Life Extension Skin Care Sale

Amnesia References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Taylor PJ, Kopelman MD. Amnesia for criminal offenses. PsycholMed.1984Aug;14(3):581–8.
  2. De Hoz L, Martin SJ, et al. Neural basis of memory loss. Plos Biol. 2004;2(8):e225.
  3. Brna TG Jr, Wilson CC. Psychogenic amnesia. Am Family Phys.1990Jan;4(1):229–34.
  4. Kasper DL, Braunwald DE, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2005.
  5. Koistinaho M, Koistinaho J. Interactions between Alzheimer’s disease and cerebral ischemia: Focus on inflammation. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005 Apr;48(2):240–50.
  6. Parnetti L, Amenta F, et al. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: An analysis of published clinical data. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001 Nov;122(16):2041–55.
  7. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, et al. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withaniasomniferaglycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine. 2000 Dec;7(6):463–9.
  8. Mishra LC, Singh BB, et al. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withaniasomnifera (ashwagandha): A review. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):334–46.
  9. Owais M, Sharad KS, et al. Antibacterial efficacy of Withaniasomnifera (ashwagandha) an indigenous medicinal plant against experimental murine salmonellosis. Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):229–35.
  10. Mohan R, Hammers HJ, et al. Withaferin A is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(2):115–22.
  11. Prakash J, Gupta SK, et al. Withaniasomnifera root extract prevents DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice. Nutr Cancer. 2002;42(1):91–7.
  12. Padmavathi B, Rath PC, et al. Roots of Withaniasomnifera inhibit forestomach and skin carcinogenesis in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 Mar;2(1):99–105.
  13. Andallu B, Radhika B. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withaniasomnifera, Dunal) root. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Jun;38(6):607–9.
  14. Dhuley JN. Nootropic-like effect of ashwagandha (Withaniasomnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res. 2001 Sep;15(6):524–8.
  15. Chaudhary G, Sharma U, et al. Evaluation of Withaniasomnifera in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats. ClinExpPharmacol Physiol. 2003 May;30(5–6):399–404.
  16. Choudhary MI, Yousuf S, et al. Cholinesterase inhibiting withanolides from Withaniasomnifera. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Nov;52(11):1358–61.
  17. Kuboyama T, Tohda C, et al. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;144(7):961–71.
  18. Amenta F, Parnetti L, et al. Treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s disease with cholinergic precursors: Ineffective treatments or inappropriate approaches? Mech Ageing Dev. 2001 Nov;122(16):2025–40.
  19. Schreiber S, Kampf-Sherf O, et al. An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2000;37(4):302–7.
  20. DelwaidePJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, et al. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. ActaNeurol Scand. 1986 Feb;73(2):136–40.
  21. Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDAT). ProgClinBiol Res. 1989;317:1235–46.
  22. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 1991 May;41(5):644–9.
  23. Barros D, Amaral OB, Izquierdo I, et al. Behavioral and genoprotective effects of Vaccinium berries intake in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jun;84(2):229-34.
  24. Ramirez MR, Izquierdo I, do Carmo Bassols RM, et al. Effect of lyophilised Vaccinium berries on memory, anxiety and locomotion in adult rats. Pharmacol Res. 2005 Dec;52(6):457-62.
  25. Andres-Lacueva C, Shukitt-Hale B, Galli RL, et al. Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance memory. Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(2):111-20.
  26. Joseph JA. The putative role of free radicals in the loss of neuronal functioning in senescence. Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 1992 Jul;27(3):216-27.
  27. Joseph JA, Denisova N, Fisher D, et al. Age-related neurodegeneration and oxidative stress: putative nutritional intervention. Neurol Clin. 1998 Aug;16(3):747-55.
  28. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 15;19(18):8114-21.
  29. Zhu Y, Bickford PC, Sanberg P, Giunta B, Tan J. Blueberry opposes beta-amyloid peptide-induced microglial activation via inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activation protein kinase. Rejuvenation Res. 2008 Oct;11(5):891-901.
  30. Kiefer D. Preserving and restoring brain function. Life Extension. October, 2005:36-45.
  31. Martin R. Novel strategy to restore brain cell function. Life Extension. May, 2006:24-31.
  32. Li MH, Jang JH, et al. Protective effects of oligomers of grape seed polyphenols against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative cell death. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:317–29.
  33. Kim H, Deshane J, Barnes S, Meleth S. Proteomics analysis of the actions of grape seed extract in rat brain: technological and biological implications for the study of the actions of psychoactive compounds. Life Sci. 2006 Mar 27;78(18):2060-5.
  34. Meieran SE, Reus VI, et al. Chronic pregnenolone effects in normal humans: attenuation of benzodiazepine-induced sedation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 May;29(4):486–500.
  35. Karishma KK, Herbert J. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the rat, promotes survival of newly formed neurons and prevents corticosterone-induced suppression. Eur J Neurosci. 2002 Aug;16(3):445–53.
  36. Goncharova ND, Lapin BA. Effects of aging on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system function in non-human primates. Mech Ageing Dev. 2002 Apr 30;123(8):1191–201.
  37. Zietz B, Hrach S, et al. Differential age-related changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones in healthy women and men: Role of interleukin 6. ExpClinEndocrinol Diabetes. 2001;109(2):93–101.
  38. Tan RS, PuSJ. The andropause and memory loss: Is there a link between androgen decline and dementia in the aging male? Asian J Androl. 2001;3(3):169–74.
  39. Racchi M, Govoni S, et al. DHEA and the relationship with aging and memory: A possible link with protein kinase C functional machinery. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2001 Nov;37(1–3):287–93.
  40. Mathis C, Meziane H, et al. Models for the study of memory and neurosteroids. J Soc Biol. 1999;193(3):299–306.
  41. Yehuda S, Rabinovtz S, Carasso RL, Mostofsky DI. Essential fatty acids preparation (SR-3)
    improves Alzheimer’s patients quality of life. Int J Neurosci.
    1996 Nov;87(3-4):141-9.
  42. Schaefer EJ, Bongard V, Beiser AS, et al. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2006 Nov;63(11):1545-50.
  43. Freund-Levi Y, Eriksdotter-Jonhagen M, Cederholm T, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study: a randomized double-blind trial. Arch Neurol. 2006 Oct;63(10):1402-8.
  44. Facecchia K, Fochesato LA, Ray SD, Stohs SJ, Pandey S. Oxidative toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases: role of mitochondrial dysfunction and therapeutic strategies. J Toxicol. 2011;2011:683728. Epub 2011 Jul 14.
  45. Martin LJ. Mitochondrial and cell death mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010;3(4):839-915.
  46. Beal MF. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and coenzyme Q10 as a potential treatment. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug;36(4):381-6.
  47. Baker SK, Tarnopolsky MA. Targeting cellular energy production in neurological disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Oct;12(10):1655-79.
  48. Entrez Gene: CREBBP CREB binding protein [ Homo sapiens ] GeneID: 1387.
  49. Mitsumoto A, Nakagawa Y. DJ-1 is an indicator for endogenous reactive oxygen species elicited by endotoxin. Free Radic Res. 2001 Dec;35(6):885-93.
  50. Taira T, Saito Y, Niki T, Iguchi-Ariga SM, Takahashi K, Ariga H. DJ-1 has a role in antioxidative stress to prevent cell death. EMBO Rep. 2004 Feb;5(2):213-8.
  51. Paz MA, Martin P, Fluckiger R, Mah J, Gallop PM. The catalysis of redox cycling by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), PQQ derivatives, and isomers and the specificity of inhibitors. Anal Biochem. 1996 Jul 1;238(2):145-9.
  52. Chowanadisai W, Bauerly KA, Tchaparian E, Wong A, Cortopassi GA, Rucker RB. Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1a expression. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 1;285(1):142-52.
  53. Ohwada K, Takeda H, Yamazaki M, et al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents cognitive deficit caused by oxidative stress in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008 Jan;42:29-34.
  54. Nakano M, Ubukata K, Yamamoto T, Yamaguchi H. Effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on mental status of middle-aged and elderly persons. FOOD Style 21. 2009;13(7):50-3.
  55. Dhitavat S, Ortiz D, Shea TB, Rivera ER. Acetyl-L-carnitine protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity: roles of oxidative buffering and ATP levels. Neurochem Res. 2002 Jun;27(6):501-5.
  56. Hagen TM, Yowe DL, Bartholomew JC, et al. Mitochondrial decay in hepatocytes from old rats: membrane potential declines, heterogeneity and oxidants increase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997 Apr 1;94(7):3064-9.
  57. Bianchetti A, Rozzini R, Trabucchi M. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer’s disease patients unresponsive to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Curr Med Res Opin. 2003;19(4):350-3.
  58. Brooks JO, III, Yesavage JA, Carta A, Bravi D. Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach. Int Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):193-203.
  59. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Gingko biloba for cerebral insufficiency. Br J ClinPharmacol. 1992 Oct 16;14(5):316–20.
  60. Rogers SL, FarlowMR, et al. A 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of donepezil in patients with AD. Neurology.1998Jan;50(1):136–45.
  61. Gulyas B, Halldin C, et al. Brain uptake and plasma metabolism of [11C] vinpocetine: A preliminary PET study in a cynomolgus monkey. J Neuroimaging. 1999 Oct;9(4):217–22.
  62. Stole S. Indole derivatives as neuroprotectants. Life Sci.1999;1943–50.
  63. Chiu PJ, Tetzloff G, et al. Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Br cyclic GMP on the contraction and Ca fluxes in the rabbit aorta. Am J Hypertens.1988Jul;1(3 Pt.1):262–8.
  64. Miyamoto M, Murphy TH, et al. Antioxidants protect against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in a neuronal cell line. J PharmacolExpTher. 1989 Sep;250(3):1132–40.
  65. Subhan Z, Hindmarch I. Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers. Eur J ClinPharmacol.1985;28(5):567–71.
  66. SzatmariSZ, Whitehouse PJ. Vinpocetine for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD003119.
  67. Nagy Z, Vargha P, et al. Meta-analysis of Cavinton. Praxis.1998;7:63–8.
  68. Molnar P, Gaal L, et al. The impairment of long-term potentiation in rats with medial septal lesion and its restoration by cognition enhancers. Neurobiology. 1994;2(3):255–66.
  69. Cheng DH, Ren H, et al. Huperzine A, a novel promising acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Neuroreport.1996;8:97–101.
  70. Xu SS, GaoZX. Efficacy of tablet huperzine A on memory, cognition and behavior in Alzheimer’s disease. Chung Kuo Yao Li HsuehPao.1995;16(5):391–5.
  71. Zhang Z, Wang X, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of huperzine alpha in treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease—a placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Zhonghua Yi XueZaZhi. 2002 Jul 25;82(14);941–4.
  72. Liang YQ, Tang XC. Comparative effects of huperzine A, donepezil and rivastigmine on cortical acetylcholine level and acetylcholinesterase activity in rats. NeurosciLett. 2004 May 6;361(1–3):56–9.
  73. Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77.
  74. Bush AI. Kalzium ist nicht alles. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):143-4.
  75. Halliwell B, GutteridgeJMC. Oxygen radicals in the nervous system. Trends Neurosci. 1985;8:22–6.
  76. Hara H, Kato H, et al. Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol on ischemic neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus. Brain Res.1990;510:335–8.
  77. Grodstein F, Chen J, et al. High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women. Am J ClinNutr. 2003 Apr;77:975–84.
  78. Meador K, Loring D, et al. Preliminary findings of high dose thiamine in dementia of Alzheimer’s type. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol.1993a;6:222–9.
  79. Meador K, Nichols ME, et al. Evidence for a central cholingeric effect of high dose thiamine. Ann Neurol.1993b;34:724–6.
  80. Benton D, Fordy J, et al. The impact of long-term vitamin supplementation on cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacol.1995:117;298–305.
  81. SmidtLJ, Cremin FM, et al. Influence of thiamin supplementation on the health and general well-being of an elderly Irish population with marginal thiamin deficiency. J Gerontol.1991;46(1):M16–M22.
  82. Carmel R. Megoblasticanemias. CurrOpinHematol.1994;1(2):107–12.
  83. Hutto BR. Folate and cobalamin in psychiatric illness. Compr Psychiatry. 1997;38(6):305–14.
  84. Winblad B. Piracetam: A review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses. CNS Drug Rev. 2005 Summer;11(2):169–82.
  85. Buresova O, Bures J. Piracetam-induced facilitation of interhemispheric transfer of visual information in rats. Psychopharmacologia. 1976;46(1):93–102.
  86. Ackerman PT, Dykman RA, et al. A trial of piracetam in two subgroups of students with dyslexia enrolled in summer tutoring. J Learn Disabil. 1991 Nov;24(9):542-9.
  87. Pilch H, Muller WE. Chronic treatment with piracetam elevates muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in frontal cortex of aged mice. Pharmacopsychiatry.1998Nov;21(6):324–5.
  88. Flicker L, Grimely Evans G. Piracetam for dementia or cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(2):CD001011.
  89. Croisile B, Trillet M, et al. Long-term and high dose piracetam treatment of AD. Neurology.1993Feb;43(2):301–5.