Life Extension Blood Test Super Sale

Chronic Kidney Disease References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Medscape. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238798-overview. Accessed February 18, 2010.
  2. US Renal data system. Available at: http://www.usrds.org/adr.htm. Accessed March 30, 2009.
  3. national kidney foundation. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/ckd/index.cfm. Accessed April 4, 2009.
  4. Coresh J, Astor BC, Greene T, Eknoyan G, Levey AS. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jan;41(1):1-12.
  5. Galil AG, Pinheiro HS, Chaoubah A, Costa DM, Bastos MG. Chronic kidney disease increases cardiovascular unfavourable outcomes in outpatients with heart failure. BMC Nephrol. 2009 Oct 21;10:31.
  6. Shlipak MG, SarnakMJ, Katz R, et al. Cystatin C and the risk of death and cardiovascular events among elderly persons. N Engl J Med. 2005 May 19;352(20):2049-60.
  7. Voziyan PA, Hudson BG. Pyridoxamine: the many virtues of a maillard reaction inhibitor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:807-16.
  8. Ahmed N, ThornalleyPJ. Advanced glycationendproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications? Diabetes ObesMetab. 2007 May;9(3):233-45.
  9. Williams ME. New potential agents in treating diabetic kidney disease: the fourth act. Drugs. 2006;66(18):2287-98.
  10. Alderson NL, Chachich ME, Frizzell N, et al. Effect of antioxidants and ACE inhibition on chemical modification of proteins and progression of nephropathy in the streptozotocin diabetic rat. Diabetologia. 2004 Aug;47(8):1385-95.
  11. Metz TO, Alderson NL, Chachich ME, Thorpe SR, BaynesJW. Pyridoxamine traps intermediates in lipid peroxidation reactions in vivo: evidence on the role of lipids in chemical modification of protein and development of DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS. J Biol Chem. 2003a Oct 24;278(43):42012-9.
  12. Metz TO, Alderson NL, Thorpe SR, BaynesJW. Pyridoxamine, an inhibitor of advanced glycation and lipoxidation reactions: a novel therapy for treatment of diabetic complications. Arch BiochemBiophys. 2003b Nov 1;419(1):41-9.
  13. OnoratoJM, Jenkins AJ, Thorpe SR, BaynesJW. Pyridoxamine, an inhibitor of advanced glycation reactions, also inhibits advanced lipoxidation reactions. Mechanism of action of pyridoxamine. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jul 14;275(28):21177-84.
  14. DegenhardtTP, Alderson NL, Arrington DD, et al. Pyridoxamine inhibits early renal disease and dyslipidemia in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney Int. 2002 Mar;61(3):939-50.
  15. Alderson NL, Chachich ME, Youssef NN, et al. The AGE inhibitor pyridoxamine inhibits lipemia and development of renal and vascular disease in Zucker obese rats. Kidney Int. 2003 Jun;63(6):2123-33.
  16. Zheng F, ZengYJ, Plati AR, et al. Combined AGE inhibition and ACEi decreases the progression of established diabetic nephropathy in B6db/db mice. Kidney Int. 2006 Aug;70(3):507-14.
  17. Williams ME, Bolton WK, KhalifahRG, DegenhardtTP, Schotzinger RJ, McGill JB. Effects of pyridoxamine in combined phase 2 studies of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(6):605-14.
  18. Murakoshi M, Tanimoto M, Gohda T, et al. Pleiotropic effect of pyridoxamine on diabetic complications via CD36 expression in KK-Ay/Ta mice. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2009 Feb;83(2):183-9.
  19. Tanimoto M, Gohda T, Kaneko S, et al. Effect of pyridoxamine (K-163), an inhibitor of advanced glycation end products, on type 2 diabetic nephropathy in KK-A(y)/Ta mice. Metabolism.2007Feb;56(2):160-7.
  20. Waanders F, van den Berg E, Nagai R, van Veen I, Navis G, van Goor H. Renoprotective effects of the AGE-inhibitor pyridoxamine in experimental chronic allograft nephropathy in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Feb;23(2):518-24.
  21. Nakamura S, Li H, Adijiang A, Pischetsrieder M, Niwa T. Pyridoxal phosphate prevents progression of diabetic nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Aug;22(8):2165-74.
  22. Kirsten R, Heintz B, Nelson K, et al. Magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate reduces hyperlipidaemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Eur J ClinPharmacol. 1988;34(2):133-7.
  23. Gazdikova K, Gvozdjakova A, Kucharska J, Spustova V, Braunova Z, Dzurik R. Malondialdehyde and selected antioxidant plasma levels in conservatively treated patients with kidney diseases. BratislLekListy. 2000;101(9):490-4.
  24. Igarashi T, Nakajima Y, Tanaka M, Otake S. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on experimental hypertension in rats and dogs. J PharmacolExpTher. 1974 Apr;189(1):149-56.
  25. Morotomi Y, Oniki H, Onoyama K, Fukiyama K, Omae T. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on the blood pressure and renal renin content in spontaneously hypertensive rats. IgakuKenkyu. 1975 Nov;45(5):303-8.
  26. Yao X, Panichpisal K, Kurtzman N, Nugent K. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity: a review. Am J Med Sci. 2007Aug;334(2):115-24.
  27. Lippa S, Colacicco L, Bondanini F, et al. Plasma levels of coenzyme Q(10), vitamin E and lipids in uremic patients on conservative therapy and hemodialysis treatment: some possible biochemical and clinical implications. ClinChimActa. 2000 Feb 25;292(1-2):81-91.
  28. Gazdikova K, Gvozdjakova A, Kucharska J, Spustova V, Braunova Z, Dzurik R. Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with kidney diseases. CasLekCesk. 2001 May 24;140(10):307-10.
  29. Rauscher FM, Sanders RA, Watkins JB, 3rd. Effects of coenzyme Q10 treatment on antioxidant pathways in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J BiochemMolToxicol. 2001;15(1):41-6.
  30. Dlugosz A, Kuzniar J, Sawicka E, et al. Oxidative stress and coenzyme Q10 supplementation in renal transplant recipients. IntUrolNephrol. 2004;36(2):253-8.
  31. Farswan M, RathodSP, Upaganlawar AB, Semwal A. Protective effect of coenzyme Q10 in simvastatin and gemfibrozil induced rhabdomyolysis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct 2005;43(10):845-8.
  32. Upaganlawar A, Farswan M, Rathod S, Balaraman R. Modification of biochemical parameters of gentamicin nephrotoxicity by coenzyme Q10 and green tea in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 May;44(5):416-8.
  33. Post-White J, Ladas EJ, Kelly KM. Advances in the use of milk thistle (Silybummarianum). Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Jun;6(2):104-9.
  34. Wojcikowski K, Stevenson L, Leach D, Wohlmuth H, Gobe G. Antioxidant capacity of 55 medicinal herbs traditionally used to treat the urinary system: a comparison using a sequential three-solvent extraction process. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):103-9.
  35. Floersheim GL. Experimental basis for the therapy of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1978 Feb 11;108(6):185-97.
  36. Vogel G, Braatz R, Mengs U. On the nephrotoxicity of alpha-amanitin and the antagonistic effects of silymarin in rats. Agents Actions. 1979 Jun;9(2):221-6.
  37. Launay-Vacher V, Rey JB, Isnard-Bagnis C, Deray G, Daouphars M. European Society of Clinical Pharmacy Special Interest Group on Cancer C. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity: state of the art and recommendations from the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy Special Interest Group on Cancer Care. Cancer ChemotherPharmacol. 2008 May;61(6):903-9.
  38. Machado V, Cabral A, Monteiro P, Goncalves L, Providencia LA. Carvedilol as a protector against the cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines (doxorubicin). Rev Port Cardiol. 2008 Oct;27(10):1277-96.
  39. Bokemeyer C, Fels LM, Dunn T, et al. Silibinin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without compromising cisplatin or ifosfamide anti-tumour activity. Br J Cancer. 1996 Dec;74(12):2036-41.
  40. Gaedeke J, Fels LM, Bokemeyer C, Mengs U, Stolte H, Lentzen H. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity and protection by silibinin. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996 Jan;11(1):55-62.
  41. Karimi G, Ramezani M, Tahoonian Z. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity and protection by milk thistle extract in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 Sep;2(3):383-6.
  42. El-Shitany NA, El-Haggar S, El-desoky K. Silymarin prevents adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. Food ChemToxicol. 2008 Jul;46(7):2422-8.
  43. Wenzel S, Stolte H, Soose M. Effects of silibinin and antioxidants on high glucose-induced alterations of fibronectin turnover in human mesangial cell cultures. J PharmacolExpTher. 1996 Dec;279(3):1520-6.
  44. Senturk H, Kabay S, Bayramoglu G, et al. Silymarin attenuates the renal ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced morphological changes in the rat kidney. World J Urol. 2008 Aug;26(4):401-7.
  45. Turgut F, Bayrak O, Catal F, et al. Antioxidant and protective effects of silymarin on ischemia and reperfusion injury in the kidney tissues of rats. IntUrolNephrol. 2008;40(2):453-60.
  46. Caimi G, Carollo C, Lo Presti R. Chronic renal failure: oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and wine. ClinNephrol. 2004 Nov;62(5):331-5.
  47. Bertelli AA, Migliori M, Panichi V, et al. Resveratrol, a component of wine and grapes, in the prevention of kidney disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;957:230-8.
  48. Giovannini L, Migliori M, Longoni BM, et al. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in wine, reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in rat kidneys. J CardiovascPharmacol. 2001 Mar;37(3):262-70.
  49. Saito M, Satoh S, Kojima N, et al. Effects of a phenolic compound, resveratrol, on the renal function and costimulatory adhesion molecule CD86 expression in rat kidneys with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Arch HistolCytol. 2005;68(1):41-9.
  50. Chander V, Chopra K. Protective effect of resveratrol, a polyphenolicphytoalexin on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rat kidney. Ren Fail. 2006a;28(2):161-9.
  51. Chander V, Chopra K. Protective effect of nitric oxide pathway in resveratrol renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Arch Med Res. Jan 2006b;37(1):19-26.
  52. Chander V, Chopra K. Role of nitric oxide in resveratrol-induced renal protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. J Vasc Surg. 2005aDec;42(6):1198-205.
  53. Chander V, Tirkey N, Chopra K. Resveratrol, a polyphenolicphytoalexin protects against cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity through nitric oxide dependent mechanism. Toxicology. 2005b May 15;210(1):55-64.
  54. Kolgazi M, Sener G, Cetinel S, Gedik N, Alican I. Resveratrol reduces renal and lung injury caused by sepsis in rats. J Surg Res. 2006 Aug;134(2):315-21.
  55. Silan C, Uzun O, Comunoglu NU, Gokcen S, Bedirhan S, Cengiz M. Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats ameliorated and healing effects of resveratrol. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Jan;30(1):79-83.
  56. Do Amaral CL, Francescato HD, Coimbra TM, et al. Resveratrol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2008 Jun;82(6):363-70.
  57. Sharma S, Anjaneyulu M, Kulkarni SK, Chopra K. Resveratrol, a polyphenolicphytoalexin, attenuates diabetic nephropathy in rats. Pharmacology. 2006;76(2):69-75.
  58. Amudha G, Josephine A, Varalakshmi P. Role of lipoic acid in reducing the oxidative stress induced by cyclosporine A. ClinChimActa. Oct 2006;372(1-2):134-9.
  59. Takaoka M, Ohkita M, Kobayashi Y, Yuba M, Matsumura Y. Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid against ischaemic acute renal failure in rats. ClinExpPharmacol Physiol. 2002 Mar;29(3):189-94.
  60. Sehirli O, Sener E, Cetinel S, Yuksel M, Gedik N, Sener G. Alpha-lipoic acid protects against renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. ClinExpPharmacol Physiol. 2008 Mar ;35(3):249-55.
  61. MalarkodiKP, Balachandar AV, Varalakshmi P. Protective effect of lipoic acid on adriamycin induced lipid peroxidation in rat kidney. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003aMay;247(1-2):9-13.
  62. MalarkodiKP, Balachandar AV, Varlakshmi P. The influence of lipoic acid on adriamycin-induced hyperlipidemic nephrotoxicity in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003bMay;247(1-2):139-45.
  63. Amudha G, Josephine A, Mythili Y, Sundarapandiyan R, Varalakshmi P. Therapeutic efficacy of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on cyclosporine A induced renal alterations. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007a Oct 1;571(2-3):209-14.
  64. Amudha G, Josephine A, Varalakshmi P. Beneficial effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on cyclosporine A induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007bJul;301(1-2):165-71.
  65. Abdel-Zaher AO, Abdel-Hady RH, Mahmoud MM, Farrag MM. The potential protective role of alpha-lipoic acid against acetaminophen-induced hepatic and renal damage. Toxicology. 2008 Jan 20;243(3):261-70.
  66. Bhatti F, MankheyRW, Asico L, Quinn MT, Welch WJ, Maric C. Mechanisms of antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of alpha-lipoic acid in the diabetic and nondiabetic kidney. Kidney Int. 2005 Apr;67(4):1371-80.
  67. Chang JW, Lee EK, Kim TH, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on the plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in diabetic end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(1):70-4.
  68. Kendler BS. Carnitine: an overview of its role in preventive medicine. PrevMed.1986Jul;15(4):373-90.
  69. Matera M, Bellinghieri G, Costantino G, Santoro D, Calvani M, Savica V. History of L-carnitine: implications for renal disease. J RenNutr. 2003 Jan;13(1):2-14.
  70. Calo LA, Bertipaglia L, Pagnin E. Antioxidants, carnitine and erythropoietin. G ItalNefrol. 2006 Jan-Feb;23Suppl34:S47-50.
  71. Schreiber BD. Debate forum: levocarnitine therapy is rational and justified in selected dialysis patients. Blood Purif. 2006;24(1):128-39.
  72. Sloan RS, Kastan B, Rice SI, et al. Quality of life during and between hemodialysis treatments: role of L-carnitine supplementation. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998 Aug;32(2):265-72.
  73. Brass EP, Adler S, SietsemaKE, et al. Intravenous L-carnitine increases plasma carnitine, reduces fatigue, and may preserve exercise capacity in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 May;37(5):1018-28.
  74. Golper TA, Goral S, Becker BN, Langman CB. L-carnitine treatment of anemia. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Apr;41(4 Suppl 4):S27-34.
  75. Savica V, Santoro D, Mazzaglia G, et al. L-carnitine infusions may suppress serum C-reactive protein and improve nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis patients. J RenNutr. 2005 Apr;15(2):225-30.
  76. AlvaresDelfino VD, de Andrade Vianna AC, MocelinAJ, Barbosa DS, Mise RA, Matsuo T. Folic acid therapy reduces plasma homocysteine levels and improves plasma antioxidant capacity in hemodialysis patients. Nutrition. 2007 Mar;23(3):242-7.
  77. Bostom AG, Carpenter MA, KusekJW, et al. Rationale and design of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction In Transplantation (FAVORIT) trial. Am Heart J. 2006 Sep;152(3):448. e1-7.
  78. Menon V, Wang X, Greene T, et al. Homocysteine in chronic kidney disease: Effect of low protein diet and repletion with B vitamins. Kidney Int. 2005 Apr;67(4):1539-46.
  79. Nanayakkara PW, van Guldener C, ter Wee PM, et al. Effect of a treatment strategy consisting of pravastatin, vitamin E, and homocysteine lowering on carotid intima-media thickness, endothelial function, and renal function in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease: results from the Anti-Oxidant Therapy in Chronic Renal Insufficiency (ATIC) Study. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jun 25;167(12):1262-70.
  80. Farmer A, Montori V, Dinneen S, Clar C. Fish oil in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(3):CD003205.
  81. Hartweg J, Farmer AJ, Holman RR, Neil A. Potential impact of omega-3 treatment on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. CurrOpinLipidol. 2009 Feb;20(1):30-8.
  82. Moreira AC, Gaspar A, Serra MA, Simoes J, Lopes da Cruz J, AmaralTF. Effect of a sardine supplement on C-reactive protein in patients receiving hemodialysis. J RenNutr. 2007 May;17(3):205-13.
  83. Miller ER 3rd, JuraschekSP, AppelLJ, et al. The effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on urine protein excretion and kidney function: meta-analysis of clinical trials. Am J ClinNutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1937-45.
  84. Parinyasiri U, Ong-Ajyooth L, Parichatikanond P, Ong-Ajyooth S, Liammongkolkul S, Kanyog S. Effect of fish oil on oxidative stress, lipid profile and renal function in IgA nephropathy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Feb;87(2):143-9.
  85. Bell S, Cooney J, Packard CJ, Caslake M, Deighan CJ. Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipaemia in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Jul;205(1):296-301.
  86. Garman JH, Mulroney S, Manigrasso M, Flynn E, Maric C. Omega-3 fatty acid rich diet prevents diabetic renal disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 Feb;296(2):F306-16.
  87. Abdel-Naim AB, Abdel-Wahab MH, Attia FF. Protective effects of vitamin e and probucol against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PharmacolRes.1999Aug;40(2):183-7.
  88. Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, et al. Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2000 Oct 7;356(9237):1213-18.
  89. Khajehdehi P, Mojerlou M, Behzadi S, Rais-Jalali GA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of supplementary vitamins E, C and their combination for treatment of haemodialysis cramps. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Jul;16(7):1448-51.
  90. Mune M, Yukawa S, Kishino M, et al. Effect of vitamin E on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in ESRD patients. Kidney Int Suppl. 1999 Jul;71:S126-9.
  91. Ramos R, Gomez-Gerique N, Martinez-Castelao A. Lipoprotein oxidation profile in end stage renal disease patients. Role of vitamin C supplementation. Nefrologia. 2005;25(2):178-84.
  92. TainYL, Freshour G, Dikalova A, Griendling K, Baylis C. Vitamin E reduces glomerulosclerosis, restores renal neuronal NOS, and suppresses oxidative stress in the 5/6 nephrectomized rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 May;292(5):F1404-10.