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Neuropathy (Diabetic) References

Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition

The references on this page correspond with the print version of Disease Prevention and Treatment, 5th edition. Since we continuously update the protocols online in response to new scientific developments, readers are encouraged to review the latest versions of the protocols.

  1. El-Atat FA, McFarlane SI, et al. Sudden cardiac death in patients with diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2004 Jun;4(3):187-93. Review.
  2. Osawa T, Kato Y. Protective role of antioxidative food factors in oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:440–51.
  3. Sadun AA. Metabolic optic neuropathies. Semin Ophthalmol. 2002 Mar;17(1):29–32.
  4. Medina-Santillan R, Morales-Franco G, et al. Treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain with gabapentin alone or combined with vitamin B complex: Preliminary results. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2004;47:109–12.
  5. Flint H, Cotter MA, et al. Pentoxifylline effects on nerve conduction velocity and blood flow in diabetic rats. Int J Exp Diabetes Res. 2000;1(1):49–58.
  6. Voria I, Hauser J, et al. Improved sciatic nerve regeneration by local thyroid hormone treatment in adult rat is accompanied by increased expression of SCG10. Exp Neurol. 2006 Jan;197(1):258–67.
  7. Schenker M, Riederer BM, et al. Thyroid hormone reduces the loss of axotomized sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection in adult rat. Exp Neurol. 2003 Nov;184(1):225–36.
  8. Wang YP, Ji L, et al. [Effects of acupuncture on diabetic peripheral neuropathies]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2005a Aug;25(8):542–4.
  9. Ghirardi O, Lo Giudice P, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine prevents and reverts experimental chronic neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin, without altering its antitumor properties. Anticancer Res. 2005 Jul-Aug;25(4):2681–7.
  10. Maestri A, De Pasquale Ceratti A, et al. A pilot study on the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in paclitaxel- and cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. Tumori. 2005 Mar-Apr;91(2):135–8.
  11. Sima AA, Calvani M, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: An analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89–94.
  12. Soneru IL, Khan T, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine effects on nerve conduction and glycemic regulation in experimental diabetes. Endocr Res. 1997 Feb-May;23(1-2):27-36.
  13. Nakamura J, Koh N, Sakakibara F, et al. Polyol pathway hyperactivity is closely related to carnitine deficiency in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Dec;287(3):897-902.
  14. Turpeinen AK, Kuikka JT, et al. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on myocardial 123I-MIBG uptake in patients with diabetes. Clin Auton Res. 2000 Feb;10(1):13-6.
  15. De Grandis D, Minardi C. Acetyl-L-carnitine (levacecarnine) in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. A long-term, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Drugs R D. 2002;3(4):223-31.
  16. Dincer Y, Akcay T, et al. Effect of oxidative stress on glutathione pathway in red blood cells from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2002 Oct;51(10):1360–2.
  17. Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995 Aug;45(8):872–4.
  18. Jacob S, Ruus P, et al. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Aug;27(3-4):309–14.
  19. Kawabata T, Packer L. Alpha-lipoate can protect against glycation of serum albumin, but not low density lipoprotein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Aug 30;203(1):99–104.
  20. Melhem MF, Craven PA, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates hyperglycemia and prevents glomerular mesangial matrix expansion in diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jan;13(1):108–16.
  21. Nagamatsu M, Nickander KK, et al. Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1995 Aug;18(8):1160–7.
  22. Song KH, Lee WJ, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents diabetes mellitus in diabetes-prone obese rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jan 7;326(1):197–202.
  23. Suzuki YJ, Tsuchiya M, et al. Lipoate prevents glucose-induced protein modifications. Free Radic Res Commun. 1992;17(3):211–7.
  24. Halat KM, Dennehy CE. Botanicals and dietary supplements in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2003 Jan-Feb;16(1):47–57.
  25. Ziegler D, Gries FA. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes. 1997a Sep;46 Suppl 2:S62–S66.
  26. Ziegler D, Schatz H, et al. Effects of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in NIDDM patients: A 4-month randomized controlled multicenter trial (DEKAN Study). Deutsche Kardiale Autonome Neuropathie. Diabetes Care. 1997b Mar;20(3):369–73.
  27. Tankova T, Cheninkova S, et al. Treatment for diabetic mononeuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid. Int J Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;59(6):645–50.
  28. Negrisanu G, Rosu M, et al. Effects of 3-month treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Rom J Intern Med. 1999 Jul-Sep;37(3):297–306.
  29. Love A, Cotter MA, et al. Effects of the sulphydryl donor N-acetyl-L-cysteine on nerve conduction, perfusion, maturation and regeneration following freeze damage in diabetic rats. Eur J Clin Invest. 1996 Aug;26(8):698–706.
  30. Park SA, Choi KS, et al. Cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death in mouse hybrid neurons is blocked by antioxidants through suppression of cisplatin-mediated accumulation of p53 but not of Fas/Fas ligand. J Neurochem. 2000 Sep;75(3):946–53.
  31. Khajavi M, Inoue K, et al. Curcumin treatment abrogates endoplasmic reticulum retention and aggregation-induced apoptosis associated with neuropathy-causing myelin protein zero-truncating mutants. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Nov;77(5):841–50.
  32. Cunnane SC, Horrobin DF, et al. Essential fatty acids in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides of the zinc-deficient rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1984a Dec;177(3):441–6.
  33. Horrobin DF. Nutritional and medical importance of gamma-linolenic acid. Prog Lipid Res. 1992a;31(2):163–94.
  34. Huang YS, Lin X, et al. Effect of dietary linoleic acid content on the distribution of triacylglycerol molecular species in rat adipose tissue. Lipids. 1992a Sep;27(9):711–5.
  35. Keen H, Payan J, et al. Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. The gamma-Linolenic Acid Multicenter Trial Group. Diabetes Care. 1993 Jan;16(1):8–15.
  36. Cameron NE, Cotter MA, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on neurovascular function in diabetic rats: Interaction with essential fatty acids. Diabetologia. 1998 Apr;41(4):390–9.
  37. Jamal GA, Carmichael H. The effect of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabet Med. 1990 May;7(4):319–23.
  38. Gerbi A, Maixent JM, et al. Fish oil supplementation prevents diabetes-induced nerve conduction velocity and neuroanatomical changes in rats. J Nutr. 1999 Jan;129(1):207–13.
  39. Franca DS, Souza AL, et al. B vitamins induce an antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid and formaldehyde models of nociception in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 15;421(3):157–64.
  40. Jurna I. Analgesic and analgesia-potentiating action of B vitamins. Schmerz. 1998 Apr 20;12(2):136–41.
  41. Wang ZB, Gan Q, et al. Thiamine, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin and their combination inhibit thermal, but not mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with primary sensory neuron injury. Pain. 2005b Mar;114(1-2):266–77.
  42. Anisimova EI, Danilov AB. Bendotiamine efficacy in alcoholic polyneuropathy therapy. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2001;101(12):32–6.
  43. Haupt E, Ledermann H, et al. Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy: A three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Feb;43(2):71–7.
  44. Winkler G, Pal B, et al. Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999 Mar;49(3):220–4.
  45. Solomon LR, Cohen K. Erythrocyte 02 transport and metabolism and effects of vitamin B6 therapy in type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1989 Jul;38(7):881–6.
  46. Jones CL, Gonzalez V. Pyridoxine deficiency: A new factor in diabetic neuropathy. J Am Podiatry Assoc. 1978 Sep;68(9):646–53.
  47. Davidson S. The use of vitamin B12 in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. J Flor Med Assoc. 1954;15:717–20.
  48. Sancetta SM, Ayres PR, et al. The use of vitamin B12 in the management of the neurological manifestations of diabetes mellitus, with notes on the administration of massive doses. Ann Int Med. 1951;35:1028–48.
  49. Bhatt HR, Linnell JC, et al. Can faulty vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) metabolism produce diabetic neuropathy? Lancet. 1983 Sep 3;2(8349):572.
  50. Sun Y, Lai MS, et al. Effectiveness of vitamin B12 on diabetic neuropathy: Systematic review of clinical controlled trials. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2005 Jun;14(2):48–54.
  51. Sinclair AJ, Taylor PB, et al. Low plasma ascorbate levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming adequate dietary vitamin C. Diabet Med. 1994 Nov;11(9):893–8.
  52. Ziegler D, Sohr G, et al. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in relation to the severity of diabetic polyneuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2004 Sep;27(9):2178–83.
  53. Tutuncu NB, Bayraktar M, et al. Reversal of defective nerve conduction with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes: A preliminary study. Diabetes Care. 1998 Nov;21(11):1915–8.
  54. Martinello F, Fardin P, et al. Supplemental therapy in isolated vitamin E deficiency improves the peripheral neuropathy and prevents the progression of ataxia. J Neurol Sci. 1998 Apr 1;156(2):177–9.