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Myasthenia Gravis References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. Beers MH, ed. Neuromuscular junction disorders. In Merck Manual-Second Home Edition.
  2. Phillips LH. The epidemiology of myasthenia gravis. Neurologic Clinics of North Am. 1994;12(2):263–71.
  3. Onodera H. The role of the thymus in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2005 Oct;207(2):87–98. Review.
  4. Shiono H, Roxanis I, et al. Scenarios for autoimmunization of T and B cells in myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Sep;998:237–56.
  5. Roxanis I, Micklem K, et al. Thymicmyoid cells and germinal center formation in myasthenia gravis: Possible roles in pathogenesis. J Neuroimmunol. 2002 Apr;125(1–2):185–97.
  6. Poea-Guyon S, Christadoss P, et al. Effects of cytokines on acetylcholine receptor expression: Implications for myasthenia gravis. J Immunol. 2005 May 15;174(10):5941–9.
  7. Kasper DL, Braunwald E, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2005.
  8. Berrouschot J, Baumann I, et al. Therapy of myasthenic crisis. Crit Care Med. 1997 Jul;25(7):1228–35.
  9. Cohen MS, Younger D. Aspects of the natural history of myasthenia gravis: Crisis and death. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1981;377:670–7.
  10. Thomas CE, Mayer SA, et al. Myasthenic crisis: Clinical features, mortality, complications, and risk factors for prolonged intubation. Neurology. 1997 May;48(5):1253–60.
  11. Leker RR, Karni A, et al. Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis during the menstrual period. J Neurol Sci. 1998;156(1):107–11.
  12. Foulks CJ. Myasthenia gravis presenting as laryngeal stridor after exposure to chlorine gas. South Med J. 1981 Nov;74(11):1423–4.
  13. Waldbott GL. The preskeletal phase of chronic fluoride intoxication.Fluoride. 1998;31(1):13–20.
  14. Hoch W, McConville J, et al. Auto-antibodies to the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK in patients with myasthenia gravis without acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Nat Med. 2001 Mar;7(3):365–8.
  15. Drachman DB.Myasthenia gravis. N Eng J Med. 1994;330(25):1797–810.
  16. Roberts PF, Venuta F, et al. Thymectomy in the treatment of ocular myasthenia gravis. J Thoracic and Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;122:562–8.
  17. Gronseth GS, Barohn RJ. Practice parameter: Thymectomy for autoimmune myasthenia gravis (an evidence-based review). Neurology. 2000;55(7):15.
  18. Carandina-Maffeis R, Nucci A, et al. Plasmapheresis in the treatment of myasthenia gravis: Retrospective study of 26 patients. ArqNeuropsiquiatr. 2004 Jun;62(2B):391–5.
  19. Chiu HC, Chen WH, et al. The six year experience of plasmapheresis in patients with myasthenia gravis.TherApher. 2000 Aug;4(4):291–5.
  20. vanDoorn PA, Brand A, et al. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Neurology. 1990 Feb;40(2):209–12.
  21. Ronager J, Ravnborg M, et al. Immunoglobulin treatment versus plasma exchange in patients with chronic moderate to severe myasthenia gravis. Artif Organs. 2001 Dec;25(12):967–73.
  22. Wegner B, Ahmed I. Intravenous immunoglobulin monotherapy in long-term treatment of myasthenia gravis. ClinNeurolNeurosurg. 2002 Dec;105(1):3–8.
  23. Reddi K, Henderson B, et al. Interleukin 6 production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human fibroblasts is potently inhibited by naphthoquinone (vitamin K) compounds. Cytokine. 1995 Apr;7(3):287–90.
  24. Mocchegiani E, Giacconi R, et al. Different age-related effects of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis: Role of thymoma, zinc, thymulin, IL-2 and IL-6. Mech Ageing Dev. 2000 Aug 15;117(1–3):79–91.
  25. Duan RS, Link H, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone therapy ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in Lewis rats. J ClinImmunol. 2003 Mar;23(2):100–6.
  26. Wang R, Yan H, et al. Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine. ActaPharmacol Sin. 2006 Jan;27(1):1–26.
  27. Lin JH, Hu GY, et al. Comparison between huperzine A, tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. Zhongguo Yao Li XueBao. 1997 Jan;18(1):6–10.
  28. Cheng YS, Lu CZ, et al. 128 cases of myasthenia gravis treated with huperzine A. New Drugs Clin Remedies. 1986;5:197–9.
  29. Stout JR, Eckerson JM, et al. Effects of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation on myasthenia gravis: A case study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jun;33(6):869–72.
  30. Wurtman RJ, Growdon JH. Dietary enhancement of CNS neurotransmitters.HospPract. 1978 Mar;13(3):71–7.        
  31. Gelenberg AJ, Doller-Wojcik JC, Growdon JH. Choline and lecithin in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: preliminary results from a pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 1979 Jun;136(6):772-6.