Mazer CD. Antiplatelet drugs: a review of their pharmacology and management in the perioperative period. Anesth. Analg. 2011;112(2):292–318.
  42. Patrono C, Baigent C, Hirsh J, Roth G. Antiplatelet drugs: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133: 199S–233S
  43. Rothwell PM, FowkesFG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, WarlowCP, Meade TW. Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2011; 377(9759):31-41.
  44. Rothwell PM, Wilson M, Elwin CE, et al. Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: 20-year follow-up of five randomised trials. Lancet. 2010; 376(9754):1741-50.
  45. Salinas CA, Kwon EM, FitzGerald LM, et al. Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidalantiinflammatory medications in relation to prostate cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(5):578-90.
  46. Flossmann E, Rothwell PM. Effect of aspirin on long-term risk of colorectal cancer: consistent evidence from randomised and observational studies. Lancet. 2007; 369(9573):1603-13.
  47. Cerella C, Sobolewski C, Dicato M, Diederich M. Targeting COX-2 expression by natural compounds: a promising alternative strategy to synthetic COX-2 inhibitors for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2010;80(12):1801–1815.
  48. Sobolewski C, Cerella C, Dicato M, et al. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 in cell proliferation and cell death in human malignancies. Int J Cell Biol. 2010;2010:215158.
  49. CAPRIE Steering Committee. A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet 1996;348:1329–39.
  50. Becker RC, Meade TW, Berger PB, et al. The primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence- Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133:776S– 814S
  51. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001;345(7):494–502.
  52. Chen ZM, Jiang LX, Chen YP, et.al. Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366 (9497)L 1607-21
  53. Bhatt DL, Fox KAA, Hacke W, et al. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(16):1706–1717.
  54. Arnold SV, Cohen DJ, Magnuson EA. Cost-effectiveness of oral antiplatelet agents—current and future perspectives. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8(10):580-91.
  55. Ulbricht C, Chao W, Costa D, et al. Clinical evidence of herb-drug interactions: a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration. Curr Drug Metab. 2008;9(10):1063–1120.
  56. Shalansky S et al. Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Sep;27(9):1237-47.
  57. Vedovati MC, Becattini C, Agnelli G. Combined oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets: benefits and risks. Intern Emerg Med. 2010;5(4):281–290.
  58. Macan H, Uykimpang R, Alconcel M, et al. Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):793S–795S.
  59. Steffel J, Braunwald E. Novel oral anticoagulants: focus on stroke prevention and treatment of venous thrombo-embolism. European Heart Journal. 2011;32(16):1968–1976.
  60. Thethi I, Fareed J. Newer oral anticoagulants: a promising future. Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost. 2011;17(2):235.
  61. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1139 – 1151.
  62. Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(24):2342-52.
  63. Eriksson BI, Borris LC, Friedman RJ, et al. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(26):2765-75.
  64. Uchino K et al. Dabigatran Association With Higher Risk of Acute Coronary Events. Arch Intern Med. Published online January 9, 2012.
  65. SchurgersLJ, Aebert H, Vermeer C, Bultmann B, Janzen J. Oral anticoagulant treatment: friend or foe in cardiovascular disease? Blood. 2004;104(10):3231-2.
  66. Rezaieyazdi Z, Falsoleiman H, Khajehdaluee M, Saghafi M, Mokhtari-Amirmajdi E. Reduced bone density in patients on long-term warfarin. Int J Rheum Dis. 2009;12(2):130–135.
  67. Gage BF, Birman-Deych E, Radford MJ, Nilasena DS, Binder EF. Risk of osteoporotic fracture in elderly patients taking warfarin: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation 2. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jan 23;166(2):241-6.
  68. Sconce E, Khan T, Mason J, et al. Patients with unstable control have a poorer dietary intake of vitamin K compared to patients with stable control of anticoagulation. Thromb. Haemost. 2005;93(5):872–875.
  69. Couris R, Tataronis G, McCloskey W, et al. Dietary vitamin K variability affects International Normalized Ratio (INR) coagulation indices. Int J VitamNutr Res. 2006;76(2):65–74.
  70. Lurie Y, Loebstein R, Kurnik D, Almog S, Halkin H. Warfarin and vitamin K intake in the era of pharmacogenetics. Br J ClinPharmacol. 2010;70(2):164–170.
  71. Sconce E, Avery P, Wynne H, Kamali F. Vitamin K supplementation can improve stability of anticoagulation for patients with unexplained variability in response to warfarin. Blood. 2007;109(6):2419–2423.
  72. Ford SK, MisitaCP, Shilliday BB, et al. Prospective study of supplemental vitamin K therapy in patients on oral anticoagulants with unstable international normalized ratios. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2007;24(1):23–27.
  73. Reynolds MW, Fahrbach K, Hauch O, et al. Warfarin anticoagulation and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2004;126(6):1938–1945.
  74. Sconce E, Avery P, Wynne H, et al. Vitamin K supplementation can improve stability of anticoagulation for patients with unexplained variability in response to warfarin. Blood. 2007;109(6):2419-23.
  75. RomboutsEK, RosendaalFR, Van Der Meer FJM. Daily vitamin K supplementation improves anticoagulant stability. J. Thromb. Haemost. 2007;5(10):2043–2048.
  76. Gebuis EP, Rosendaal FR, van Meegen E, van der Meer FJ. Vitamin K1 supplementation to improve the stability of anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists: a dose-finding study. Haematologica. 2011;96(4):583–589.
  77. Johnson W and Bouz PA Use of IntralesionaltPA in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Retrospective Analysis. Intracerebral Hemorrhage Research. 2011;111(6):425-428.
  78. Chang R, Horne MK, Shawker TH, et al. Low-dose, once-daily, intraclot injections of alteplase for treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis. J VascIntervRadiol. 2011;22(8):1107–1116.
  79. Murciano J, Medinilla S, Eslin D. et al. Prophylactic fibrinolysis through selective dissolution of nascent clots by tPA-carrying erythrocytes. Nature Biotech. 2003;21(8):891-896
  80. Samama MM, Guinet C. Laboratory assessment of new anticoagulants. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49(5):761-72.
  81. Rechner AR. Platelet function testing in clinical diagnostics. Hamostaseologie. 2011;31(2):79–87.
  82. Jänicke, C., Grünwald, J., Brendler, T., 2003. HandbuchPhytotherapie. WissenschaftlicheVerlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart.
  83. Somova LI, Shode FO, Ramnanan P, Nadar A. Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Oleaeuropaea, subspecies africana leaves. J Ethnopharmacol2003 Feb.;84(2-3):299–305.
  84. Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Busjahn A, Schmidlin C, Schmidt A, Bradl B, Aydogan C. Food supplementation with an olive (Oleaeuropaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Phytother Res 2008 Sep.;22(9):1239–1242.
  85. Singh I, Mok M, Christensen A-M, Turner AH, Hawley JA. The effects of polyphenols in olive leaves on platelet function. NutrMetabCardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(2):127–132.
  86. Zbidi H, Salido S, Altarejos J, et al. Olive tree wood phenolic compounds with human platelet antiaggregant properties. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2009;42(3):279–285.
  87. Granados-Principal S, QuilesJL, et al. Hydroxytyrosol: from laboratory investigations to future clinical trials. Nutr Rev. 2010;68(4):191–206.
  88. Bogani, P., Galli, C., Villa, M., and Visioli, F. (2007). Postprandial anti- inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil. Atherosclerosis, 190:181–186.
  89. Visioli, F., Caruso, D., Grande, S., et al. Virgin Olive Oil Study (VOLOS): vasoprotective potential of extra virgin olive oil in mildly dyslipidemic patients. European Journal of Nutrition, 2005;44:121–127.
  90. Correa JAG, López-Villodres JA, Asensi R, et al. Virgin olive oil polyphenol hydroxytyrosol acetate inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation in human whole blood: comparison with hydroxytyrosol and acetylsalicylic acid. Br J Nutr. 2009;101(8):1157–1164.
  91. Léger CL, Carbonneau MA, Michel F, et al. A thromboxane effect of a hydroxytyrosol-rich olive oil wastewater extract in patients with uncomplicated type I diabetes. Eur J ClinNutr. 2005;59(5):727–730.
  92. Junker R, Kratz M, Neufeld M, et al. Effects of diets containing olive oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil on the hemostatic system. Thromb. Haemost. 2001;85(2):280–286.
  93. Peters U, Poole C, Arab L. Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2001;154(6):495–503.
  94. Kang WS, Lim IH, Yuk DY, et al. Antithrombotic activities of green tea catechins and (-)-epigallocatechingallate. Thromb. Res. 1999;96(3):229–237.
  95. Hirano-Ohmori R, Takahashi R, Momiyama Y, et al. Green tea consumption and serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL concentrations in healthy subjects. J Am CollNutr. 2005;24(5):342–346.
  96. Wolfram RM, Oguogho A, Efthimiou Y, Budinsky AC, Sinzinger H. Effect of black tea on (iso-)prostaglandins and platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 2002;66(5-6):529–533.
  97. Steptoe A, Gibson EL, Vuononvirta R, et al. The effects of chronic tea intake on platelet activation and inflammation: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Atherosclerosis. 2007;193(2):277–282.
  98. Pignatelli P, Pulcinelli FM, Celestini A, et al. The flavonoids quercetin and catechin synergistically inhibit platelet function by antagonizing the intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide. Am J ClinNutr. 2000;72(5):1150–1155.
  99. Hubbard GP, Wolffram S, Lovegrove JA, Gibbins JM. Ingestion of quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in humans. J. Thromb. Haemost. 2004;2(12):2138–2145.
  100. Conquer JA, Maiani G, Azzini E, Raguzzini A, Holub BJ. Supplementation with quercetin markedly increases plasma quercetin concentration without effect on selected risk factors for heart disease in healthy subjects. J Nutr. 1998;128(3):593–597.
  101. Hubbard GP, Wolffram S, de Vos R, et al. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(3):482–488.
  102. Cheng TO. Cardiovascular effects of Danshen. Int. J. Cardiol. 2007;121(1):9–22.
  103. Wu B, Liu M, Zhang S. Dan Shen agents for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD004295.
  104. Fan HY, Fu FH, Yang MY, et al. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of salvianolic acid A. Thromb. Res. 2010;126(1):e17–22.
  105. Huang ZS, Zeng CL, Zhu LJ, et al. Salvianolic acid A inhibits platelet activation and arterial thrombosis via inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. J. Thromb. Haemost. 2010;8(6):1383–1393.
  106. Vuksan V, Whitham D, SievenpiperJL, et al. Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(11):2804–2810.
  107. Olas B, Wachowicz B. Resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant with effects on blood platelet functions. Platelets. 2005;16(5):251–260.
  108. Yang Y et al. Inhibitory effects of resveratrol on platelet activation induced by thromboxane a(2) receptor agonist in human platelets. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39(1):145-59.
  109. Gresele P, Pignatelli P, Guglielmini G, et al. Resveratrol, at concentrations attainable with moderate wine consumption, stimulates human platelet nitric oxide production. Journal of Nutrition. 2008;138(9):1602–1608.
  110. Malinowska J et al. Response of blood platelets to resveratrol during a model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Platelets. 2011;22(4):277-83.
  111. Clouatre, D., Kandaswami, C and Connolly, KM. Grape Seed Extract. In Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements, 2nd Edition. P. M. Coates, J. M. Betz, M. R. Blackman et al. New York, NY, Informa Healthcare: 2010; 916.
  112. Siva B, Edirisinghe I, Randolph J, Steinberg F. Effect of polyphenolics extracts of grape seeds (GSE) on blood pressure (BP) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). FASEB J 2006;20:A305.
  113. Sano T, Oda E, Yamashita T, et al. Anti-thrombotic effect of proanthocyanidin, a purified ingredient of grape seed. Thromb. Res. 2005;115(1-2):115–12.
  114. Vitseva O, Varghese S, Chakrabarti S, Folts JD, Freedman JE. Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2005;46(4):445–451.
  115. Zhang Y et al. Antithrombotic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Mar;53(3):743-53. Epub 2010 Nov 20.
  116. Shenoy SF, Keen CL, Kalgaonkar S, Polagruto JA. Effects of grape seed extract consumption on platelet function in postmenopausal women. Thromb. Res. 2007;121(3):431–432.
  117. Polagruto JA, Gross HB, Kamangar F, et al. Platelet reactivity in male smokers following the acute consumption of a flavanol-rich grapeseed extract. J Med Food. 2007;10(4):725–730.
  118. Shanmuganayagam D, BeahmMR, Osman HE, et al. Grape seed and grape skin extracts elicit a greater antiplatelet effect when used in combination than when used individually in dogs and humans. J Nutr. 2002;132(12):3592–3598.
  119. Engelhard YN, Gazer B, Paran E. Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am. Heart J. 2006 Jan.;151(1):100.
  120. Ried K, Fakler P. Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: Meta-analyses of intervention trials. Maturitas 2011 Apr.;68(4):299-310.
  121. Dutta-Roy AK, Crosbie L, Gordon MJ. Effects of tomato extract on human platelet aggregation in vitro. Platelets. 2001;12(4):218–227.
  122. O'Kennedy N, Crosbie L, van Lieshout M, et al. Effects of antiplatelet components of tomato extract on platelet function in vitro and ex vivo: a time-course cannulation study in healthy humans. Am J ClinNutr. 2006a;84(3):570–579.
  123. O'Kennedy N, Crosbie L, Whelan S, et al. Effects of tomato extract on platelet function: a double-blinded crossover study in healthy humans. Am J ClinNutr. 2006b;84(3):561–569.
  124. Aviram M, Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis 2001 Sep.;158(1):195–198.
  125. Sumner MD, Elliott-Eller M, Weidner G, DaubenmierJJ, Chew MH, Marlin R, Raisin CJ, Ornish D. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2005 Sep.;96(6):810–814.
  126. Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. ClinNutr 2004 Jun.;23(3):423–433.
  127. Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J ClinNutr. 2000;71(5):1062–1076.
  128. Polagruto JA et al. Effects of flavonoid-rich beverages on prostacyclin synthesis in humans and human aortic endothelial cells: association with ex vivo platelet function. J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):301-8.
  129. Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, Fakler P, Sullivan T. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC CardiovascDisord 2008;8:13.
  130. Reinhart KM, Talati R, White CM, Coleman CI. The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Res Rev 2009 Jun.;22(1):39-48.
  131. Rahman K, Lowe GM. Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):736S–740S.
  132. Rahman K. Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology. MolNutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1335-44.
  133. Park JB et al. Effects of typheramide and alfrutamide found in Allium species on cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. J Med Food. 2011 Mar;14(3):226-31.
  134. Steiner M, Lin RS. Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 1998;31(6):904–908.
  135. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on blood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 1998;58(4):257–263.
  136. Wojcikowski K, Myers S, Brooks L. Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Platelets. 2007;18(1):29–34.
  137. Marik PE, Varon J. Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review. ClinCardiol 2009 Jul.;32(7):365-372.
  138. McEwen B, Morel-Kopp M-C, Tofler G, Ward C. Effect of omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk in diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2010;36(4):565–584.
  139. Nomura S, Kanazawa S, Fukuhara S. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet activation markers and cell adhesion molecules in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications. 2003;17:153-159
  140. Mori TA, BeilinLJ, Burke V, Morris J, Ritchie J. Interactions between dietary fat, fish, and fish oils and their effects on platelet function in men at risk of cardiovascular disease. ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 1997;17:279-286.
  141. Vanschoonbeek K, Feijge MA, Paquay M, et al. Variable hypocoagulant effect of fish oil intake in humans: modulation of fibrinogen level and thrombin generation. ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 2004;24:1734-1740.
  142. Hartweg J, Farmer AJ, Holman RR, Neil A. Potential impact of omega-3 treatment on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2009;20(1):30–38.
  143. AhujaKD, Ball MJ. Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women. Br J Nutr 2006;96:239–42.
  144. Wang JP, Hsu MF, Teng CM. Antiplatelet effect of capsaicin. Thromb. Res. 1984;36(6):497–507.
  145. Visudhiphan S, Poolsuppasit S, Piboonnukarintr O, Tumliang S. The relationship between high fibrinolytic activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais. Am J ClinNutr. 1982;35(6):1452–1458.
  146. Adams MJ, AhujaKDK, Geraghty DP. Effect of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin on in vitro blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. Thromb. Res. 2009;124(6):721–723.
  147. Srivas KC. Effects of aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger on platelet aggregation and metabolism of arachidonic acid in the blood vascular system: in vitro study. Prostaglandins Leukot Med. 1984;13(2):227–235.
  148. Chrubasik S, Pittler MH, Roufogalis BD. Zingiberisrhizoma: a comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(9):684–701.
  149. Srivastava KC. Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 1989;35(3):183–185.
  150. Verma SK, Singh J, Khamesra R, Bordia A. Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man. Indian J. Med. Res. 1993;98:240–242.
  151. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (ZingiberofficinaleRosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 1997;56(5):379–384.
  152. Lumb AB. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thromb. Haemost. 1994;71(1):110–111.
  153. Ramirez Boscá A, Soler A, Gutierrez MC. Antioxidant curcuma extracts decrease the blood lipid peroxide levels of human subjects. Age 1995;
  154. Ramirez Boscá A, Carrión-Gutiérrez MA, et al. Effects of the antioxidant turmeric on lipoprotein peroxides: Implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Age 1997 Jul.;20(3):165-168.
  155. Ramirez Boscá A, Soler A, Carrión-Gutiérrez MA, et al. An hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa lowers the abnormally high values of human-plasma fibrinogen. Mech Ageing Dev 2000 Apr.;114(3):207-210.
  156. Wongcharoen W, Phrommintikul A. The protective role of curcumin in cardiovascular diseases. Int. J. Cardiol. 2009 Apr.;133(2):145-151.
  157. Jantan I, Raweh SM, Sirat HM, et al. Inhibitory effect of compounds from Zingiberaceae species on human platelet aggregation. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(4):306–309.
  158. DuggalJK, Singh M, Attri N, et al. Effect of niacin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Ther. 2010 Jun.;15(2):158-166.
  159. Morgan JM, CapuzziDM, Baksh RI, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin on lipoprotein subclass distribution. Am J Cardiol 2003 Jun.;91(12):1432-1436.
  160. Florentin M, Tselepis AD, Elisaf MS, et al. Effect of non-statin lipid lowering and anti-obesity drugs on LDLsubfractions in patients with mixed dyslipidaemia. CurrVascPharmacol 2010 Nov.;8(6):820-830.
  161. Haidara MA et al. Impact of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C on endothelial markers in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Med SciMonit. 2004 Feb;10(2):BR41-6.
  162. Sharma CP et al. Influence of L-ascorbic acid, blood cells and components on protein adsorption/desorption on polycarbonate. Haemostasis. 1987;17(1-2):70-8.
  163. Pais E, Alexy T, Holsworth RE, MeiselmanHJ. Effects of nattokinase, a pro-fibrinolytic enzyme, on red blood cell aggregation and whole blood viscosity. Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 2006;35(1-2):139–142.
  164. Hsia CH, Shen MC, Lin JS, Wen YK, Hwang KL, Cham TM, Yang NC. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects. Nutr Res 2009 Mar.;29(3):190–196.
  165. CesaroneMR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, et al. Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: the LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial. Angiology 2003 Aug.;54(5):531–539.
  166. Kim JY, Gum SN, Paik JK, et al. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Hypertens. Res. 2008 Aug.;31(8):1583–1588.
  167. Salem RO, Laposata M. Effects of alcohol on hemostasis. Am J Clin Path. 2005;12 Suppl:S96-105.