Immune System Strengthening References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Nichol KL. Influenza vaccination in the elderly: impact on hospitalisation and mortality. Drugs Aging. 2005;22(6):495–515.
  2. Ershler WB, Keller ET. Age-associated increased interleukin-6 gene expression, late-life diseases, and frailty. Annu Rev Med. 2000;51:245–70.
  3. Hamerman D. Toward an understanding of frailty.Ann Intern Med. 1999 Jun 1;130(11):945–50.
  4. Taaffe DR, Harris TB, et al. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein with physical performance in elderly persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci. 2000 Dec;55(12):M709–M715.
  5. Kaput J, Rodriguez RL. Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the postgenomic era. Physiol Genomics. 2004 Jan 15;16(2):166–77.
  6. Ames BN. DNA damage from micronutrient deficiencies is likely to be a major cause of cancer. Mutat Res. 2001 Apr 18;475(1–2):7–20.
  7. Brussow H, Sidoti J, et al. Effect of malnutrition in Ecuadorian children on titers of serum antibodies to various microbial antigens. ClinDiag Lab Immunol.1995;(2):62–8.
  8. Lotfy O, Saleh W, et al. A study of some changes of cell mediated immunity in protein energy malnutrition. J Egypt SocParasitol. 1998;28:413–28.
  9. DelaFuente M, Ferrández M, et al. Immune function in aged women is improved by ingestion of vitamins C and E. Can J PhysiolPharmacol. 1998;(76):373–80.
  10. Kaminogawa S, Nanno M. Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2004.
  11. Kiecolt-Glaser J, McGuire L, et al. Psychoneuroimmunology and psychosomatic medicine: back to the future. Psychosom Med. 2000;(641):15–28.
  12. Appels A, Bar FW, et al. Inflammation, depressive symptomtology, and coronary artery disease.Psychosom Med. 2000 Sep;62(5):601–5.
  13. Dentino AN, Pieper CF, et al. Association of interleukin-6 and other biologic variables with depression in older people living in the community.J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999 Jan;47(1):6–11.
  14. Maes M, Bosmans E, et al. Increased serum IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist concentrations in major depression and treatment resistant depression.Cytokine. 1997 Nov;9(11):853–8.
  15. Maes M, Song C, et al. The effects of psychological stress on humans: increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1-like response in stress-induced anxiety. Cytokine. 1998 Apr;10(4):313–8.
  16. Maes M, Lin AH, et al. Elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder following accidental man-made traumatic events.Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Apr 1;45(7):833–9.
  17. Boscarino JA, Chang J. Higher abnormal leukocyte and lymphocyte counts 20 years after exposure to severe stress: research and clinical implications. Psychosom Med. 1999 May;61(3):378–86.
  18. LutgendorfSK , Garand L, et al. Life stress, mood disturbance, and elevated interleukin-6 in healthy older women. J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci. 1999 Sep;54(9):M434–M439.
  19. Zhou D, Kusnecov AW, et al. Exposure to physical and psychological stressors elevates plasma interleukin 6: relationship to the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Endocrinology. 1993 Dec;133(6):2523–30.
  20. Papanicolaou DA, Wilder RL, et al. The pathophysiologic roles of interleukin-6 in human disease.Ann Intern Med. 1998 Jan 15;128(2):127–37.
  21. Ironson G, LaPerriere A, et al. Changes in immune and psychological measures as a function of anticipation and reaction to news of HIV-1 antibody status. Psychosom Med. 1990 May;52(3):247–70.
  22. Koh KB, Lee BK. Reduced lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production in anxiety disorders. Psychosom Med. 1998 Jul;60(4):479–83.
  23. Lerman Y, Melamed S, et al. Association between burnout at work and leukocyte adhesiveness/aggregation. Psychosom Med. 1999 Nov;61(6):828–33.
  24. Arnetz BB, Brenner SO, et al. Neuroendocrine and immunologic effects of unemployment and job insecurity. PsychotherPsychosom. 1991;55(2–4):76–80.
  25. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Fisher LD, et al. Marital quality, marital disruption, and immune function.Psychosom Med. 1987 Jan;49(1):13–34.
  26. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R, et al. Marital conflict in older adults: endocrinological and immunological correlates. Psychosom Med. 1997 Jul;59(4):339–49.
  27. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Kennedy S, et al. Marital discord and immunity in males. Psychosom Med. 1988 May;50(3):213–29.
  28. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Malarkey WB, et al. Negative behavior during marital conflict is associated with immunological down-regulation. Psychosom Med. 1993 Sep;55(5):395–409.
  29. Janeway CA, Travers P, et al. Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. London, UK: Garland Publishing; 1999.
  30. Beers MB. Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station , NJ : Merck & Co.; 2004.
  31. Moslen MT. Free Radicals in Diagnostic Medicine. New York: Plenum Press; 1994.
  32. Grimble RF. Interaction between nutrients, pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation.ClinSci (Lond). 1996 Aug;91(2):121–30.
  33. Mathew C. Postgenomic technologies: hunting the genes for common disorders. BMJ. 2001;322:1031–4.
  34. Jenkins DJ, Popovich DG, et al. Effect of a diet high in vegetables, fruit, and nuts on serum lipids.Metabolism. 1997 May;46(5):530–7.
  35. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW. Plant sterols, health claims and strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. J Am CollNutr. 1999 Dec;18(6):559–62.
  36. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, et al. Effect of soy-based breakfast cereal on blood lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.Metabolism. 2000 Nov;49(11):1496–1500.
  37. Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA Jr., Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23;169(4):384-90.
  38. Karatekin G, Kaya A, Salihoğlu O, Balci H, Nuhoğlu A. Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in newborns with acute lower respiratory infection and their mothers. Eur J ClinNutr. 2009 Apr;63(4):473-7. Epub 2007 Nov 21
  39. CannellJJ,Vieth R, Umhau JC, Holick MF. Grant WB, Madronich S, Garland CF, Giovannucci E., Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40.
  40. Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Coda AB, Büchau AS, Liu PT, Kiken D, Helfrich YR, Kang S, Elalieh HZ, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Bikle DD, Modlin RL, Gallo RL., Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism. J ClinInvest. 2007 Mar;117(3):803-11.
  41. Cai J, Nelson KC, et al. Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE. ProgRetin Eye Res. 2000;19(2):205–21.
  42. Bounous G. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment. Anticancer Res. 2000;20(6C):4785–92.
  43. Devlin T. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlates. 5th ed. New York : Wiley-Liss; 2002.
  44. Roth E. Regulative potential of glutamine relation to glutathione metabolism.Nutrition. 2002;18:217–21.
  45. Li J, Kudsk K, et al. Effects of parenteral and enteral nutrition on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.J Trauma. 1995;39:44.
  46. Newsholme E. Biochemical mechanisms to explain immunosuppression in well-trained and overtrained athletes. Int J Sports Med. 1994;15-S142.
  47. Rohde T, Ullum H, et al. Effects of glutamine on the immune system: influence of muscular exercise and HIV infection. J Appl Physiol. 1995;79:146–50.
  48. Rohde T, MacLean DA, et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Jun;30(6):856–62.
  49. Rohde T, MacLean D, et al. Glutamine, lymphocyte proliferat ion and cytokine production.Scand J Immunol. 1996;44:648–50.
  50. Jurectic A, Spagnoli G, et al. Glutamine requirements in the generation of lymphokine-activated killer cells. ClinNutr. 1994;13:42.
  51. Wilmore DW. Catabolic illness: strategies for enhancing recovery. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:695–702.
  52. Shephard RJ, Shek PN. Immunological hazards from nutritional imbalance in athletes. ExercImmunol Rev. 1998;4:22–48.
  53. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J PhysiolPharmacol. 1998;76(5):524–32.
  54. Osman E, Owen JS, et al. Review article: S-adenosyl-L-methionine—a new therapeutic agent in liver disease? Aliment PharmacolTher. 1993;7(1):21–8.
  55. Burgunder JM, Varriale A, et al. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on plasma cysteine and glutathione following paracetamol administration. Eur J ClinPharmacol. 1989;36(2):127–31.
  56. Baier JE, Neumann HA, et al. [Radiation protection through cytokine release by N-acetylcysteine].StrahlentherOnkol. 1996;172(2):91–8.
  57. Chiao JW, Chung F, et al. Modulation of growth of human prostate cancer cells by the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of phenethylisothiocyanate. Int J Oncol. 2000;16(6):1215–9.
  58. De Flora S. Detoxification of genotoxic compounds as a threshold mechanism limiting their carcinogenicity. ToxicolPathol. 1984;12(4):337–43.
  59. Wilpart M, Speder A, et al. Anti-initiation activity of N-acetylcysteine in experimental colonic carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 1986;31(3):319–24.
  60. Grimble RF. Effect of antioxidative vitamins on immune function with clinical applications.Int J VitamNutr Res. 1997;67(5):312–20.
  61. Cantorna M, Nashold F, et al. Vitamin A deficiency results in a priming environment conductive for Th1 cell development. Eur J Immunol. 1995;(25):1673–9.
  62. Kagan VE, Freisleben HJ, et al. Generation of probucol radicals and their reduction by ascorbate and dihydrolipoic acid in human low density lipoproteins.Free Radic Res Commun. 1991;15(5):265–76.
  63. Kagan VE, Shvedova A, et al. Dihydrolipoic acid—a universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase: reduction of peroxyl, ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals. BiochemPharmacol. 1992;44(8):1637–49.
  64. Peters E, Goetzsche J, et al. Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners. Am J ClinNutr.1993;57:170–4.
  65. Schwager J, Schulze J. Modulation of interleukin production by ascorbic acid. Vet ImmunolImmunopathol. 1998;64:45–57.
  66. Murrary R, Granner K, et al. Harper's Biochemistry . 25th ed. Stamford, Conn : Appleton & Lange; 2000:349, 627–41, 766–7, 780–6.
  67. Bustamante J, Lodge JK, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease.Free RadicBiol Med. 1998;24(6):1023–39.
  68. Packer L, Witt EH, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant.Free RadicBiol Med. 1995;19(2):227–50.
  69. Packer L, Tritschler HJ, et al. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid.Free RadicBiol Med. 1997;22(1–2):359–78.
  70. Scholich H, Murphy ME, et al. Antioxidant activity of dihydrolipoate against microsomal lipid peroxidation and its dependence on alpha-tocopherol. BiochimBiophysActa. 1989;1001(3):256–61.
  71. Fuchs J, Schofer H, et al. Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993;43(12):1359–62.
  72. Alleva R, Tomasetti M, et al. The roles of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E on the peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein subfractions.ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 1995 Sep 26;92(20):9388–91.
  73. Folkers K, Wolaniuk A. Research on coenzyme Q10 in clinical medicine and in immunomodulation. Drugs ExpClin Res. 1985;11(8):539–45.
  74. Walzem RL, Dillard CJ, et al. Whey components: millennia of evolution create functionalities for mammalian nutrition: what we know and what we may be overlooking. Crit Rev Food SciNutr. 2002;42(4):353–75.
  75. Guimont C, Marchall E, et al. Biologically active factors in bovine milk and dairy byproducts: influence on cell culture. Crit Rev Food SciNutr. 1997;37(4):393–410.
  76. Sundberg J, Oskarsson A. Transfer of 137cesium via rat milk: reduction with ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate. PharmacolToxicol. 1991;69(4):286–90.
  77. Ha E, ZemelMB . Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review). J NutrBiochem. 2003;14(5):251–8.
  78. Steijns JM, van Hooijdonk AC. Occurrence, structure, biochemical properties and technological characteristics of lactoferrin. Br J Nutr. 2000;84Suppl 1:11–7.
  79. Nishiya K, Horwitz DA. Contrasting effects of lactoferrin on human lymphocyte and monocyte natural killer activity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.J Immunol. 1982;129(6):2519–23.
  80. Marshall K. Therapeutic applications of whey protein.Altern Med Rev. 2004;9(2):136–56.
  81. Watanabe A, Okada K, et al. Nutritional therapy of chronic hepatitis by whey protein (non-heated). J Med. 2000;31(5–6):283–302.
  82. Prasad AS. Effects of zinc deficiency on Th1 and Th2 cytokine shifts.J Infect Dis. 2000 Sep;182:S62–S68.
  83. Cunningham-Rundles S, McNeeley DF, et al. Mechanisms of nutrient modulation of the immune response.J Allergy ClinImmunol. 2005 Jun;115(6):1119–28; quiz 1129.
  84. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, et al. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 1973;179(73):588–90.
  85. McKenzie RC, Rafferty TS, et al. Selenium: an essential element for immune function. Immunol Today. 1998;19(8):342–5.
  86. McKenzie RC. Selenium, ultraviolet radiation and the skin.ClinExpDermatol. 2000;25(8):631–6.
  87. Arthur JR. Selenium supplementation: does soil supplementation help and why? ProcNutr Soc. 2003;62(2):393–7.
  88. Tanaka S, Akaishi E, et al. Zinc ions suppress mitogen-activated interleukin-2 production in Jurkat cells. BiochemBiophys Res Commun. 2005 Sep 16;335(1):162–7.
  89. Kuppusamy UR, Dharmani M, et al. Antioxidant enzyme activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to trace elements. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Jul;106(1):29–40.
  90. Bovenberg SA, van Uum SH, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration in humans: evidence based? Neth J Med. 2005 Sep;63(8):300–4.
  91. Saad F, Hoesl CE, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment in the aging male—what should the urologist know? Eur Urol. 2005 Aug 29; [Epub ahead of print].
  92. Perrini S, Laviola L, Natalicchio A, Giorgino F. Associated hormonal declines in aging: DHEAS. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28(3 Suppl):85–93.
  93. Hammer F, Drescher DG, et al. Sex steroid metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells changes with aging. J ClinEndocrinolMetab.2005 Aug 9 [Epub ahead of print].
  94. Chen CC, Parker CR Jr. Adrenal androgens and the immune system. SeminReprod Med. 2004 Nov;22(4):369–77.
  95. Valenti G. Neuroendocrine hypothesis of aging: the role of corticoadrenal steroids. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004;27(6 Suppl):62–3.
  96. Zenk JL, Kuskowski MA. Presented at meeting of FASEB, April 17, 2004.
  97. Johnson J, Griswold J, et al. Essential fatty acids influence survival in sepsis. J Trauma. 1993;35:128–31.
  98. Pedersen BK, Toft AD. Effects of exercise on lymphocytes and cytokines.Br J Sports Med. 2000 Aug;34(4):246–51.
  99. Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease.Ann NutrMetab. 1997;41:203–34.
  100. Grimble RF, Howell WM, et al. The ability of fish oil to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy men is associated with polymorphisms in genes that influence tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Am J ClinNutr. 2002 Aug;76(2):454–9.
  101. Marteau P, de Vrese M, et al. Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics. Am J ClinNutr.2001;(73):430S–436S.
  102. Conway PL ,Gorbach SL, et al. Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells. J Dairy Sci. 1987;70(1):12.
  103. Robins-Brown R, Levine M. The fate of ingested lactobacilli in the proximal small intestine.Am J ClinNutr.1981;34:514–19.
  104. Fuller R. Probiotics in human medicine. Gut.1991;(32):439–42.
  105. Isolauri E, Sütas Y, et al. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J ClinNutr.2001;(73):444S–450S.
  106. Ashraf-Khorassani M, Taylor LT. Sequential fractionation of grape seeds into oils, polyphenols, and procyanidins via a single system employing C02-based fluids. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(9):2440–4.
  107. Bagchi D, Garg A, et al. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res CommunMolPatholPharmacol. 1997;95(2):179–89.
  108. Bagchi D, Garg A, et al. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. Gen Pharmacol. 1998;30(5):771–6.
  109. Peng Q, Wei Z, et al. Pycnogenol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57(5):834–41.
  110. Cheshier JE, Ardestani-Kaboudanian S, et al. Immunomodulation by pycnogenol in retrovirus-infected or ethanol-fed mice.Life Sci. 1996;58(5):87–96.
  111. Chen A, Zhang L, et al. The antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits activated hepatic stellate cell growth and suppresses acetaldehyde-induced gene expression. Biochem J. 2002;368(Pt 3):695–704.
  112. Hasegawa N, Niimi N, et al. Vitamin C is one of the lipolytic substances in green tea. Phytother Res. 2002;16Suppl 1:91–2.
  113. Hasegawa R, Takekida K, et al. [Inhibitory effect of green tea infusion of hepatotoxicity]. KokuritsuIyakuhinShokuhinEiseiKenkyushoHokoku. 1998;(116):82–91.
  114. Lin AM, Chyi BY, et al. The antioxidative property of green tea against iron-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.Chin J Physiol. 1998;41(4):189–94.
  115. Zhong Z, Froh M, et al. Polyphenols from Camellia sinenesisattenuate experimental cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Am J PhysiolGastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285(5):1004–13.
  116. Jimenez-Lopez JM, Cederbaum AI. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects HepG2 cells against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity. Free RadicBiol Med. 2004;36(3):359–70.
  117. Dias da Silva W, Tambourgi DV., IgY: a promising antibody for use in immunodiagnostic and in immunotherapy. Vet ImmunolImmunopathol. 2010 Jun 15;135(3-4):173-80
  118. Dean KL, Hyperimmune eggs capture natural immune support. AlternComplemenTher. June 2000;6(3):118-24.
  119. Cama VA, Sterling CR., Hyperimmune hens as a novel source of anti-Cryptosporidium antibodies suitable for passive immune transfer.J Protozool. 1991 Nov-Dec;38(6):42S-43S.
  120. Fujibayashi T, Nakamura M, TominagaA et al. Effects of IgY against Candida albicans and Candida spp. Adherence and biofilm formation. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009 Sep;62(5):337-42.
  121. Sarker SA, Casswall TH, Juneja LR, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of hyperimmunized chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin in children with rotavirus diarrhea. J PediatrGastroenterolNutr. 2001 Jan;32(1):19-25.
  122. Ji LL, Wang Z, Dong F, Zhang WB, Wang ZT.Andrograpanin, a compound isolated from anti-inflammatory traditional Chinese medicine Andrographispaniculata, enhances chemokine SDF-1alpha-induced leukocytes chemotaxis. J Cell Biochem. 2005 Aug 1;95(5):970-8.
  123. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.Health and Research Topics. Available at: www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/immune/the_immune_system.pdf. Last updated July 17, 2012. Accessed September 5, 2012.
  124. Nairm R. Immunology. In: Brooks G, Butel J et al, eds. Jawetz, Melnick, &Adelberg's Medical Microbiology. Stamford , Conn : Appleton & Lange; 2000:21(6).