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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/cfs/about/demographics.htm. Accessed November 2 , 2005a.
  2. Afari N, Buchwald D. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a review. Am J Psychiatry . 2003 Feb;160(2):221–36.
  3. Balch PA, Balch JF. Prescription for Nutritional Healing . 3rd ed. New York : Avery; 2000.
  4. Chronic Fatigue and Immune Disorder Syndrome (CFIDS) Association of America . Available at: www.cfids.org/resources/newly-diagnosed-faq.asp. Accessed October 5, 2005.
  5. Borish L, Schmaling K, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome: identification of distinct subgroups on the basis of allergy and psychologic variables. J Allergy Clin Immunol . 1998 Aug;102(2):222–30.
  6. Kasper DL, Braunwald E, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine . 16th ed. New York : McGraw-Hill; 2005.
  7. Jason LA, Corradi K, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome: the need for subtypes. Neuropsychol Rev . 2005 Mar;15(1):29–58.
  8. Gerrity TR, Papanicolaou DA, et al. Immunologic aspects of chronic fatigue syndrome. Report on a research symposium convened by the CFIDS Association of America and co-sponsored by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. Neuroimmunomodulation . 2004;11(6):351–7.
  9. Patarca R. Cytokines and chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci . 2001 Mar;933:185–200.
  10. Tirelli U, Marotta G, et al. Immunological abnormalities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Scand J Immunol . 1994 Dec;40(6):601–8.
  11. Tomoda A, Joudoi T, et al. Cytokine production and modulation: comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and normal controls. Psychiatry Res . 2005 Mar 30;134(1):101–4.
  12. Ur E, White PD, et al. Hypothesis: cytokines may be activated to cause depressive illness and chronic fatigue syndrome. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci . 1992;241(5):317–22.
  13. Vernon SD , Reeves WC. Evaluation of autoantibodies to common and neuronal cell antigens in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Autoimmune Dis . 2005 May 25;2(1):5.
  14. Visser J, Blauw B, et al. CD4 T lymphocytes from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome have decreased interferon-gamma production and increased sensitivity to dexamethasone. J Infect Dis . 1998 Feb;177(2):451–4.
  15. Vollmer-Conna U, Lloyd A, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome: an immunological perspective. Aust N Z J Psychiatry . 1998 Aug;32(4):523–7.
  16. Stejskal VD, Danersund A, et al. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinol Lett . 1999;20(5):289–98.
  17. Fulle S, Mecocci P, et al. Specific oxidative alterations in vastus lateralis muscle of patients with the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. Free Radic Biol Med . 2000 Dec 15;29(12):1252–9.
  18. Logan AC, Wong C. Chronic fatigue syndrome: oxidative stress and dietary modifications. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Oct;6(5):450–9.
  19. Richards RS, Roberts TK, et al. Blood parameters indicative of oxidative stress are associated with symptom expression in chronic fatigue syndrome. Redox Rep . 2000;5(1):35–41.
  20. Cleare AJ , Bearn J, et al. Contrasting neuroendocrine responses in depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. J Affect Disord . 1995 Aug 18;34(4):283–9.
  21. van Rensburg SJ, Potocnik FC, et al. Serum concentrations of some metals and steroids in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome with reference to neurological and cognitive abnormalities. Brain Res Bull . 2001 May 15;55(2):319–25.
  22. Scott LV , Dinan TG. The neuroendocrinology of chronic fatigue syndrome: focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Funct Neurol . 1999a Jan;14(1):3–11.
  23. Bou-Holaigah I, Rowe PC, et al. The relationship between neurally mediated hypotension and the chronic fatigue syndrome. JAMA . 1995 Sep 27;274(12):961–7.
  24. Calkins H, Rowe PC. Relationship between chronic fatigue syndrome and neurally mediated hypotension. Cardiol Rev . 1998 May;6(3):125–34.
  25. Streeten DH, Anderson GH, Jr. The role of delayed orthostatic hypotension in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue. Clin Auton Res . 1998 Apr;8(2):119–24.
  26. Aaron LA, Burke MM et al. Overlapping conditions among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular disorder. Arch Intern Med . 2000 Jan 24;160(2):221–7.
  27. Bruno RL, Creange SJ, et al. Parallels between post-polio fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a common pathophysiology? Am J Med . 1998 Sep 28;105(3A):66S–73S.
  28. Demitrack MA. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a disease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis? Ann Med. 1994 Feb;26(1):1– 5.
  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/cfs/. Accessed November 2 , 2005b.
  30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/cfs/about/what.htm. Accessed November 2 , 2005c.
  31. Evengard B, Klimas N. Chronic fatigue syndrome: probable pathogenesis and possible treatments. Drugs. 2002;62(17):2433–46.
  32. [No authors listed]. Mismatched double-stranded RNA: polyl:polyC12U. Drugs R.D. 2004;5(5):297-304.
  33. Bounous G, Molson J. Competition for glutathione precursors between the immune system and the skeletal muscle: pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses . 1999 Oct;53(4):347–9.
  34. Grimble RF. Nutritional antioxidants and the modulation of inflammation: theory and practice. New Horiz . 1994;2(2):175–85.
  35. Vecchiet J, Cipollone F, et al. Relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and blood markers of oxidative stress in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Neurosci Lett . 2003 Jan 2;335(3):151–4.
  36. Smirnova IV, Pall ML. Elevated levels of protein carbonyls in sera of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Mol Cell Biochem . 2003 Jun;248(1–2):93–5.
  37. Bentler SE, Hartz AJ, et al. Prospective observational study of treatments for unexplained chronic fatigue. J Clin Psychiatry . 2005 May;66(5):625–32.
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  39. Scott LV, Salahuddin F, et al. Differences in adrenal steroid profile in chronic fatigue syndrome, in depression and in health. J Affect Disord . 1999b Jul;54(1–2):129–37.
  40. Kuratsune H, Yamaguti K, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome. Int J Mol Med . 1998 Jan;1(1):143–6.
  41. De Becker P, De Meirleir K, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) response to i.v. ACTH in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Horm Metab Res . 1999 Jan;31(1):18-21.
  42. Heap LC, Peters TJ, et al. Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J R Soc Med . 1999 Apr;92(4):183–5.
  43. Jacobson W, Saich T, et al. Serum folate and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neurology . 1993 Dec;43(12):2645–7.
  44. Droge W, Holm E. Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction. FASEB J . 1997 Nov;11(13):1077–89.
  45. Hendler SS, Rorvik D. PDR for Nutritional Supplements . 1st ed. Montvale , NJ : Thomson PDR; 2001.
  46. Jamison JR. Clinical Guide to Nutrition and Dietary Supplements in Disease Management . Philadelphia , Pa : Churchill Livingstone; 2003: 790.
  47. Behan PO, Behan WM, et al. Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on the postviral fatigue syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand . 1990 Sep;82(3):209–16.
  48. Gray JB, Martinovic AM. Eicosanoids and essential fatty acid modulation in chronic disease and the chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses . 1994 Jul;43(1):31–42.
  49. Forsyth LM, Preuss HG, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral NADH on the symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol . 1999 Feb;82(2):185–91.
  50. Werbach MR. Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome. Altern Med Rev . 2000 Apr;5(2):93–108.
  51. Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. Serum levels of carnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical correlates. Neuropsychobiology . 1995;32(3):132–8.
  52. Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. Amantadine and L-carnitine treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychobiology . 1997;35(1):16–23.
  53. Kelly GS. L-carnitine: therapeutic applications of a conditionally-essential amino acid. Altern Med Rev . 1998 Oct;3(5):345–60.
  54. Vermeulen RC, Scholte HR. Exploratory open label, randomized study of acetyl- and propionylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosom Med . 2004 Mar-Apr;66(2):276-82.
  55. Dimai HP, Porta S, et al. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1998 Aug;83(8):2742–8.
  56. Cox IM, Campbell MJ, et al. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet . 1991 Mar 30;337(8744):757–60.
  57. Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77.
  58. Kingsbury KJ. Plasma amino acid patterns in elite athletes. Br J Sports Med . 1998a Sep;32(3):266–7.
  59. Kingsbury KJ, Kay L, et al. Contrasting plasma free amino acid patterns in elite athletes: association with fatigue and infection. Br J Sports Med . 1998b Mar;32(1):25–32.
  60.  Brown RP, Gerbarg PL, Ramozanov Z. Rhodiola rosea: a phytomedicinal overview. Herbalgram. 2002;56:40-52.
  61. Abidov M, Crendal F, Grachev S, Seifulla R, Ziegenfuss T. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003 Dec;136(6):585-7.
  62. De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):298-307.
  63. Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):95-105.