Life Extension Final Clerance Sale

Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Hanna MG, Jr., Hoover HC, Jr. et al. Adjuvant active specific immunotherapy of stage II and stage III colon cancer with an autologous tumor cell vaccine: first randomized phase III trials show promise. Vaccine. 2001 Mar 21;19(17-19):2576-82.
  2. Jocham D, Richter A et al. Adjuvant autologous renal tumour cell vaccine and risk of tumour progression in patients with renal-cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy: phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Feb 21;363(9409):594-9.
  3. Malmberg KJ, Lenkei R et al. A short-term dietary supplementation of high doses of vitamin E increases T helper 1 cytokine production in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Jun;8(6):1772-8.
  4. Richardson MA, Ramirez T et al. Coley toxins immunotherapy: a retrospective review. Altern Ther Health Med. 1999 May;5(3):42-7.
  5. Wiemann B, Starnes CO. Coley's toxins, tumor necrosis factor and cancer research: a historical perspective. Pharmacol Ther. 1994;64(3):529-64.
  6. Hellstrom IE, Hellstrom KE et al. Demonstration of cell-bound and humoral immunity against neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1968 Aug;60(4):1231-8.
  7. Oliver RT, Nethersell AB et al. Unexplained spontaneous regression and alpha-interferon as treatment for metastatic renal carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1989 Feb;63(2):128-31.
  8. Penn I. Cancer is a complication of severe immunosuppression. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1986 Jun;162(6):603-10.
  9. Penn I. Tumors of the immunocompromised patient. Annu Rev Med. 1988;39:63-73.
  10. Vose BM, Moore M. Human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes: a marker of host response. Semin Hematol. 1985 Jan;22(1):27-40.
  11. Knuth A, Wolfel T et al. Cellular and humoral immune responses against cancer: implications for cancer vaccines. Curr Opin Immunol. 1991 Oct;3(5):659-64.
  12. Naftzger C, Houghton AN. Tumor immunology. Curr Opin Oncol. 1991 Feb;3(1):93-9.
  13. Cordon-Cardo C, Fuks Z et al. Expression of HLA-A,B,C antigens on primary and metastatic tumor cell populations of human carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1991 Dec 1;51(23 Pt 1):6372-80.
  14. Junker U, Knoefel B et al. Transforming growth factor beta 1 is significantly elevated in plasma of patients suffering from renal cell carcinoma. Cytokine. 1996 Oct;8(10):794-8.
  15. Pantel K, Schlimok G et al. Frequent down-regulation of major histocompatibility class I antigen expression on individual micrometastatic carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 1991 Sep 1;51(17):4712-5.
  16. Ranges GE, Figari IS et al. Inhibition of cytotoxic T cell development by transforming growth factor beta and reversal by recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Exp Med. 1987 Oct 1;166(4):991-8.
  17. Sarris AH, Kliche KO et al. Interleukin-10 levels are often elevated in serum of adults with Hodgkin's disease and are associated with inferior failure-free survival. Ann Oncol. 1999 Apr;10(4):433-40.
  18. Staveley-O'Carroll K, Sotomayor E et al. Induction of antigen-specific T cell anergy: An early event in the course of tumor progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Feb 3;95(3):1178-83.
  19. Brodsky FM, Guagliardi LE. The cell biology of antigen processing and presentation. Annu Rev Immunol. 1991;9:707-44.
  20. Janeway CA, Jr., Bottomly K. Signals and signs for lymphocyte responses. Cell. 1994 Jan 28;76(2):275-85.
  21. Levine TP, Chain BM. The cell biology of antigen processing. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;26(5-6):439-73.
  22. Klein E, Mantovani A. Action of natural killer cells and macrophages in cancer. Curr Opin Immunol. 1993 Oct;5(5):714-8.
  23. Mantovani A, Bottazzi B et al. The origin and function of tumor-associated macrophages. Immunol Today. 1992 Jul;13(7):265-70.
  24. Oliver RT, Nouri AM. T cell immune response to cancer in humans and its relevance for immunodiagnosis and therapy. Cancer Surv. 1992;13:173-204.
  25. Itoh K, Platsoucas CD et al. Autologous tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the infiltrate of human metastatic melanomas. Activation by interleukin 2 and autologous tumor cells, and involvement of the T cell receptor. J Exp Med. 1988 Oct 1;168(4):1419-41.
  26. Muul LM, Spiess PJ et al. Identification of specific cytolytic immune responses against autologous tumor in humans bearing malignant melanoma. J Immunol. 1987 Feb 1;138(3):989-95.
  27. Wang RF. Human tumor antigens: implications for cancer vaccine development. J Mol Med. 1999 Sep;77(9):640-55.
  28. Hayes DF, Yamauchi H et al. Circulating HER-2/erbB-2/c-neu (HER-2) extracellular domain as a prognostic factor in patients with metastatic breast cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 8662. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Sep;7(9):2703-11.
  29. Luftner D, Pollmann D et al. Perspectives of immunotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2005 Nov;25(6C):4599-604.
  30. Vogel CL, Cobleigh MA et al. First-line Herceptin monotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. Oncology. 2001;61 Suppl 2:37-42.
  31. Baselga J, Albanell J et al. Mechanism of action of trastuzumab and scientific update. Semin Oncol. 2001 Oct;28(5 Suppl 16):4-11.
  32. Rosenberg SA. Progress in human tumour immunology and immunotherapy. Nature. 2001 May 17;411(6835):380-4.
  33. Baluna R, Vitetta ES. Vascular leak syndrome: a side effect of immunotherapy. Immunopharmacology. 1997 Oct;37(2-3):117-32.
  34. Keilholz U, Gore ME. Biochemotherapy for advanced melanoma. Semin Oncol. 2002a Oct;29(5):456-61.
  35. Brusky JP, Gailani F et al. High-dose interleukin-2 immunotherapy is safe for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on dialysis. BJU Int. 2006 Feb;97(2):279-80.
  36. McDermott DF, Regan MM et al. Randomized phase III trial of high-dose interleukin-2 versus subcutaneous interleukin-2 and interferon in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 1;23(1):133-41.
  37. Amato RJ, Morgan M et al. Phase I/II study of thalidomide in combination with interleukin-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2006 Feb 10.
  38. Radny P, Caroli UM et al. Phase II trial of intralesional therapy with interleukin-2 in soft-tissue melanoma metastases. Br J Cancer. 2003 Nov 3;89(9):1620-6.
  39. Angelini C, Bovo G et al. Preoperative interleukin-2 immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer: preliminary results. Hepatogastroenterology. 2006 Jan;53(67):141-4.
  40. Iqbal Ahmed CM, Johnson HM. Interferon gene therapy for the treatment of cancer and viral infections. Drugs Today (Barc ). 2003 Oct;39(10):763-6.
  41. Bonifazi F, de VA et al. Chronic myeloid leukemia and interferon-alpha: a study of complete cytogenetic responders. Blood. 2001 Nov 15;98(10):3074-81.
  42. Guilhot F, Roy L et al. Interferon therapy in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2004 Jun;18(3):585-603, viii.
  43. Jonasch E, Haluska FG. Interferon in oncological practice: review of interferon biology, clinical applications, and toxicities. Oncologist. 2001;6(1):34-55.
  44. Nicolini A, Carpi A. Beta-interferon and interleukin-2 prolong more than three times the survival of 26 consecutive endocrine dependent breast cancer patients with distant metastases: an exploratory trial. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Jun;59(5):253-63.
  45. Tsao H, Atkins MB et al. Management of cutaneous melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 2;351(10):998-1012.
  46. Gogas H, Ioannovich J et al. Prognostic significance of autoimmunity during treatment of melanoma with interferon. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):709-18.
  47. Braybrooke JP, Slade A et al. Phase I study of MetXia-P450 gene therapy and oral cyclophosphamide for patients with advanced breast cancer or melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Feb 15;11(4):1512-20.
  48. Sterman DH, Recio A et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma receiving high-dose adenovirus herpes simplex thymidine kinase/ganciclovir suicide gene therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 15;11(20):7444-53.
  49. Sprent J, Surh CD. Generation and maintenance of memory T cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 2001 Apr;13(2):248-54.
  50. Sprent J, Surh CD. T cell memory. Annu Rev Immunol. 2002;20:551-79.
  51. Carr A, Rodriguez E et al. Immunotherapy of advanced breast cancer with a heterophilic ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) cancer vaccine. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Mar 15;21(6):1015-21.
  52. Soiffer R, Hodi FS et al. Vaccination with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer augments antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Sep 1;21(17):3343-50.
  53. Woodson EM, Chianese-Bullock KA et al. Assessment of the toxicities of systemic low-dose interleukin-2 administered in conjunction with a melanoma peptide vaccine. J Immunother. 2004 Sep;27(5):380-8.
  54. Bhopale GM, Nanda RK. Prospects for hepatitis C vaccine. Acta Virol. 2004;48(4):215-21.
  55. Herrera LA, itez-Bribiesca L et al. Role of infectious diseases in human carcinogenesis. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005 Mar 2.
  56. Dalgleish AG. Cancer vaccines as a therapeutic strategy. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Dec;3(6):665-8.
  57. Hellstrom KE, Hellstrom I. Therapeutic vaccination with tumor cells that engage CD137. J Mol Med. 2003 Feb;81(2):71-86.
  58. Hodge JW. Carcinoembryonic antigen as a target for cancer vaccines. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1996 Nov;43(3):127-34.
  59. Reinartz S, Wagner U. Current approaches in ovarian cancer vaccines. Minerva Ginecol. 2004 Dec;56(6):515-27.
  60. Grohmann U, Fioretti MC et al. Dendritic cells, interleukin 12, and CD4+ lymphocytes in the initiation of class I-restricted reactivity to a tumor/self peptide. Crit Rev Immunol. 1998;18(1-2):87-98.
  61. Seder RA, Paul WE. Acquisition of lymphokine-producing phenotype by CD4+ T cells. Annu Rev Immunol. 1994;12:635-73.
  62. Disis ML, Calenoff E et al. Existent T-cell and antibody immunity to HER-2/neu protein in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1994 Jan 1;54(1):16-20.
  63. Sorokine I, Ben-Mahrez K et al. Presence of circulating anti-c-myb oncogene product antibodies in human sera. Int J Cancer. 1991 Mar 12;47(5):665-9.
  64. Hoover HC, Jr., Brandhorst JS et al. Adjuvant active specific immunotherapy for human colorectal cancer: 6.5-year median follow-up of a phase III prospectively randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Mar;11(3):390-9.
  65. Mittelman A, Chen ZJ et al. Kinetics of the immune response and regression of metastatic lesions following development of humoral anti-high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen immunity in three patients with advanced malignant melanoma immunized with mouse antiidiotypic monoclonal antibody MK2-23. Cancer Res. 1994 Jan 15;54(2):415-21.
  66. Lahn M, Kohler G et al. Processing of tumor tissues for vaccination with autologous tumor cells. Eur Surg Res. 1997;29(4):292-302.
  67. Chan AD, Morton DL. Active immunotherapy with allogeneic tumor cell vaccines: present status. Semin Oncol. 1998 Dec;25(6):611-22.
  68. Avigan D. Dendritic cells: development, function and potential use for cancer immunotherapy. Blood Rev. 1999 Mar;13(1):51-64.
  69. Hajek R, Butch AW. Dendritic cell biology and the application of dendritic cells to immunotherapy of multiple myeloma. Med Oncol. 2000 Feb;17(1):2-15.
  70. Bodey B, Siegel SE et al. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells and their significance in antineoplastic immunotherapy. In Vivo. 2004 Jan;18(1):81-100.
  71. Vieweg J, Jackson A. Modulation of antitumor responses by dendritic cells. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2005 Jan;26(3):329-41.
  72. Tjoa BA, Murphy GP. Development of dendritic-cell based prostate cancer vaccine. Immunol Lett. 2000 Sep 15;74(1):87-93.
  73. Murphy G, Tjoa B et al. Phase I clinical trial: T-cell therapy for prostate cancer using autologous dendritic cells pulsed with HLA-A0201-specific peptides from prostate-specific membrane antigen. Prostate. 1996 Dec;29(6):371-80.
  74. Chen W, Rains N et al. Dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy: potential for treatment of colorectal cancer? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Jul;15(7):698-705.
  75. Hirschowitz EA, Foody T et al. Autologous dendritic cell vaccines for non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jul 15;22(14):2808-15.
  76. Allan CP, Turtle CJ et al. The immune response to breast cancer, and the case for DC immunotherapy. Cytotherapy. 2004;6(2):154-63.
  77. Adema GJ, de V, I et al. et al. Migration of dendritic cell based cancer vaccines: in vivo veritas? Curr Opin Immunol. 2005 Apr;17(2):170-4.
  78. Ragde H, Cavanagh WA et al. Dendritic cell based vaccines: progress in immunotherapy studies for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004 Dec;172(6 Pt 2):2532-8.
  79. Reichardt VL, Brossart P. DC-based immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies. Cytotherapy. 2004;6(1):62-7.
  80. Escobar A, Lopez M et al. Dendritic cell immunizations alone or combined with low doses of interleukin-2 induce specific immune responses in melanoma patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Dec;142(3):555-68.
  81. Schulz M, Zinkernagel RM et al. Peptide-induced antiviral protection by cytotoxic T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Feb 1;88(3):991-3.
  82. Liu KJ, Wang CC et al. Generation of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific T-cell responses in HLA-A*0201 and HLA-A*2402 late-stage colorectal cancer patients after vaccination with dendritic cells loaded with CEA peptides. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 15;10(8):2645-51.
  83. Jager E, Ringhoffer M et al. Granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor enhances immune responses to melanoma-associated peptides in vivo. Int J Cancer. 1996 Jul 3;67(1):54-62.
  84. Gaugler B, Van den EB et al. Human gene MAGE-3 codes for an antigen recognized on a melanoma by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1994 Mar 1;179(3):921-30.
  85. van der Bruggen P, Traversari C et al. A gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma. Science. 1991 Dec 13;254(5038):1643-7.
  86. Marchand M, van BN et al. Tumor regressions observed in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with an antigenic peptide encoded by gene MAGE-3 and presented by HLA-A1. Int J Cancer. 1999 Jan 18;80(2):219-30.
  87. Weber JS, Hua FL et al. A phase I trial of an HLA-A1 restricted MAGE-3 epitope peptide with incomplete Freund's adjuvant in patients with resected high-risk melanoma. J Immunother. 1999 Sep;22(5):431-40.
  88. Bitton RJ, Guthmann MD et al. Cancer vaccines: an update with special focus on ganglioside antigens. Oncol Rep. 2002 Mar;9(2):267-76.
  89. Fredman P, Hedberg K et al. Gangliosides as therapeutic targets for cancer. BioDrugs. 2003;17(3):155-67.
  90. Hakomori S. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens defining tumor malignancy: basis for development of anti-cancer vaccines. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;491:369-402.
  91. Tai T, Cahan LD et al. Immunogenicity of melanoma-associated gangliosides in cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 1985 May 15;35(5):607-12.
  92. Portoukalian J, Carrel S et al. Humoral immune response in disease-free advanced melanoma patients after vaccination with melanoma-associated gangliosides. EORTC Cooperative Melanoma Group. Int J Cancer. 1991 Dec 2;49(6):893-9.
  93. Livingston PO, Wong GY et al. Improved survival in stage III melanoma patients with GM2 antibodies: a randomized trial of adjuvant vaccination with GM2 ganglioside. J Clin Oncol. 1994 May;12(5):1036-44.
  94. Przepiorka D, Srivastava PK. Heat shock protein--peptide complexes as immunotherapy for human cancer. Mol Med Today. 1998 Nov;4(11):478-84.
  95. Ren W, Strube R et al. Potent tumor-specific immunity induced by an in vivo heat shock protein-suicide gene-based tumor vaccine. Cancer Res. 2004 Sep 15;64(18):6645-51.
  96. Hoos A, Levey DL. Vaccination with heat shock protein-peptide complexes: from basic science to clinical applications. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003 Jun;2(3):369-79.
  97. Huang XF, Ren W et al. A broadly applicable, personalized heat shock protein-mediated oncolytic tumor vaccine. Cancer Res. 2003 Nov 1;63(21):7321-9.
  98. Oki Y, Younes A. Heat shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Aug;3(4):403-11.
  99. Srivastava PK. Therapeutic cancer vaccines. Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Apr;18(2):201-5.
  100. Bendandi M. The role of idiotype vaccines in the treatment of human B-cell malignancies. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Apr;3(2):163-70.
  101. Caspar CB, Levy S et al. Idiotype vaccines for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma induce polyclonal immune responses that cover mutated tumor idiotypes: comparison of different vaccine formulations. Blood. 1997 Nov 1;90(9):3699-706.
  102. Rodriguez CM, Inoges S et al. [Past, present and future of anti-idiotype vaccination]. Rev Med Univ Navarra. 2004 Jul;48(3):14-23.
  103. Titzer S, Christensen O et al. Vaccination of multiple myeloma patients with idiotype-pulsed dendritic cells: immunological and clinical aspects. Br J Haematol. 2000 Mar;108(4):805-16.
  104. Huang EH, Kaufman HL. CEA-based vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2002 Jun;1(1):49-63.
  105. Marshall J. Carcinoembryonic antigen-based vaccines. Semin Oncol. 2003 Jun;30(3 Suppl 8):30-6.
  106. Ullenhag GJ, Frodin JE et al. Durable carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in colorectal carcinoma patients vaccinated with recombinant CEA and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 May 15;10(10):3273-81.
  107. Morse MA, Deng Y et al. A Phase I study of active immunotherapy with carcinoembryonic antigen peptide (CAP-1)-pulsed, autologous human cultured dendritic cells in patients with metastatic malignancies expressing carcinoembryonic antigen. Clin Cancer Res. 1999 Jun;5(6):1331-8.
  108. Berinstein NL. Carcinoembryonic antigen as a target for therapeutic anticancer vaccines: a review. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Apr 15;20(8):2197-207.
  109. Ueda Y, Itoh T et al. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy of cancer with carcinoembryonic antigen-derived, HLA-A24-restricted CTL epitope: Clinical outcomes of 18 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal or lung adenocarcinomas. Int J Oncol. 2004 Apr;24(4):909-17.
  110. Holmberg LA, Sandmaier BM. Vaccination with Theratope (STn-KLH) as treatment for breast cancer. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Dec;3(6):655-63.
  111. Holmberg LA, Oparin DV et al. Clinical outcome of breast and ovarian cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy, autologous stem cell rescue and THERATOPE STn-KLH cancer vaccine. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000 Jun;25(12):1233-41.
  112. Holmberg LA, Sandmaier BM. Theratope vaccine (STn-KLH). Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2001 Sep;1(5):881-91.
  113. Dranoff G, Soiffer R et al. A phase I study of vaccination with autologous, irradiated melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Hum Gene Ther. 1997 Jan 1;8(1):111-23.
  114. Osanto S, Schiphorst PP et al. Vaccination of melanoma patients with an allogeneic, genetically modified interleukin 2-producing melanoma cell line. Hum Gene Ther. 2000 Mar 20;11(5):739-50.
  115. Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Exp Med. 1994 Apr 1;179(4):1109-18.
  116. Harris JE, Ryan L et al. Adjuvant active specific immunotherapy for stage II and III colon cancer with an autologous tumor cell vaccine: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E5283. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Jan;18(1):148-57.
  117. Knutson KL. GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals). Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Jan;3(1):159-64.
  118. Sondak VK, Sosman JA. Results of clinical trials with an allogenic melanoma tumor cell lysate vaccine: Melacine. Semin Cancer Biol. 2003 Dec;13(6):409-15.
  119. Kaufman HL. Integrating bench with bedside: the role of vaccine therapy in the treatment of solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 1;23(4):659-61.
  120. Doehn C, Richter A et al. Adjuvant autologous tumour cell-lysate vaccine versus no adjuvant treatment in patients with M0 renal cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy: 3-year interim analysis of a German multicentre phase-III trial. Folia Biol (Praha). 2003;49(2):69-73.
  121. Hsueh EC, Famatiga E et al. Enhancement of complement-dependent cytotoxicity by polyvalent melanoma cell vaccine (CancerVax): correlation with survival. Ann Surg Oncol. 1998 Oct;5(7):595-602.
  122. Morton DL, Hsueh EC et al. Prolonged survival of patients receiving active immunotherapy with Canvaxin therapeutic polyvalent vaccine after complete resection of melanoma metastatic to regional lymph nodes. Ann Surg. 2002 Oct;236(4):438-48.
  123. Sosman JA, Sondak VK. Melacine: an allogeneic melanoma tumor cell lysate vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003 Jun;2(3):353-68.
  124. Kirkwood JM, Ibrahim JG et al. High-dose interferon alfa-2b significantly prolongs relapse-free and overall survival compared with the GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccine in patients with resected stage IIB-III melanoma: results of intergroup trial E1694/S9512/C509801. J Clin Oncol. 2001 May 1;19(9):2370-80.
  125. von Mehren M. Colorectal cancer vaccines: what we know and what we don't yet know. Semin Oncol. 2005 Feb;32(1):76-84.
  126. Ibrahim NK, Murray JL. Clinical Development of the STn-KLH Vaccine (Theratope(R)). Clin Breast Cancer. 2003 Feb;3 Suppl 4:S139-S143.
  127. Rini BI. Technology evaluation: APC-8015, Dendreon. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2002 Feb;4(1):76-9.
  128. Schellhammer PF, Hershberg RM. Immunotherapy with autologous antigen presenting cells for the treatment of androgen independent prostate cancer. World J Urol. 2005 Feb;23(1):47-9.
  129. Kwak LW. Translational development of active immunotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Semin Oncol. 2003 Jun;30(3 Suppl 8):17-22.
  130. Holmes FF, Wilson J et al. Biology of cancer and aging. Cancer. 1991 Dec 1;68(11 Suppl):2525-6.
  131. Ginaldi L, De MM et al. The immune system in the elderly: I. Specific humoral immunity. Immunol Res. 1999;20(2):101-8.
  132. Pawelec G, Barnett Y et al. T cells and aging, January 2002 update. Front Biosci. 2002 May 1;7:d1056-d1183.
  133. Lesourd B, Mazari L. Nutrition and immunity in the elderly. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 Aug;58(3):685-95.
  134. Morton DL. Changing concepts of cancer surgery: surgery as immunotherapy. Am J Surg. 1978 Mar;135(3):367-71.
  135. Vallejo R, Hord ED et al. Perioperative immunosuppression in cancer patients. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2003;22(2):139-46.
  136. Vallejo A, Lorente JA et al. Blindness due to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a burn patient. J Trauma. 2002 Jul;53(1):139-41.
  137. Calder PC, Kew S. The immune system: a target for functional foods? Br J Nutr. 2002b Nov;88 Suppl 2:S165-S177.
  138. Chandra RK. Nutrition and immunology: from the clinic to cellular biology and back again. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 Aug;58(3):681-3.
  139. Grimble RF. Nutritional modulation of immune function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2001 Aug;60(3):389-97.
  140. Philpott M, Ferguson LR. Immunonutrition and cancer. Mutat Res. 2004 Jul 13;551(1-2):29-42.
  141. Chermesh I, Shamir R. [Immunonutrition--can we see the light?]. Harefuah. 2004 Mar;143(3):203-4.
  142. Calder PC, Yaqoob P. Glutamine and the immune system. Amino Acids. 1999;17(3):227-41.
  143. Ibs KH, Rink L. Zinc-altered immune function. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 1):1452S-6S.
  144. Prasad AS, Kucuk O. Zinc in cancer prevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2002;21(3-4):291-5.
  145. Hercberg S, Preziosi P et al. A primary prevention trial using nutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in cardiovascular diseases and cancers in a general population: the SU.VI.MAX study--design, methods, and participant characteristics. SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants. Control Clin Trials. 1998 Aug;19(4):336-51.
  146. Kohn S, Kohn D et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on epidermal Langerhans' cells of elderly patients with decubital ulcers. J Dermatol. 2000 Apr;27(4):258-63.
  147. Chu DT, Lepe-Zuniga J, Wong WL, LaPushin R, Mavligit GM. Fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb, potentiates LAK cell cytotoxicity generated by a low dose of recombinant interleukin-2. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1988 Aug;26(4):183-7.
  148. Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007a Aug 15;113(1):132-41.
  149. Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Cancer Lett. 2007b Jul 8;252(1):43-54.
  150. Pallast EG, Schouten EG et al. Effect of 50- and 100-mg vitamin E supplements on cellular immune function in noninstitutionalized elderly persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jun;69(6):1273-81.
  151. Lenton KJ, Sane AT et al. Vitamin C augments lymphocyte glutathione in subjects with ascorbate deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;77(1):189-95.
  152. Schneider M, Diemer K et al. Protective effects of vitamins C and E on the number of micronuclei in lymphocytes in smokers and their role in ascorbate free radical formation in plasma. Free Radic Res. 2001 Mar;34(3):209-19.
  153. Courtemanche C, Elson-Schwab I et al. Folate deficiency inhibits the proliferation of primary human CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro. J Immunol. 2004 Sep 1;173(5):3186-92.
  154. Duthie SJ, Hawdon A. DNA instability (strand breakage, uracil misincorporation, and defective repair) is increased by folic acid depletion in human lymphocytes in vitro. FASEB J. 1998 Nov;12(14):1491-7.
  155. Tamura J, Kubota K et al. Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999 Apr;116(1):28-32.
  156. Doke S, Inagaki N et al. Effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on cytokine levels and lymphocytes in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 May;62(5):1008-10.
  157. Broome CS, McArdle F et al. An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):154-62.
  158. Yoshida S, Matsui M et al. Effects of glutamine supplements and radiochemotherapy on systemic immune and gut barrier function in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Ann Surg. 1998 Apr;227(4):485-91.
  159. O'Riordain MG, De BA et al. Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient. Nutrition. 1996 Nov;12(11-12 Suppl):S82-S84.
  160. Larsen MW, Moser C et al. Ginseng modulates the immune response by induction of interleukin-12 production. APMIS. 2004 Jun;112(6):369-73.
  161. Takei M, Tachikawa E et al. Dendritic cells maturation promoted by M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, drive a potent Th1 polarization. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 1;68(3):441-52.
  162. El-Sokkary GH, Reiter RJ et al. Melatonin supplementation restores cellular proliferation and DNA synthesis in the splenic and thymic lymphocytes of old rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2003 Jun;24(3-4):215-23.
  163. Lissoni P, Bolis S et al. A phase II study of neuroimmunotherapy with subcutaneous low-dose IL-2 plus the pineal hormone melatonin in untreatable advanced hematologic malignancies. Anticancer Res. 2000 May;20(3B):2103-5.
  164. Hassan ZM, Yaraee R et al. Immunomodulatory affect of R10 fraction of garlic extract on natural killer activity. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Oct;3(10-11):1483-9.
  165. Kidd PM. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Feb;5(1):4-27.
  166. Matsui Y, Uhara J et al. Improved prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients when treated with functional foods: a prospective cohort study. J Hepatol. 2002 Jul;37(1):78-86.
  167. Koda K, Miyazaki M et al. A randomized controlled trial of postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy for colorectal cancer with oral medicines.Int J Oncol . 2003;23(1):165-72.
  168. Noguchi K, Tanimura H et al. Polysaccharide preparation PSK augments the proliferation and cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in vitro.Anticancer Res . 1995;15(2):255-8.
  169. Yokoe T, Iino Y et al. HLA antigen as predictive index for the outcome of breast cancer patients with adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK.Anticancer Res . 1997;17(4A):2815-8.
  170. Zhang H, Morisaki T et al. Protein-bound polysaccharide PSK inhibits tumor invasiveness by down-regulation of TGF-beta1 and MMPs.Clin Exp Metastasis . 2000;18(4):343-52.
  171. Ohwada S, Ogawa T, Makita F, et al. Beneficial effects of protein-bound polysaccharide K plus tegafur/uracil in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: analysis of immunological parameters. Oncol Rep. 2006 Apr;15(4):861-8.
  172. Fisher M, Yang LX. Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide-K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy. Anticancer Res. 2002 May;22(3):1737-54.
  173. Garcia-Lora A, Pedrinaci S, Garrido F. Protein-bound polysaccharide K and interleukin-2 regulate difference nuclear transcription factors in the NKL human natural killer cell line. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2001 Jun;50(4):191-8.
  174. Pedrinaci S, Algarra I, Garrido F. Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) induces cytotoxic activity in the NKL human natural killer cell line. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1999;29(4):135-40.
  175. Bao X, Liu C, Fang J, Li X. Structural and immunological studies of a major polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. Carbohydr Res. 2001 May 8;332(1):67-74.
  176. Xu Z, Chen X, Zhong Z, Chen L, Wang Y. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39(1):15-27.
  177. Yeh CH, Chen HC, Yang JJ, Chuang WI, Sheu F. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Aug 11;58(15):8535-44.
  178. Cao LZ, Lin ZB. Regulation on maturation and function of dendritic cells by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Immunol Lett. 2002 Oct 1;83(3):163-9.
  179. Lai CY, Hung JT, Lin HH, et al. Immunomodulatory and adjuvant activities of a polysaccharide extract of Ganoderma lucidum in vivo and in vitro. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 12;28(31):4945-54.
  180. Jan RH, Lin TY, Hsu YC, et al. Immuno-modulatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysacharide on human monocytoid dendritic cells pulsed with Der p 1 allergen. BMC Immunol. 2011;12:31.
  181. Ji Z, Tang Q, Zhang J, Yang Y, Liu Y, Pan YJ. Immunomodulation of bone marrow macrophages by GLIS, a proteoglycan fraction from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidium (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. Int J Med Mushrooms.2011;13(5):441-8.
  182. Chan WK, Lam DT, Law HK, et al. Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and spore extracts as natural adjuvants for immunotherapy. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Dec;11(6):1047-57.
  183. Chu CL, Chen Dz C, Lin CC. A novel adjuvant Ling Zhi-8 for cancer DNA vaccines. Hum Vaccin. 2011 Nov;7(11):1161-4.
  184. Lin CC, Yu YL, Shih CC, et al. A novel adjuvant Ling Zhi-8 enhances the efficacy of DNA cancer vaccine by activating dendritic cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2011 Jul;60(7): 1019-27.
  185. Zhu XL, Liu JH, Li WD, Lin ZB. Promotion of myelopoiesis in myelosuppressed mice by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Front Pharmacol. 2012;3:20.
  186. Zhu XL, Chen AF, Lin ZB. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides enhance the function of immunological effector cells in immunosuppressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 4;111(2):219-26.
  187. Wang PY, Zhu XL, Lin ZB. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from broken-spore of Ganoderma lucidum. Front Pharmacol. 2012;3:135.
  188. Jeurink PV, Noguera CL, Savelkoul HF, Wichers HJ. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Aug;8(8):1124-33.
  189. Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, et al. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer. 1997 Mar 17;70(6):699-705.
  190. Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem. 2000 Jul;7(7):715-29.
  191. Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai X. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. 2003 Aug;32(3):201-15.
  192. Calder PC, Grimble RF. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002a Aug;56 Suppl 3:S14-S19.
  193. Calder PC. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002c Aug;61(3):345-58.
  194. Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids. 2003 Apr;38(4):343-52.
  195. Babcock TA, Helton WS et al. Omega-3 fatty acid lipid emulsion reduces LPS-stimulated macrophage TNF-alpha production. Surg Infect (Larchmt ). 2002;3(2):145-9.
  196. Weiss G, Meyer F et al. Immunomodulation by perioperative administration of n-3 fatty acids. Br J Nutr. 2002 Jan;87 Suppl 1:S89-S94.
  197. Clay TM, Hobeika AC et al. Assays for monitoring cellular immune responses to active immunotherapy of cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 May;7(5):1127-35.
  198. Keilholz U, Weber J et al. Immunologic monitoring of cancer vaccine therapy: results of a workshop sponsored by the Society for Biological Therapy. J Immunother. 2002b Mar;25(2):97-138.
  199. Lyerly HK. Quantitating cellular immune responses to cancer vaccines. Semin Oncol. 2003 Jun;30(3 Suppl 8):9-16.
  200. Coetzee LJ, Hars V et al. Postoperative prostate-specific antigen as a prognostic indicator in patients with margin-positive prostate cancer, undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. Urology. 1996 Feb;47(2):232-5.
  201. Kiper A, Yigitbasy O et al. The prognostic importance of prostate-specific antigen in monitoring patients undergoing maximum androgen blockage for metastatic prostate cancer. ScientificWorldJournal. 2005 Jan 28;5:118-24.
  202. Noguchi M, Itoh K et al. Immunological monitoring during combination of patient-oriented peptide vaccination and estramustine phosphate in patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. Prostate. 2004a Jun 15;60(1):32-45.
  203. Noguchi M, Itoh K et al. Phase I trial of patient-oriented vaccination in HLA-A2-positive patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cancer Sci. 2004b Jan;95(1):77-84.
  204. Sunga AY, Eberl MM et al. Care of cancer survivors. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Feb 15;71(4):699-706.
  205. Bonfanti A, Lissoni P et al. Changes in circulating dendritic cells and IL-12 in relation to the angiogenic factor VEGF during IL-2 immunotherapy of metastatic renal cell cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2000 Apr;15(2):161-4.
  206. Brostjan C, Bayer A et al. Monitoring of circulating angiogenic factors in dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Cancer. 2003 Nov 15;98(10):2291-301.
  207. Poon RT, Fan ST et al. Clinical implications of circulating angiogenic factors in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):1207-25.
  208. Beerepoot LV, Mehra N et al. Increased levels of viable circulating endothelial cells are an indicator of progressive disease in cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2004 Jan;15(1):139-45.
  209. Mancuso P, Calleri A et al. Circulating endothelial cells as a novel marker of angiogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;522:83-97.
  210. Aigner A, Brachmann P et al. et al. Marked increase of the growth factors pleiotrophin and fibroblast growth factor-2 in serum of testicular cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2003 Oct;14(10):1525-9.
  211. Fenech M. The role of folic acid and Vitamin B12 in genomic stability of human cells. Mutat Res. 2001 Apr 18;475(1-2):57-67.
  212. Kwak HK, Hansen CM et al. Improved vitamin B-6 status is positively related to lymphocyte proliferation in young women consuming a controlled diet. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11):3308-13.
  213. Anderson GD, Rosito G et al. Drug interaction potential of soy extract and Panax ginseng. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;43(6):643-8.
  214. Dhawan V, Jain S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):109-15.
  215. Kew S, Mesa MD et al. Effects of oils rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on immune cell composition and function in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;79(4):674-81.
  216. Bonner JA, Harari PM et al. Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 9;354(6):567-78.
  217. Moroni M, Veronese S et al. Gene copy number for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and clinical response to antiEGFR treatment in colorectal cancer: a cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2005 May;6(5):279-86.
  218. Xiong HQ, Rosenberg A et al. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor, in combination with gemcitabine for advanced pancreatic cancer: a multicenter phase II Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jul 1;22(13):2610-6.
  219. Johnson JR, Cohen M et al. Approval summary for erlotinib for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6414-21.
  220. Moore MJ. Brief communication: a new combination in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Semin Oncol. 2005 Dec;32(6 Suppl 8):5-6.
  221. Fukuoka M, Yano S et al. Multi-institutional randomized phase II trial of gefitinib for previously treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (The IDEAL 1 Trial) [corrected]. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jun 15;21(12):2237-46.
  222. Hainsworth JD, Sosman JA et al. Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with a combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 1;23(31):7889-96.
  223. Jubb AM, Hurwitz HI et al. Impact of vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression, thrombospondin-2 expression, and microvessel density on the treatment effect of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 10;24(2):217-27.
  224. van Heeckeren WJ, Vollweiler J et al. Randomised comparison of two B-cell purging protocols for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: in vivo purging with rituximab versus ex vivo purging with CliniMACS CD34 cell enrichment device. Br J Haematol. 2006 Jan;132(1):42-55.
  225. Rajkumar SV, Blood E et al. Phase III clinical trial of thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a clinical trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 20;24(3):431-6.
  226. Srinivas S, Guardino AE. A lower dose of thalidomide is better than a high dose in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. BJU Int. 2005 Sep;96(4):536-9.