Life Extension Blood Test Super Sale

Gout and Hyperuricemia References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(10):3136–3141.
  2. Kramer HM, Curhan G. The association between gout and nephrolithiasis: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;40:37–42.
  3. Richette P, Bardin T. Gout. Lancet 2010; 375:318–28.
  4. Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM, American College of Physicians, American Physiological Society. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(7):499–516.
  5. Enomoto, A. et al. Molecular identification of a renal urate anion exchanger that regulates blood urate levels. Nature 2002;417, 447–452.
  6. Glantzounis GK, Tsimoyiannis EC, Kappas AM, et al. Uric acid and oxidative stress. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(32):4145-51.
  7. Alvarez-Lario B, Macarrón-Vicente J. Is there anything good in uric acid? QJM. 2011.
  8. Hediger, M. A. New view at C. Nature Med. 8, 445–446 (2002).
  9. Roch-Ramel, F. &Guisan, B. News Physiol. Sci. 14, 80–84 (1999).
  10. Keizman D, Ish-Shalom M, Berliner S, Maimon N, Vered Y, Artamonov I, et al. Low uric acid levels in serum of patients with ALS: further evidence for oxidative stress? J NeurolSci 2009; 285:95–9.
  11. Rentzos M, Nikolaou C, Anagnostouli M, Rombos A, Tsakanikas K, Economou M, et al. Serum uric acid and mul- tiple sclerosis. ClinNeurolNeurosurg 2006; 108:527–31.
  12. Auinger P, Kieburtz K, McDermott MP. The relationship be- tween uric acid levels and Huntington's disease progression. MovDisord 2010; 25:224–8.
  13. Andreadou E, Nikolaou C, Gournaras F, Rentzos M, Boufidou F, Tsoutsou A, et al. Serum uric acid levels in pa- tients with Parkinson's disease: their relationship to treatment and disease duration. ClinNeurolNeurosurg 2009; 111:724–8.
  14. Kim TS, Pae CU, Yoon SJ, Jang WY, Lee NJ, Kim JJ, et al. Decreased plasma antioxidants in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 21:344–8.
  15. Zhang W, Doherty M, Pascual E et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: Diagnosis. Report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 2006a;65:1301–11.
  16. Schlesinger N, Norquist JM, Watson DJ. Serum Urate During Acute Gout. The Journal of Rheumatology. 2009;36(6):1287–1289.
  17. Sun SZ, Flickinger BD, Williamson-Hughes PS, Empie MW. Lack of association between dietary fructose and hyperuricemia risk in adults.NutrMetab. 2010;7(1):16.
  18. Campion EW, Glynn RJ, DeLabry LO.Asymptomatic hyper- uricemia.Risk and consequences in the Normative Aging Study.Am J Med 1987; 82:421–6.
  19. Puig JG, de Miguel E, Castillo MC, Rocha AL, Martinez MA, Torres RJ. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: impact of ultrasonography. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2008;27:592–5.
  20. Doherty M. New insights into the epidemiology of gout.Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48Suppl 2:ii2–ii8.
  21. Martinon F, Petrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature 2006;440:237–41.
  22. Eggebeen AT. Gout: an update. Am Fam Physician. 2007;76(6):801–808.
  23. Pascual E. Persistence of monosodium urate crystals and low-grade inflammation in the synovial fluid of patients with untreated gout.Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34:141–5.
  24. Chhana A, Callon KE, Pool B, et al. Monosodium urate monohydrate crystals inhibit osteoblast viability and function: implications for development of bone erosion in gout. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2011;70(9):1684–1691.
  25. Pak CY, Moe OW, Sakhaee K, Peterson RD, Poindexter JR. Physicochemical metabolic characteristics for calcium oxal- ate stone formation in patients with gouty diathesis. J Urol 2005; 173:1606–9.
  26. Johnson RJ, Kivlighn SD, Kim YG, Suga S, Fogo AB. Reappraisal of the pathogenesis and consequences of hyper- uricemia in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33:225–34.
  27. Alvarez-Lario B, Macarrón-Vicente J. Is there anything good in uric acid? QJM. 2011.
  28. Kim SY, Guevara JP, Kim KM, Choi HK, Heitjan DF, Albert DA. Hyperuricemia and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61:885–92.
  29. Ekundayo OJ, Dell'Italia LJ, Sanders PW, et al. Association between hyperuricemia and incident heart failure among older adults: a propensity-matched study. Int. J. Cardiol. 2010;142(3):279–287.
  30. Kim SY, Guevara JP, Kim KM, Choi HK, Heitjan DF, Albert DA. Hyperuricemia and coronary heart disease: a sys- tematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res 2010; 62:170–80.
  31. Mazzali M, Kanbay M, Segal MS, Shafiu M, Jalal D, Feig D, et al. Uric acid and hypertension: cause or effect? CurrRheumatol Rep 2010; 12:108–17.
  32. Grayson PC, Kim SY, LaValley M, Choi HK. Hyperuricemia and incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res. 2011;63(1):102–110.
  33. Feig DI, Soletsky B, Johnson RJ. Effect of allopurinol on blood pressure of adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;300(8):924–932.
  34. Dao HH, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Sakamoto J. Body compos- ition and metabolic syndrome in patients with primary gout in Vietnam. Rheumatology 2010; 49:2400–7.
  35. Choi HK, Ford ES.Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in individuals with hyperuricemia.Am J Med 2007a; 120:442–7.
  36. Choi HK, De Vera MA, Krishnan E. Gout and the risk of type 2 diabetes among men with a high cardiovascular risk profile. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008a;47(10):1567–1570.
  37. Bierer DW, Quebbemann AJ.Effect of L-dopa on renal handling of uric acid.J PharmacolExpTher. 1982;223(1):55–59.
  38. Scott JT. Drug-induced gout. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1991 Apr;5(1):39-60.
  39. Singh JA, Reddy SG, Kundukulam J. Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature. CurrOpinRheumatol.2011:1.
  40. Caspi D, Lubart E, Graff E, et al. The effect of mini-dose aspirin on renal function and uric acid handling in elderly patients.Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43(1):103–108.
  41. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004a;350(11):1093–1103.
  42. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Alcohol intake and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Lancet. 2004b;363(9417):1277–1281.
  43. Choi HK, Curhan G. Beer, liquor, wine, and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51:1023 – 1029.
  44. Puig JG, Fox IH. Ethanol-induced activation of adenine nucleotide turnover.Evidence for a role of acetate. J Clin Invest 1984; 74: 936–41.
  45. Vandenberg MK, Moxley G, Breitbach SA, Roberts WN. Gout attacks in chronic alcoholics occur at lower serum urate levels than in nonalcoholics. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 700–04.
  46. Gibson T, Rodgers AV, Simmonds HA, Toseland P. Beer drinking and its effect on uric acid. Br J Rheumatol 1984; 23: 203–09.
  47. Choi JWJ, Ford ES, Gao X, Choi HK. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2008b;59(1):109–116.
  48. Schlesinger N, Norquist JM, Watson DJ. Serum Urate During Acute Gout. The Journal of Rheumatology. 2009;36(6):1287–1289.
  49. Kasper DL Braunwald DE et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine . 16th ed. New York , NY : McGraw-Hill Professional; 2005.
  50. De Miguel E, Puig JG, Castillo C, et al. Diagnosis of gout in patients with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia: a pilot ultrasound study. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2011.
  51. Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part II: Management. Report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee For International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2006b;65(10):1312–1324.
  52. Becker MA, Schumacher HR, Wortmann RL, et al. Febuxostat compared with allopurinol in patients with hyperuricemia and gout. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(23):2450–2461.
  53. Larmon WA (1970) Surgical management of tophaceous gout. ClinOrthopRelat Res 71:56–69.
  54. Ford TC (1992) Surgical management of chronic tophaceous gout. A case report. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 82(10):514–519.
  55. FDA. FDA approves new drug for gout. FDA NEWS RELEASE. Sept. 14, 2010. Available at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2010/ucm225810.htm Accessed 11/11/2011.
  56. Sundy JS et al. Efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic gout in patients refractory to conventional treatment: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2011 Aug 17;306(7):711-20.
  57. Ea HK et al. Pegloticase and chronic gout.JAMA. 2011 Nov 9;306(18):1979; author reply 1979-80.
  58. Choi HK, Curhan G. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in women: the Nurses' Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010a;92(4):922–927.
  59. Feigelson P. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase in vitro by trace amounts of I-ascorbic acid. J BiolChem 1952;197:843–50.
  60. Juraschek SP, Miller ER III, Gelber AC. Effect of oral vitamin C supplementation on serum uric acid: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Care Res. 2011;63(9):1295–1306.
  61. Huang H-Y, Appel LJ, Choi MJ, et al. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on serum concentrations of uric acid: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(6):1843–1847.
  62. Bates CJ, Walmsley CM, Prentice A, Finch S. Does vitamin C reduce blood pressure?Results of a large study of people aged 65 or older. J. Hypertens. 1998 Jul;16(7):925.
  63. Block G, Jensen CD, Norkus EP, Hudes M, Crawford PB. Vitamin C in plasma is inversely related to blood pressure and change in blood pressure during the previous year in young Black and White women. Nutr J 2008;7:35.
  64. Jacob RA, Spinozzi GM, Simon VA, et al. Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003;133(6):1826–1829.
  65. Fam AG. Gout: excess calories, purines, and alcohol intake and beyond. Response to a urate-lowering diet. J Rheumatol . 2005 May;32(5):773-7.
  66. Blau LW. Cherry diet control for gout and arthritis. Tex Rep BiolMed . 1950;8(3):309-11.
  67. Jancin B. Cherry Juice Flowing in Gout Treatment Pipeline.Family Practice News. 2010.
  68. Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, et al. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running.Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(6):843–852.
  69. Salazar-Martinez E, Willett WC, Ascherio A, Manson JE, Leitz- mann MF, Stampfer MJ, et al. Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:1–8.
  70. Choi HK. A prescription for lifestyle change in patients with hyperuricemia and gout.CurrOpinRheumatol. 2010b;22(2):165–172.
  71. Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 2007b;56(6):2049–2055.
  72. Kela U, Vijayvargiya R, Trivedi CP. Inhibitory effects of methyl-xanthines on the activity of xanthine oxidase. Life Sci 1980;27:2109–19.
  73. Mascitelli L, Goldstein MR. Does inhibition of iron absorption by coffee reduce the risk of gout? Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2011;65(6):713.
  74. Romero-Gonzalez RR et al. Salting-out gradients in centrifugal partition chromatography for the isolation of chlorogenic acids from green coffee beans. J Chromatogr A. 2009 May 8;1216(19):4245-51. Epub 2009 Feb 10.
  75. Farah A et al. Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans. J Nutr. 2008 Dec;138(12):2309-15.
  76. Lyu L-C, Hsu C-Y, Yeh C-Y, et al. A case-control study of the association of diet and obesity with gout in Taiwan.Am J ClinNutr. 2003;78(4):690–701.
  77. Koguchi T, Koguchi H, Nakajima H, Takano S, Yamamoto Y, Innami S, Maekawa A, Tadokoro T: Dietary fiber suppresses elevation of uric acid and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum of rats with renal dysfunction induced by dietary adenine. Int J VitamNutr Res 2004, 74(4):253-263.
  78. Streppel MT, Arends LR, van t Veer P, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Dietary fiber and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2005 Jan.;165(2):150–156.
  79. Whelton SP, Hyre AD, Pedersen B, Yi Y, Whelton PK, He J. Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. J. Hypertens. 2005 Mar.;23(3):475–481.
  80. Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J ClinNutr 1999 Jan.;69(1):30-42.
  81. Kong LD, Cai Y et al. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout. J Ethnopharmacol . 2000 Nov;73(1-2):199-207.
  82. Yan H, Ma Y, Liu M, Zhou L. The Dual Actions of PaederiascandensExtract as a Hypouricemic Agent: Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity and Uricosuric Effect. Planta Med. 2008;74(11):1345–1350.
  83. Chen L, Yin H, Lan Z, et al. Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of Smilax china L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135(2):399–405.
  84. Pauff JM, Hille R. Inhibition Studies of Bovine Xanthine Oxidase by Luteolin, Silibinin, Quercetin, and Curcumin. J. Nat. Prod. 2009;72(4):725–731.
  85. Lin C-M, Chen C-S, Chen C-T, Liang Y-C, Lin J-K.Molecular modeling of flavonoids that inhibits xanthine oxidase.BiochemBiophys Res Commun. 2002;294(1):167–172.
  86. Li Y et al. Virtual and In vitro bioassay screening of phytochemical inhibitors from flavonoids and isoflavones against Xanthine oxidase and Cyclooxygenase-2 for gout treatment.ChemBiol Drug Des.2011 Oct 3.doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2011.01248.x. [Epub ahead of print]
  87. Flemmig J et al. Oleaeuropaea leaf (Ph.Eur.) extract as well as several of its isolated phenolics inhibit the gout-related enzyme xanthine oxidase. Phytomedicine. 2011 May 15;18(7):561-6. Epub 2010 Dec 8.
  88. Mo S-F, Zhou F, Lv Y-Z, et al. Hypouricemic action of selected flavonoids in mice: structure-activity relationships. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007;30(8):1551–1556.
  89. Hu QH, Wang C, Li JM, Zhang DM, Kong LD. Allopurinol, rutin, and quercetin attenuate hyperuricemia and renal dysfunction in rats induced by fructose intake: renal organic ion transporter involvement. AJP: Renal Physiology. 2009;297(4):F1080–F1091.
  90. Wang Y, Zhu JX et al. Administration of procyanidins from grape seeds reduces serum uric acid levels and decreases hepatic xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase activities in oxonate-treated mice. Basic ClinPharmacolToxicol. 2004 May;94(5):232-7.
  91. Di Giovine FS, Malawista SE, Nuki G, Duff GW: Interleukin 1 (IL 1) as a mediator of crystal arthritis. Stimulation of T cell and synovial fibroblast mitogenesis by urate crystal-induced IL 1. J Immunol. 1987;138:3213–3218.
  92. Dinarello CA. Blocking interleukin-1β in acute and chronic autoinflammatory diseases.Journal of Internal Medicine. 2010;269(1):16–28.
  93. Busso N, So A. Mechanisms of inflammation in gout.Arthritis Res. Ther. 2010;12(2):206.
  94. Schumacher HR. The pathogenesis of gout.Cleve Clin J Med. 2008;75Suppl 5:S2–4.
  95. Moon D-O, Kim M-O, Choi YH, Park Y-M, Kim G-Y.Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response in IL-1β-induced human synovial fibroblasts and collagen-induced arthritis in mouse model. International Immunopharmacology. 2010;10(5):605–610.
  96. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, et al. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(4):337–344.
  97. Wann AK, Mistry J, Blain EJ, Michael-Titus AT, Knight MM. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce interleukin-1β-mediated cartilage degradation. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2010;12(6):R207.
  98. Shakibaei M, Csaki C, Nebrichi S, Mobasheri A. Resveratrol suppresses interleukin-1β-induced inflammatory signaling and apoptosis in human articular chondrocytes: Potential for use as a novel nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Biochem.Pharmacol. 2008;76(11):1426–1439.
  99. Tate GA, Mandell BF, Karmali RA, et al. Suppression of monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammation by diets enriched with gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Arthritis Rheum. 1988;31(12):1543–1551.