1 Ros E, Núñez I, Pérez-Heras A, et al. A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized crossover trial. Circulation. 2004 Apr 6;109(13):1609-14.
2 Feldman EB. The scientific evidence for a beneficial health relationship between walnuts and coronary heart disease. J Nutr. 2002 May;132(5):1062S-1101S.
3 Blomhoff R, Carlsen MH, Andersen LF, Jacobs DR Jr. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96 Suppl 2:S52-60.
4 Mozaffarian D. Does alpha-linolenic acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease? A review of the evidence. Altern Ther Health Med. 2005 May-Jun;11(3):24-30; quiz 31, 79.
5 Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR, West SG, Gillies PJ, Kris-Etherton PM. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid reduces inflammatory and lipid cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):2991-7.
6 Tapsell LC, Gillen LJ, Patch CS, Batterham M, Owen A, Baré M, Kennedy M. Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-fat diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 Dec;27(12):2777-83.
7 West SG. Alpha-Linolenic Acid from Walnuts P85 and Flax Increases Flow-Mediated Dilation of the Brachial Artery in a Dose-Dependent Fashion. Pennsylvania State University. American Heart Association’s 5th Annual Conference on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology in San Francisco. May 2004.
8 Iwamoto M, Imaizumi K, Sato M, Hirooka Y, Sakai K, Takeshita A, Kono M. Serum lipid profiles in Japanese women and men during consumption of walnuts. Eur JClin Nutr. 2002 Jul;56(7):629-37.
9 Morgan JM, Horton K, Reese D, et al. Effects of walnut consumption as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on serum cardiovascular risk factors. Int’l J for Vit & Nutr Research. 2002 72:341-347.
10 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 1998 Nov 14;317(7169):1341-5.
11 Chisholm A, Mann J, Skeaff M, et al. A diet rich in walnuts favourably influences plasma fatty acid profile in moderately hyperlipidaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jan;52(1):12-6.
12 de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1994 Jun 11;343(8911):1454-9.
13 Maguire LS, O'Sullivan SM, Galvin K, O'Connor TP, O'Brien NM. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 May;55(3):171-8.
14 Sabaté J, Fraser GE, Burke K, Knutsen SF, Bennett H, Lindsted KD. Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men. N Engl J Med. 1993 Mar 4;328(9):603-7.
15 Zambón D, Sabaté J, Muñoz S, et al. Substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat improves the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic men and women. A randomized crossover trial. Ann Intern Med. 2000 Apr 4;132(7):538-46.
16 Iwamoto M, Imaizumi K, Sato M, et al. Serum lipid profiles in Japanese women and men during consumption of walnuts. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;56(7):629-37.
17 Simopoulos AP. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):560S-569S.
18 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ. Nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 1999 Nov;1(3):204-9.
19 Zibaeenezhad MJ, Rezaiezadeh M, Mowla A, Ayatollahi SM, Panjehshahin MR. Antihypertriglyceridemic effect of walnut oil. Angiology. 2003 Jul-Aug;54(4):411-4.
20 Almario RU, Vonghavaravat V, Wong R, Kasim-Karakas SE. Effects of walnut consumption on plasma fatty acids and lipoproteins in combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jul;74(1):72-9.
21 Anderson KJ, Teuber SS, Gobeille A, Cremin P, Waterhouse AL, Steinberg FM. Walnut polyphenolics inhibit in vitro human plasma and LDL oxidation. J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11):2837-42.
22 Singh I, Turner AH, Sinclair AJ, Li D, Hawley JA. Effects of gamma-tocopherol supplementation on thrombotic risk factors. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(3):422-8.
23 McCarty MF. Gamma-tocopherol may promote effective no synthase function by protecting tetrahydrobiopterin from peroxynitrite. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(6):1367-70.
24 Park SK, Page GP, Kim K, et al. alpha- and gamma-Tocopherol prevent age-related transcriptional alterations in the heart and brain of mice. J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1010-8.
25 Cortés B, Núñez I, Cofán M, et al. Acute effects of high-fat meals enriched with walnuts or olive oil on postprandial endothelial function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Oct 17;48(8):1666-71.
26 Ros E, Mataix J. Fatty acid composition of nuts--implications for cardiovascular health. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96 Suppl 2:S29-35.
27 Ma Y, Njike VY, Millet J, et al. Effects of walnut consumption on endothelial function in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Diabetes Care. 2010 Feb;33(2):227-32.
28 Brocq ML, Leslie SJ, Milliken P, Megson IL. Endothelial dysfunction: from molecular mechanisms to measurement, clinical implications, and therapeutic opportunities. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008 Sep;10(9):1631-74.
29 Wolf A, Zalpour C, Theilmeier G, et al. Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Mar 1;29(3):479-85.
30 Miyazaki H, Matsuoka H, Cooke JP, et al. Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a novel marker of atherosclerosis. Circulation. 1999 Mar 9;99(9):1141-6.
31 Furuki K, Adachi H, Matsuoka H et al. Plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are related to intima-media thickness of the carotid artery: an epidemiological study. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Mar;191(1):206-10.
32 Dowd MB, Hemmrich K, Morrison WA. L-arginine reduces neointimal hyperplasia in cold-stored arterial allografts in a rabbit low-flow-through model. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2007 Aug;23(6):301-9.
33 Schini-Kerth VB, Auger C, Kim JH, Etienne-Selloum N, Chataigneau T. Nutritional improvement of the endothelial control of vascular tone by polyphenols: role of NO and EDHF. Pflugers Arch. 2010 Mar 12.
34 Ristić-Medić D, Ristić G, Tepsić V. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases]. Med Pregl. 2003 56 Suppl 1:19-25.
35 Galajda Z, Dér H, Balogh E, et al. [Cardiovascular actions of a standardized polyphenol concentrate on patients undergoing coronary bypass grafting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study]. Magy Seb. 2008 61 Suppl:41-4.
36 Kristensen SD, Iversen AM, Schmidt EB. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and coronary thrombosis. Lipids . 2001 36:S79-S82.
37 Wensing AG, Mensink RP, Hornstra G. Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant andmarine origin on platelet aggregation in healthy elderly subjects. Br J Nutr. 1999 Sep;82(3):183-91.
38 De Caterina R, Cybulsky MI, Clinton SK, Gimbrone MA Jr, Libby P. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate reduces cytokine-induced expression of proatherogenic and proinflammatory proteins in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994 Nov;14(11):1829-36.
39 Available at: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v52/n1/pdf/1600507a.pdf. Accessed April 1, 2010.
40 Freese R, Mutanen M, Valsta LM, et al. Comparison of the effects of two diets rich in monounsaturatedfatty acids differing in their linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid ratio on platelet aggregation. Thrombosis &Haemostasis 1994 Jan;71(1):73-7.
41 Leaf A, Weber PC. Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids. N Eng J Med. 1988 Mar 3;318(9):549-57.
42 Eritsland J, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I, et al. Long-term effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on haemostatic variables and bleeding episodes in patients with coronary artery disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1995 Feb;6(1):17-22.
43 Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/WarningLetters/ucm202825.htm. Accessed March 26, 2010.
44 Available at: http://www.fritolay.com/your-health/whats-in-our-snacks.html. March 25, 2010.
45 Available at: http://fritolay.com/press-release-20060503.html. March 25, 2010.
46 Ródenas S, Rodríguez-Gil S, Merinero MC, Sánchez-Muniz FJ. Dietary exchange of an olive oil and sunflower oil blend for extra virgin olive oil decreases the estimate cardiovascular risk and LDL and apolipoprotein AII concentrations in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Oct;24(5):361-9.
47 Quiles JL, Huertas JR, Ochoa JJ, Battino M, Mataix J, Mañas M. Dietary fat (virgin olive oil or sunflower oil) and physical training interactions on blood lipids in the rat. Nutrition. 2003 Apr;19(4):363-8.
48 Available at: http://www.kedu.us/Ask%20the%20Doctor/omega%203%20cardiovascular.pdf. Accessed March 29, 2010.
49 Chung HY, Cesari M, Anton S, et al. Molecular inflammation: underpinnings of aging and age-related diseases. Ageing Res Rev. 2009 Jan;8(1):18-30.
50 Simopoulos AP. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 Jun;233(6):674-88.
51 Okuyama H, Kobayashi T, Watanabe S. Dietary fatty acids--the N-6/N-3 balance and chronic elderly diseases. Excess linoleic acid and relative N-3 deficiency syndrome seen in Japan. Prog Lipid Res. 1996 Dec;35(4):409-57.
52 Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Porter K, et al. Depressive symptoms, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids, and inflammation in older adults. Psychosom Med. 2007 Apr;69(3):217-24.
53 Guebre-Egziabher F, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Bonnet F, et al. Nutritional intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio increases adiponectin concentration and fatty acid oxidation in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov;62(11):1287-93.
54 Jackson LS, Al-Taher F. Effects of consumer food preparation on acrylamide formation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2005 561:447-65.
55 Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodContaminantsAdulteration/ChemicalContaminants/Acrylamide/ucm053549.htm. Accessed March 30, 2010.