Gingivitis References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. FDA. Gum Disease. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2002/302_gums.html. Accessed February 6, 2006.
  2. Asikainen S, Chen C et al. Likelihood of transmitting Actinobacillusactinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonasgingivalis in families with periodontitis.Oral MicrobiolImmunol. 1996 Dec;11(6):387-94.
  3. Saarela M, von Troil-Linden B et al. Transmission of oral bacterial species between spouses. Oral MicrobiolImmunol. 1993 Dec;8(6):349-54.
  4. Koller MM, Maeda N et al. Desipramine changes salivary gland function, oral microbiota, and oral health in rats.Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Nov 10;408(1):91-8.
  5. Klinger G, Eick S et al. Influence of hormonal contraceptives on microbial flora of gingival sulcus.Contraception. 1998 Jun;57(6):381-4.
  6. Johnson RB. Synergistic enhancement of collagenous protein synthesis by human gingival fibroblasts exposed to nifedipine and TNF-alpha in vitro. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003 Aug;32(7):408-13.
  7. Morisaki I, Dol S et al. Amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth: periodontal responses to stopping and restarting the drug. Spec Care Dentist. 2001 Mar;21(2):60-2.
  8. Kasper DL, Braunwald DE et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2005.
  9. Nowzari H, Jorgensen MG, et al. Aggressive periodontitis associated with Fanconi's anemia. A case report.J Periodontol. 2001 Nov;72(11):1601-6.
  10. Mascarenhas P, Gapski R et al. Influence of sex hormones on the periodontium.J ClinPeriodontol. 2003 Aug;30(8):671-81.
  11. Jeffcoat MK, Hauth JC et al. Periodontal disease and preterm birth: results of a pilot intervention study. J Periodontol. 2003 Aug;74(8):1214-8.
  12. Nishida M, Grossi SG et al. Dietary vitamin C and the risk for periodontal disease.J Periodontol. 2000a Aug;71(8):1215-23.
  13. Nishida M, Grossi SG et al. Calcium and the risk for periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2000b Jul;71(7):1057-66.
  14. Giannopoulou C, Cappuyns I et al. Effect of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid cytokine profile during experimental gingivitis.J ClinPeriodontol. 2003 Nov;30(11):996-1002.
  15. Papantonopoulos GH. Smoking influences decision making in periodontal therapy: a retrospective clinical study. J Periodontol. 1999 Oct;70(10):1166-73.
  16. Genco RJ, Ho AW et al. Relationship of stress, distress and inadequate coping behaviors to periodontal disease.J Periodontol. 1999 Jul;70(7):711-23.
  17. Elter JR, White BA et al. Relationship of clinical depression to periodontal treatment outcome.J Periodontol. 2002 Apr;73(4):441-9.
  18. Geerts SO, Legrand V et al.Further evidence of the association between periodontal conditions and coronary artery disease.J Periodontol. 2004 Sep;75(9):1274-80.
  19. Wu T, Trevisan M et al. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Feb 1;151(3):273-82.
  20. Noack B, Genco RJ et al. Periodontal infections contribute to elevated systemic C-reactive protein level. J Periodontol. 2001 Sep;72(9):1221-7.
  21. Pack AR. Folate mouthwash: effects on established gingivitis in periodontal patients. J ClinPeriodontol. 1984 Oct;11(9):619-28.
  22. Vogel RI, Deasy MJ. The effect of folic acid on experimentally produced gingivitis. J Prev Dent. 1978b Jul;5(4):30-2.
  23. Niederman R. Triclosan-containing dentifrice may slow periodontal disease progression. Evid Based Dent. 2004;5(4):107.
  24. Davies RM, Ellwood RP et al. The effectiveness of a toothpaste containing triclosan and polyvinyl-methyl ether maleic acid copolymer in improving plaque control and gingival health: a systematic review. J ClinPeriodontol. 2004 Dec;31(12):1029-33.
  25. Lee HM, Ciancio SG et al. Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline efficacy as a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor in chronic periodontitis patients is enhanced when combined with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. J Periodontol. 2004a Mar;75(3):453-63.
  26. Lee JY, Lee YM et al. Effect of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline as an effective adjunct to scaling and root planing. J Periodontol. 2004b Nov;75(11):1500-8.
  27. Hasturk H, Nunn M, Warbington M, Van Dyke TE. Efficacy of a fluoridated hydrogen peroxide-based mouthrinse for the treatment of gingivitis: a randomized clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2004 Jan;75(1):57-65.
  28. Nakamura R, Littarru GP et al. Study of CoQ10-enzymes in gingiva from patients with periodontal disease and evidence for a deficiency of coenzyme Q10. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 1974 Apr;71(4):1456-60.
  29. Hansen IL, Iwamoto Y et al. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. IX. Gingival and leucocytic deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in patients with periodontal disease. Res CommunChemPatholPharmacol. 1976 Aug;14(4):729-38.
  30. Wilkinson EG, Arnold RM. et al. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. VI. adjunctive treatment of periodontal disease with coenzyme Q10. Res CommunChemPatholPharmacol. 1976 Aug;14(4):715-9.
  31. Dietrich T, Nunn M, wson-Hughes B, Bischoff-Ferrari HA. Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and gingival inflammation.Am J ClinNutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):575-80.
  32. Stein GM, Lewis H. Oral changes in a folic acid deficient patient precipitated by anticonvulsant drug therapy. J Periodontol. 1973 Oct;44(10):645-50.
  33. Thomson ME, Pack AR. Effects of extended systemic and topical folate supplementation on gingivitis of pregnancy.J ClinPeriodontol. 1982 May;9(3):275-80.
  34. Vogel RI, Fink RA et al. The effect of topical application of folic acid on gingival health. J Oral Med. 1978a Jan;33(1):22.
  35. Vogel RI, Fink RA et al. The effect of folic acid on gingival health.J Periodontol. 1976 Nov;47(11):667-8.
  36. Horiba N, Maekawa Y et al. A pilot study of Japanese green tea as a medicament: antibacterial and bactericidal effects. J Endod. 1991 Mar;17(3):122-4.
  37. Otake S, Makimura M et al. Anticaries effects of polyphenolic compounds from Japanese green tea. Caries Res. 1991a;25(6):438-43.
  38. Rasheed A, Haider M. Antibacterial activity of Camellia sinensis extracts against dental caries. Arch Pharm Res. 1998 Jun;21(3):348-52.
  39. Hattori M, Kusumoto IT et al. Effect of tea polyphenols on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1990 Mar;38(3):717-20.
  40. You SQ. [Study on feasibility of Chinese green tea polyphenols (CTP) for preventing dental caries].Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi XueZaZhi. 1993 Jul;28(4):197-9, 254.
  41. Tsuchiya H, Sato M et al. Simultaneous determination of catechins in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Dec 5;703(1-2):253-8.
  42. Hirasawa M, Takada K et al. Improvement of periodontal status by green tea catechin using a local delivery system: a clinical pilot study. J Periodontal Res. 2002 Dec;37(6):433-8.
  43. Dias da Silva W, Tambourgi DV. IgY: a promising antibody for use in immunodiagnostic and in immunotherapy. Vet ImmunolImmunopathol. 2010 Jun 15;135(3-4):173-80.
  44. Dean KL.Hyperimmune eggs capture natural immune support. AlternComplemenTher. June 2000;6(3):118-24.
  45. Cama VA, Sterling CR. Hyperimmune hens as a novel source of anti-Cryptosporidium antibodies suitable for passive immune transfer. J Protozool. 1991 Nov-Dec;38(6):42S-43S.
  46. Hatta H, Tsuda K, Ozeki M, et al. Passive immunization against dental plaque formation in humans: effect of a mouth rinse containing egg yolk antibodies (IgY) specific to Streptococcus mutans. Caries Res. 1997;31(4):268-74.
  47. Otake S, Nishihara Y, Makimura M, et al. Protection of rats against dental caries by passive immunization with hen-egg-yolk antibody (IgY). J Dent Res. 1991b Mar;70(3):162-6.
  48. Mitoma M, Oho T, Michibata N, et al. Passive immunization with bovine milk containing antibodies to a cell surface protein antigen-glucosyltransferase fusion protein protects rats against dental caries. Infect Immun. 2002 May;70(5):2721-4.
  49. Carlander D, Kollberg H, Larsson A. Retention of specific yolk IgY in the human oral cavity. BioDrugs. 2002;16(6):433-7.
  50. Wang WH, Wang WJ, Zhang BX. Effect of IgY solution on dental plaque. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi XueZaZhi. 2003 Nov;38(6):417-9.
  51. Zhou Z, Zhou R, Tang Z. Effects of topical application of immunoglobulin yolk on mutans streptococci in dental plaque.Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi XueZaZhi. 2003 Aug;21(4):295-7.
  52. Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MC, et al. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans. Braz Dent J. 2006;17(3):223-7.
  53. Sastravaha G, Gassmann G, Sangtherapitikul P, Grimm WD. Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centellaasiatica and Punicagranatum extracts in supportive periodontal therapy. J IntAcadPeriodontol. 2005 Jul;7(3):70-9.
  54. Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS.Punicagranatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):79-92.
  55. Sastravaha G, Yotnuengnit P, Booncong P, Sangtherapitikul P. Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centellaasiatica and Punicagranatum extracts. A preliminary study.J IntAcadPeriodontol. 2003 Oct;5(4):106-15.
  56. Taguri T, Tanaka T, Kouno I. Antimicrobial activity of 10 different plant polyphenols against bacteria causing food-borne disease.Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Dec;27(12):1965-9.
  57. Vasconcelos LC, Sampaio FC, Sampaio MC, et al. Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punicagranatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans.Braz Dent J. 2006;17(3):223-7.
  58. Li Y, Wen S, Kota BP, et al. Punicagranatum flower extract, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves postprandial hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun 3;99(2):239-44.
  59. DiSilvestro R, DiSilvestro D, DiSilvestro D. Pomegranate extract Pomella® Mouth Rinsing Effects on Saliva Measures Relevant to Gingivitis Risk. Manuscript Submitted 12-07.
  60. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, et al. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J NutrBiochem. 2005 Jun;16(6):360-7.
  61. Chidambara Murthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peel extract using in vivo models. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4791-5.
  62. Battino M, Bullon P, Wilson M, Newman H. Oxidative injury and inflammatory periodontal diseases: the challenge of anti-oxidants to free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1999;10(4):458-76.
  63. Madianos PN, Bobetsis YA, Kinane DF. Generation of inflammatory stimuli: how bacteria set up inflammatory responses in the gingiva. J ClinPeriodontol. 2005;32(Suppl 6):57-71.
  64. Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S. Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:434-41.
  65. Narhi TO, Tenovuo J, Ainamo A, Vilja P. Antimicrobial factors, sialic acid, and protein concentration in whole saliva of the elderly.Scand J Dent Res. 1994 Apr;102(2):120-5.
  66. Rudney JD, Krig MA, Neuvar EK. Longitudinal study of relations between human salivary antimicrobial proteins and measures of dental plaque accumulation and composition. Arch Oral Biol. 1993 May;38(5):377-86.
  67. Holgerson PL, Sjostrom I, Stecksen-Blicks C, Twetman S. Dental plaque formation and salivary mutans streptococci in schoolchildren after use of xylitol-containing chewing gum. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2007 Mar;17(2):79-85.
  68. Sintes JL, Escalante C, Stewart B, et al. Enhanced anticaries efficacy of a 0.243% sodium fluoride/10% xylitol/silica dentifrice: 3-year clinical results. Am J Dent. 1995 Oct;8(5):231-5.
  69. Gorbach SL. Probiotics in the third millennium. Dig Liver Dis. 2002 Sep;34(Suppl 2):S2-7.
  70. Li J, Dai C, Zhou X, et al. Analysis of organic acids in human dental plaque by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Se Pu. 1999 Sep;17(5):483-5.
  71. Marsh PD. Sugar, fluoride, pH and microbial homeostasis in dental plaque. Proc Finn Dent Soc. 1991;87(4):515-25.
  72. Marsh PD. Microbial ecology of dental plaque and its significance in health and disease.Adv Dent Res. 1994 Jul;8(2):263-71.
  73. Marsh PD, Percival RS.The oral microflora--friend or foe? Can we decide? Int Dent J. 2006a Aug;56(4 Suppl 1):233-9.
  74. Marsh PD. Dental plaque as a biofilm and a microbial community - implications for health and disease.BMC Oral Health. 2006b;6(Suppl 1):S14.
  75. Kornman KS. Mapping the pathogenesis of periodontitis: a new look. J Periodontol. 2008 Aug;79(8 Suppl):1560-8.
  76. Kamma J, Mombelli A, Tsinidou K, et al. Cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid of adolescents and young adults. Oral MicrobiolImmunol. 2009;24:7-10.
  77. CompendContinEduc Dent. 2008 Sep;29(7):402-3.
  78. Pasquantonio G, Greco C, Prenna M, et al. Antibacterial activity and anti-biofilm effect of chitosan against strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated in dental plaque. Int J ImmunopatholPharmacol. 2008 Oct;21(4):993-7.
  79. Tamura S, Yonezawa H, Motegi M, et al. Inhibiting effects of Streptococcus salivarius on competence-stimulating peptide-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Oral MicrobiolImmunol. 2009 Apr;24(2):152-61.
  80. Tanzer JM, Kurasz AB, Clive J, et al. Competitive displacement of mutans streptococci and inhibition of tooth decay by Streptococcus salivarius TOVE-R. Infect Immun. 1985 Apr;48(1):44-50.
  81. Ganeden.Data on file. 2009.
  82. Kruzel ML, Actor JK, Boldogh I, Zimecki M. Lactoferrin in health and disease.PostepyHig Med Dosw.(Online.). 2007;61:261-7.
  83. Kalfas S, Andersson M, Edwardsson S, Forsgren A, Naidu AS. Human lactoferrin binding to Porphyromonasgingivalis, Prevotellaintermedia and Prevotellamelaninogenica.Oral MicrobiolImmunol. 1991 Dec;6(6):350-5.
  84. Addie DD, Radford A, Yam PS, Taylor DJ.Cessation of feline calcivirus shedding coincident with resolution of chronic gingivostomatitis in a cat.J Small AnimPract. 2003 Apr;44(4):172-6.
  85. Vaananen MK, Markkanen HA et al. Periodontal health related to plasma ascorbic acid. Proc Finn Dent Soc. 1993;89(1-2):51-9.
  86. Aurer-Kozelj J, Kralj-Klobucar, et al.The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on periodontal tissue ultrastructure in subjects with progressive periodontitis.Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res 1982:52(3);333-41.
  87. Kulik E, Lenkeit K et al. [Antimicrobial effects of tea tree oil (Melaleucaalternifolia) on oral microorganisms]. SchweizMonatsschrZahnmed. 2000;110(11):125-30.
  88. Soukoulis S, Hirsch R. The effects of a tea tree oil-containing gel on plaque and chronic gingivitis. Aust Dent J. 2004 Jun;49(2):78-83.
  89. Visentainer JV, Vieira OA et al. [Physico-chemical characterization of acerola (Malpighiaglabra L.) produced in Maringa, Parana State, Brazil]. Arch LatinoamNutr. 1997 Mar;47(1):70-2.
  90. Justi KC, Visentainer JV et al. Nutritional composition and vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu (Myrciariadubia) pulp. Arch LatinoamNutr. 2000 Dec;50(4):405-8.
  91. Rehman J, Dillow JM et al. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastiscanadensis. ImmunolLett. 1999 Jun 1;68(2-3):391-5.
  92. Aggag ME, Yousef RT. Study of antimicrobial activity of chamomile oil.Planta Med. 1972 Sep;22(2):140-4.
  93. Sato S, Yoshinuma N et al. The inhibitory effect of funoran and eucalyptus extract-containing chewing gum on plaque formation. J Oral Sci. 1998 Sep;40(3):115-7.
  94. Rosenstein ED, Kushner LJ et al. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis. Prostaglandins LeukotEssent Fatty Acids. 2003 Mar;68(3):213-8.
  95. Campan P, Planchard PO et al. Pilot study on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of human experimental gingivitis. J ClinPeriodontol. 1997 Dec;24(12):907-13.