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Life Extension Magazine

May 9, 2000

National Academy of Sciences References

11. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1994 Jan-Mar;73(1):11-3[The use of toothpaste with vitamin C in treating periodontitis].[Article in Russian]Trykowsky J, Patalias B, Senator M

Toothpaste with vitamin A and a control paste without it were used in thetreatment of periodontitis. The paste with vitamin A noticeably reduced gingivalbleeding activity and proved to be effective in the treatment of young patientsand of those with mild periodontitis.

12. Quintessence Int 1990 Mar;21(3):191-5Effects of smoking and/or vitamin C on crevicular fluid flow in clinicallyhealthy gingiva.Holmes LG

The purpose of this study was to (1) compare crevicular fluid flow in smokersand nonsmokers with clinically healthy gingiva; (2) compare crevicular fluidflow of smokers in the areas physically exposed to smoke (maxillary lingual) tothat in areas not physically exposed to smoke (maxillary buccal); and (3)compare crevicular fluid flow in smokers and nonsmokers before and after 1 monthof (500 mg) twice daily vitamin C supplementation. All sampled areas wererequired to exhibit clinical health for all measurements (gingival, plaque, andbleeding indices at 0). Ten smoking (at least one pack a day) and ten nonsmokingmale dental students were subjects of the study. Areas sampled were midbuccaland midlingual of teeth 3, 5, 12, and 14. Smokers were found to havesignificantly less crevicular fluid flow than did nonsmokers. Lingual areas ofsmokers showed no significant difference from buccal areas in crevicular fluidflow. One month of (500 mg) twice daily vitamin C supplementation resulted in asignificant decrease in crevicular fluid flow in smokers and nonsmokers. Theeffect of tobacco smoke on clinically healthy gingiva may be a physiologicresult of vasoconstriction rather than a physical irritation.

13. Biomaterials 1989 Nov;10(9):598-603Reconstruction of parodontal tissue with chitosan.Muzzarelli R, Biagini G, Pugnaloni A, Filippini O, Baldassarre V, Castaldini C,Rizzoli CFaculty of Medicine, University of Ancona, Italy.

Chitosan ascorbate, obtained by mixing chitosan with ascorbic acid and sodiumascorbate, was produced in a gel form suitable for the treatment ofperiodontitis according to current dental surgery. While chitosan ascorbateunderwent degradation in vitro, especially in the presence of atmospheric oxygenand at pH 6.0, the protection from oxygen offered by the surgical cements andthe physiological pH value permitted chitosan ascorbate to play an importantbiological role in vivo, where it kept a honeycomb structure, as indicated bySEM on biopsies taken on 10 patients. The proliferation and organization of thecells were thus favoured with a subsequent enhanced capability of reconstructinga histoarchitectural tissue. Chitosan was progressively reabsorbed by the host,with very satisfactory clinical recoveries of the 52 defects treated, for whichtooth mobility and pocket depths were significantly reduced.

14. J Can Dent Assoc 1989 Sep;55(9):705-7Vitamin C and oral health.Rubinoff AB, Latner PA, Pasut LA

Maintaining natural dentition is a realistic goal given today's improved cariescontrol and attention to good oral hygiene. Expanding knowledge in the area ofperiodontal diseases provides further insight into health promotion practiceswhich can be effective in preventing tooth loss. Vitamin C's role in maintainingthe health of teeth and gingivae remains unchallenged. Now clinical evidenceindicates that vitamin C functions in improving host defence mechanisms and isthereby implicated in preserving periodontal health. Common sense tells us thatthe monitoring of the vitamin C status of individuals, especially those at highrisk (e.g., diabetics, smokers, elderly, etc.) for inadequate intakes, willyield positive results for periodontal health. Patient education programs thatstress the importance of good nutrition, while at the same time providingpractical information for the selection of a well balanced diet, are simplemeasures that will benefit many.

15. J Dent Res 1988 May;67(5):855-60A case-control study of plasma ascorbate and acute necrotizing ulcerativegingivitis.Melnick SL, Alvarez JO, Navia JM, Cogen RB, Roseman JM

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama atBirmingham 35294.

Data from animal studies and from studies of patients with acute necrotizingulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) have provided suggestive evidence for anassociation between ascorbate deficiency and disease risk. Further, there isbiological plausibility for such an association, due to the role of ascorbate incollagen synthesis and leukocyte function. A case-control study of plasmaascorbate and ANUG was performed on 60 patients with a history of ANUG infectionand 60 age-race-sex-matched controls. No cases had had active lesions for atleast two months prior to their vitamin assay to avoid any potential reductionof dietary intake of ascorbic acid due to the presence of painful mouth lesions.According to results obtained by use of a modification of the2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method for determination of total plasma ascorbate,the mean and standard error of the mean of plasma ascorbate for all ANUG caseswas 0.07 0.006 mmol/L; the mean for all controls was 0.10 0.006 mmol/L.Paired differences in plasma ascorbic acid concentrations between cases andcontrols were significantly different from zero (p less than 0.001). Theunadjusted relative risk (RR) of ANUG as obtained by conditional logisticregression for subjects whose plasma ascorbic acid concentration was at or belowthe median value for controls, relative to subjects with higher values, was 7.3(90% confidence interval, 3.0 - 17.4; one-sided p value less than 0.001).Patients with a history of ANUG ingested a daily average of 1.2 0.2 servingsof dietary ascorbic acid, as compared with a daily average of 1.9 0.2servings for healthy controls.

16. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1987;498:333-46Experimental vitamin C depletion and supplementation in young men. Nutrientinteractions and dental health effects.Jacob RA, Omaye ST, Skala JH, Leggott PJ, Rothman DL, Murray PA

Biochemical indices of AA clearly showed that the young men in this study werebrought into various states of AA depletion and repletion according to theirdietary AA intakes. While previous studies have postulated that supplementalintakes of AA may adversely affect body status of vitamins B6 and B12, we foundno changes in the B vitamin status of the young men receiving varying AAintakes. Moderate AA supplementation (605 mg/day) showed no antagonistic effecton markers of vitamins B6 and B12. Blood markers of fat-soluble vitamins A and Eand iron status were not affected by AA intakes. The propensity of the gingivato become inflamed or bleed on probing was reduced after normal (65 mg/day) AAintakes as compared to deficient (5 mg/day) intakes and upon supplementary (605mg/day) AA intakes as compared to normal intakes. The results suggest that AAstatus may influence early stages of gingival inflammation and crevicularbleeding, and warrant further study of the relationship between AA andperiodontal health.

17. J Periodontol 1986 Aug;57(8):480-5The effect of controlled ascorbic acid depletion and supplementation onperiodontal health.Leggott PJ, Robertson PB, Rothman DL, Murray PA, Jacob RA

To determine if systemic levels of vitamin C influence periodontal health,changes in plaque accumulation, gingival health and periodontal probing depthwere measured in healthy subjects housed for 3 months in a nutrition suite thatprovided controlled periods of ascorbic acid depletion and supplementation.Eleven healthy, nonsmoking men, aged 19 to 28 years, ate a rotating 7-day dietadequate in all nutrients except ascorbic acid. This basal diet, which containedless than 5 mg/day ascorbic acid, was supplemented with 60 mg/day ascorbic acidfor 2 weeks, 0 mg/day ascorbic acid for 4 weeks, 600 mg/day ascorbic acid for 3weeks and 0 mg/day ascorbic acid for 4 weeks. Plasma, urine and leukocyteascorbate levels, Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding Index and probingdepths were monitored throughout the study. A uniform oral hygiene program wasmaintained in which oral hygiene instructions were reinforced bi-weekly.Ascorbate concentrations in body fluids and leukocytes responded rapidly tochanges in ascorbic acid intake. No mucosal pathoses or changes in plaqueaccumulation or probing depths were noted during any of the periods of depletionor supplementation. However, measures of gingival inflammation were directlyrelated to the ascorbic acid status. The results suggest that ascorbic acid mayinfluence early stages of gingivitis, particularly crevicular bleeding.

18. Arch Dermatol 1984 Sep;120(9):1212-4Scurvy. A case caused by peculiar dietary habits.Ellis CN, Vanderveen EE, Rasmussen JE

A 9-year-old girl had the insidious development of lethargy, gingival erosions,and follicular hyperkeratosis with perifollicular hemorrhage. A dietary historydisclosed that she consumed only one kind of sandwich and beverage and took noother foods. A skin biopsy specimen was consistent with the diagnosis of scurvy,and marked improvement occurred with ascorbic acid therapy. Although it is anuncommon disorder in the United States, scurvy may occur in persons withprolonged and peculiar dietary habits.

19. Cytobios 1994;80(323):199-204Vitamin C mediated amelioration of pesticide genotoxicity in murinespermatocytes.Khan PK, Sinha SPDepartment of Zoology, Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, India.

The effect of vitamin C on the genotoxicity of three pesticides (Endosulfan,Phosphamidon, Mancozeb) was monitored by screening meiotic (metaphase I)chromosomes in the primary spermatocytes of Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus. Adose-dependent amelioration by vitamin C was observed in thePhosphamidon-treated group where quadruple the therapeutic dose produced maximum amelioration. In Endosulfan- and Mancozeb-treated groups, no furtheramelioration was achieved beyond the double dose of vitamin C, and the damagefrequency did not come down to the control level. The possible mechanism of thiseffect is discussed.

20. Int J Radiat Biol 1993 Jun;63(6):759-64Protective effects of vitamins C and E against gamma-ray-induced chromosomaldamage in mouse.Sarma L, Kesavan PCSchool of Life Sciences, Jawaharial Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The effects of vitamins C and E on bone marrow chromosomes of the mouse exposedto 1 Gy of whole-body gamma-irradiation were studied. These vitamins, dissolvedin water/peanut oil, were administered orally as acute doses, either 2 h before,immediately after, or 2 h after irradiation. Both vitamins significantly reducedthe frequencies of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells;radioprotection by vitamin E was, however, appreciably greater than thatafforded by vitamin C. Administration of the vitamins to mice immediately afterirradiation was as effective as that 2 h before irradiation. A sequentialtreatment consisting of both these vitamins did not result in additionalradioprotection over that afforded by vitamin E alone. The probable mechanismsof radioprotection are discussed.