Weight Loss Sale

Adrenal Disorders (Addison’s Disease And Cushing’s Syndrome) References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Rakel RE, Rakel DP. Adrenal Glands. Rakel: Textbook of Family Medicine, 8th ed.: Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier 2012: http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1160-8..10035-1--s0265&isbn=978-1-4377-1160-8&sid=1379875751&uniqId=381338109-23#4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1160-8..10035-1--s0265. Accessed 11/13/2012.
  2. Brender E, Lynm C, Glass RM. JAMA patient page. Adrenal insufficiency. JAMA. 2005;294(19):2528.
  3. PubMed Health PMH0002883. Adrenal glands. US National Library of Medicine. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002883/ Updated December 11, 2011a..Accessed October 18, 2012.
  4. National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD). Adrenal gland disorders. http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/adrenal_gland_disorders.cfm. Updated July 28, 2010. Accessed November 2, 2012.
  5. Charmandari E, Chrousos GP, Lambrou GI, et al. Peripheral CLOCK regulates target-tissue glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in a circadian fashion in man. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25612.
  6. Gurnell EM, Hunt PJ, Curran SE, et al. Long-term DHEA replacement in primary adrenal insufficiency: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(2):400-409.
  7. Charmandari E and Kino T. Chrousos syndrome: a seminal report, a phylogenetic enigma and the clinical implications of glucocorticoid signalling changes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010;40(10):932-942.
  8. Farman N and Rafestin-Oblin ME. Multiple aspects of mineralocorticoid selectivity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280(2):F181-F192.
  9. Arun CP. Fight or flight, forbearance and fortitude: the spectrum of actions of the catecholamines and their cousins. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1018:137-140.
  10. Ten S, New M, Maclaren N. Clinical review 130: Addison's disease 2001. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(7):2909-2922.
  11. Pozza C, Graziadio C, Giannetta E, et al. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics. J Oncol. 2012;685213.
  12. Løvås K, Loge JH, Husebye ES. Subjective health status in Norwegian patients with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002;56(5):581-588.
  13. Pivonello R, De Martino MC, De Leo M, et al. Cushing's Syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008;37(1):135-149.
  14. van der Pas R, de Herder WW, Hofland L, et al. New developments in medical therapy of Cushing's syndrome. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012;Epub ahead of print.
  15. sTritos NA, Biller BM, Swearingen B, et al. Management of Cushing disease. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7(5):279-289.
  16. Colao A, Petersenn S, Pasireotide B2305 Study Group. A 12-month phase 3 study of pasireotide in Cushing's disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(10):914-924.
  17. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01371526. Revival of Autochthonous Adrenocortical Stem Cells in Autoimmune Addison's Disease. 9 Jun. 2011 Web. 5 Oct. 2012 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01371526?term=NCT01371526&rank=1
  18. Head KA and Kelly GS. Nutrients and botanicals for treatment of stress: adrenal fatigue, neurotransmitter imbalance, anxiety, and restless sleep. Altern Med Rev. 2009;14(2):114-140.
  19. Molina PE. Neurobiology of the stress response: contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to the neuroimmune axis in traumatic injury. Shock. 2005;24(1):3-10.
  20. PubMed Health PMH0041063. How does the nervous system work? US National Library of Medicine. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0041063/. Updated March 19, 2012. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  21. Bonfiglio JJ, Inda C, Refojo D, et al. The corticotropin-releasing hormone network and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: molecular and cellular mechanisms involved. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94(1):12-20.
  22. Anagnostis P, Athyros VG, Ali BH, et al. Clinical review: The pathogenetic role of cortisol in the metabolic syndrome: a hypothesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(8):2692-2701.
  23. Foley P and Kirschbaum C. Human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute psychosocial stress in laboratory settings. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;35(1):91-96.
  24. Bertagna X, Guignat L, Groussin L, et al. Cushing's disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;23(5):607-623.
  25. Stratakis CA. Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev. 2008;13:117-132.
  26. Nieman LK and Chanco Turner ML. Addison's disease. Clin Dermatol. 2006;24(4):276-280.
  27. Gebre-Medhin G, Husebye ES, Mallmin H, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy in women with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000;52(6):775-780.
  28. Luken KK. Clinical manifestations and management of Addison's disease. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 1999;11(4):151-154.
  29. sPadidela R and Hindmarsh PC. Mineralocorticoid deficiency and treatment in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2010; 656925.
  30. Mattke AF, Vender JR, Anstadt MR, et al. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as Addisonian crisis after coronary artery bypass grafting. Tex Heart Inst J. 2002;29(3):193-199.
  31. Omori K, Nomura K, Shimizu S, et al. Risk factors for adrenal crisis in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Endocr J. 2003;50(6):745-752.
  32. Ahn YW. Adrenal exhaustion and fatigue due to chronic stress. J Korean Med Assoc. 2011;54(1):81-87.
  33. Betterle C, Dal Pra C, Mantero F, et al. Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes: autoantibodies, autoantigens, and their applicability in diagnosis and disease prediction. Endocr Rev. 2002;23(3):327-364.
  34. Tabarin A, Navarranne A, Guerin J, et al. Use of ketoconazole in the treatment of Cushing's disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1991;34(1):63-69.
  35. Loose DS, Kan PB, Hirst MA, et al. Ketoconazole blocks adrenal steroidogenesis by inhibiting cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. J Clin Invest. 1983;71(5):1495-1499.
  36. Sarver RG, Dalkin BL, Ahmann FR, et al. Ketoconazole-induced adrenal crisis in a patient with metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma: case report and review of the literature. Urology. 1997;49(5):781-785.
  37. Hahner S, Loeffler M, Bleicken B, et al. Epidemiology of adrenal crisis in chronic adrenal insufficiency: the need for new prevention strategies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162(3):597-602.
  38. sYaneva M, Vandeva S, Zacharieva S, et al. Genetics of Cushing's syndrome. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;92 Suppl 1:6-10.
  39. Al-Aridi R, Abdelmannan D, Arafah BM. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: the added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate measurements. Endocr Pract. 2011;17(2):261-270.
  40. Lipworth BJ. Systemic adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroid therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(9):941-955.
  41. PubMed Health PMH0004157. Cortisol level. US National Library of Medicine. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004157/ Updated December 11, 2011b..Accessed October 18, 2012.
  42. Neary N and Nieman L. Adrenal insufficiency – etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010;17(3):217-223.
  43. Papanicolaou DA, Yanovski JA, Cutler GB Jr., et al. A single midnight serum cortisol measurement distinguishes Cushing's syndrome from pseudo-Cushing states. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83(4):1163-1167.
  44. Newell-Price J and Grossman AB. Differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007;51(8):1199-1206.
  45. Arnaldi G, Angeli A, Atkinson AB, et al. Diagnosis and complications of Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(12):5593-5602.
  46. Lennernas H, Skrtic S, Johannsson G, et al. Replacement therapy of oral hydrocortisone in adrenal insufficiency: the influence of gastrointestinal factors. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008;4(6):749-758.
  47. Kearney T and Dang C. Diabetic and endocrine emergencies. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83(976):79-86.
  48. Grossman AB. Clinical Review: The diagnosis and management of central hypoadrenalism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(11):4855-4863.
  49. Himsworth RL, Lewis JG, Rees LH, et al. A possible ACTH secreting tumour of the pituitary developing in a conventionally treated case of Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1978;9(2):131-139.
  50. Sugiyama K, Kimura M, Abe T, et al. Hyper-adrenocorticotropinemia in a patient with Addison's disease after treatment with corticosteroids. Intern Med. 1996;35(7):555-559.
  51. Weinstein RS. Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis. Endocrine. 2012;41(2):183-190.
  52. Biller BM, Grossman AB, Stewart PM, et al. Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(7):2454-2462.
  53. Schteingart DE. Drugs in the medical treatment of Cushing's syndrome. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2009;14(4):661-671.
  54. Tritos NA and Biller BM. Advances in medical therapies for Cushing's syndrome. Discov Med. 2012;13(69):171-179.
  55. García Rodríguez LA, Duque A, Castellsague J, et al. A cohort study on the risk of acute liver injury among users of ketoconazole and other antifungal drugs. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;48(6):847-852.
  56. Kim AC, Barlaskar FM, Heaton JH, et al. In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells. Endocr Rev. 2009;30(3):241-263.
  57. Simon DP and Hammer GD. Adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells: implications for adrenocortical carcinoma. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;351(1):2-11.
  58. van der Hoek J, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ. The role of somatostatin analogs in Cushing's disease. Pituitary. 2004;7(4):257-264.
  59. Miller GE, Chen E, Zhou ES. If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(1): 25-45.
  60. Anderson DC. Assessment and nutraceutical management of stress-induced adrenal dysfunction. Integrative Medicine. 2008;7(5):18-25.
  61. Taubes G. Nutrition. The soft science of dietary fat. Science. 2001;291(5513):2536-2545.
  62. Gade W, Gade J, Collins M, et al. Failures of feedback: rush hour along the highway to obesity. Clin Lab Sci. 2010;23(1):39-50.
  63. Buffenstein R, Karklin A, Driver HS. Beneficial physiological and performance responses to a month of restricted energy intake in healthy overweight women. Physiol Behav. 2000;68(4):439-444.
  64. Pettit ML and DeBarr KA. Perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. J Am Coll Health. 2011;59(5):335-341.
  65. Gilbert DG, Dibb WD, Plath LC, et al. Effects of nicotine and caffeine, separately and in combination, on EEG topography, mood, heart rate, cortisol, and vigilance. Psychophysiology. 2000;37(5):583-595.
  66. Duclos M, Gouarne C, Bonnemaison D, et al. Acute and chronic effects of exercise on tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(3):869-875.
  67. Luger A, Deuster PA, Kyle SB, et al. Acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to the stress of treadmill exercise. Physiologic adaptations to physical training. N Engl J Med. 1987;316(21):1309-1315.
  68. Hill EE, Zack E, Battaglini C, Viru M, et al. Exercise and circulating cortisol levels: the intensity threshold effect. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31(7):587-591.
  69. McEwen, BS. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of the brain. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2006;8(4):367-381.
  70. Reini SA. Hypercortisolism as a potential concern for submariners. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010;81(12):1114-1122.
  71. Balbo M, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep and its disturbances on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Int J Endocrinol. 2010; 759234.
  72. Meerlo P, Sgoifo A, Suchecki D. Restricted and disrupted sleep: effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity. Sleep Med Rev. 2008;12(3):197-210.
  73. Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. Melatonin in cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012;21(11):1593-1596.
  74. Cajochen C, Kräuchi K, Wirz-Justice A. Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15(4):432-437.
  75. Soszynski P, Stowinska-Srzednicka J, Kasperlik-Zatuska A, Zgliczynski S. Decreased melatonin concentration in Cushing's syndrome. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme. Dec 1989;21(12):673-674.
  76. Tomova A, Kumanov P, Robeva R, Manchev S, Konakchieva R. Melatonin secretion and non-specific immune responses are differentially expressed in corticotropin-dependent and corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. Jun 2008;14(6):CR327-332.
  77. Campino C, Valenzuela F, Arteaga E, et al. [Melatonin reduces cortisol response to ACTH in humans]. [Article in Spanish]. Rev Med Chil. 2008;136(11): 1390-1397.
  78. Davidson Z E, Walker KZ, Truby H. Clinical review: Do glucocorticosteroids alter vitamin D status? A systematic review with meta-analyses of observational studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(3):738-744.
  79. Amin S, LaValley MP, Simms RW, et al. The role of vitamin D in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: a meta-analytic approach. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42(8):1740-1751.
  80. PubMed Health PMH0001447. Cushing syndrome. US National Library of Medicine. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001447/ Updated December 11, 2011c. Accessed October 20, 2012.
  81. Takagi S, Tanabe A, Tsuiki M, Naruse M, Takano K. Hypokalemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypercortisolemia are the major contributing factors to cardiac dysfunction in adrenal Cushing's syndrome. Endocrine journal. 2009;56(8):1009-1018.
  82. Sonino N, Boscaro M, Paoletta A, et al. Ketoconazole treatment in Cushing's syndrome: experience in 34 patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1991;35(4):347-352.
  83. Paez-Pereda M, Kovalovsky D, Hopfner U, et al. Retinoic acid prevents experimental Cushing syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2001;108(8):1123-1131.
  84. Paez-Pereda M, Kovalovsky D, Hopfner U, et al. Retinoic acid prevents experimental Cushing syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2001;108(8):1123-1131.
  85. Castillo V, Giacomini D, Páez-Pereda M, et al. Retinoic acid as a novel medical therapy for Cushing's disease in dogs. Endocrinology. 2006;147(9):4438-4444.
  86. Bangaru ML, Woodliff J, Raff H, et al. Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease. PLoS One. 2010;5(4):e9893.
  87. Davis EA and Morris DJ. Medicinal uses of licorice through the millennia: the good and plenty of it. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991;78(1-2):1-6.
  88. Wang ZY and Nixon DW. Licorice and cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2001;39(1):1-11.
  89. Souness GW and Morris DJ. The antinatriuretic and kaliuretic effects of the glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol following pretreatment with carbenoxolone sodium (a liquorice derivative) in the adrenalectomized rat. Endocrinology. 1989;124(3):1588-1590.
  90. Al-Dujaili EA, Kenyon CJ, Nicol M, et al. Liquorice and glycyrrhetinic acid increase DHEA and deoxycorticosterone levels in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting adrenal SULT2A1 activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;336(1-2):102-109.
  91. Methlie P, Husebye EE, Hustad S, et al. Grapefruit juice and licorice increase cortisol availability in patients with Addison's disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165(5):761-769.
  92. Coles AJ, Thompson S, Cox AL, Curran S, Gurnell EM, Chatterjee VK. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in patients with Addison's disease has a bimodal effect on regulatory (CD4+CD25hi and CD4+FoxP3+) T cells. European journal of immunology. Dec 2005;35(12):3694-3703.
  93. Hunt PJ, Gurnell EM, Huppert FA, et al. Improvement in mood and fatigue after dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease in a randomized, double blind trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(12):4650-4656.
  94. Zang H and Davis SR. Androgen replacement therapy in androgen-deficient women with hypopituitarism. Drugs. 2008;68(15):2085-2093.
  95. Horvath Z and Vecsel L. Current medical aspects of pantethine. Ideggvogy Sz. 2009;62(7-8):220-229.
  96. Kelly GS. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern Med Rev. 1999;4(4):249-265.
  97. Jaroenporn S, Yamamoto T, Itabashi A, et al. Effects of pantothenic acid supplementation on adrenal steroid secretion from male rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(6):1205-1208.
  98. Mancini A, Festa R, Raimondo S, et al. Hormonal influence on coenzyme Q10 Levels in blood plasma. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(12):9216–9225.
  99. Lopez-Lluch G, Rodriguez-Aguilera JC, Santos-Ocana C, et al. Is coenzyme Q a key factor in aging? Mech Ageing Dev. 2010;131(4):225-235.
  100. Mancini A, Bianchi A, Fusco A, et al. Coenzyme Q10 evaluation in pituitary-adrenal axis disease: preliminary data. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):197-199.