Life Extension Magazine 2004
Life Extension Funds Research To Combat Aging & Death
|LE Magazine Special Edition, Winter 2004/2005|
|Life Extension Funds Research To Combat Aging & Death|
The healthy human life span will be extended radically in the 21st century. It’s only a matter of when this will happen, not if it will happen. The Life Extension Foundation (LEF) is doing everything in its power to enable this revolutionary breakthrough to occur sooner rather than later.
Picture this. You are old, have Parkinson’s disease, a malfunctioning kidney, and are becoming increasingly disabled. Your remaining years are passing by faster and faster. Your quality of life is diminishing rapidly. You live more in the past than in the future. You are becoming anxious and depressed. Life just isn’t as good as it used to be.
You enter a rejuvenation center. Young substantia nigra cells are injected into the basal ganglia area of your brain to cure your Parkinson’s disease. Young hippocampal cells are injected into your brain to improve your memory. Young cells are injected into the hypothalamus in your brain to rejuvenate your hormonal system. And young dividing cells are injected into your body to rejuvenate your skin, glands, and other tissues. Finally, you receive a kidney transplant, precisely matched to your tissue type and size to vastly improve your kidney function. All these tissues have come from a regional tissue bank, where they had been stored at super-cold temperatures, after undergoing a process called vitrification.
When you leave the rejuvenation center, you have a new lease on life. You are younger and healthier. You feel much better. There’s a spring to your step that you haven’t felt in decades. The future looks brighter. Your libido is heightened more than ever before. You even start thinking of having children again. But first you want your wife to go to the rejuvenation center so she can look and feel as well as you do. Life has never been better.
Genes That Cause Aging or Promote Longevity
Life Extension has poured millions of dollars into research aimed at finding authentic anti-aging therapies. We have funded life span studies at the University of Wisconsin, the University of California at Riverside, and the University of Arkansas. We’ve funded gene transfer studies at the Gerontology Research Center in Baltimore, neurotransmitter studies to find the key to brain aging at the University of California at Berkeley, and nuclear enzyme studies at Mt. Sinai Medical Center in New York.
Over the past few years, Life Extension-funded scientists have been using micro-arrays (gene chips) to measure the expression of thousands of genes at a time in normally aging animals and in models of extended life span. Thus far, this research has used two models of extended life span: caloric restriction, which has been shown to radically extend life span in mice, rats, dogs, and other species since the 1930s; and Ames dwarf mice, which have a gene mutation that interferes with their ability to produce pituitary hormones. Ames dwarf mice have been shown to live 50% longer than normal mice.
Possible Anti-Aging Therapies
BioMarker is currently looking at the effects of metformin on life span in mice and collaborating with Dr. Andrzej Bartke of Southern Illinois University, who has been studying long-lived Ames dwarf mice, to identify genetic pathways, such as the insulin and IGF-1 (Insulin Growth Factor) pathways, which may confer longevity by bolstering resistance to stress, enhancing immune function, and altering programmed aging.5 They have also discovered, for the first time, that caloric restriction can extend life span in old mice, perhaps by rejuvenating the mice, which is good news for those of us middle age or older.6
LEF-funded researchers are now preparing to do new gene chip studies to evaluate the anti-aging properties of resveratrol, a grape extract that has been shown to produce many health benefits in animals and humans.
Rejuvenation and the Cure of Killer Diseases
In addition to the transplantation of cells, tissues, organs, and other body parts from human donors, a wide array of laboratory grown natural and bioartificial tissues will be developed to expand the field of transplantation. Also available will be tissues from animals such as pigs and non-human primates, as the field of xenotransplantation matures. Laboratory grown cells and organs will include simple replacements for aging, injured, or diseased body parts in humans, and genetically and immunologically engineered tissues to improve upon natural body parts.
Such therapies will emerge as longevity genes (and the physiologic systems they control) are identified, and as stem cell research advances to the point where virtually any type of young specialized cells and organs can be manufactured in the laboratory. Billions of dollars are being spent to conduct research in these fields in universities, medical centers, and private laboratories around the world. This research is already starting to pay off. Before long, it will lead to an explosion in new therapies to extend the healthy human life span.
Life Extension Funds the Key to Rejuvenation Medicine
Life Extension has been spending millions of dollars to fund the only research in the world aimed at developing methods to successfully cryopreserve complex biological systems, including organs such as corneas, kidneys, and brains. This research is being conducted at a laboratory in Southern California (21st Century Medicine). The lab’s Chief Scientific Officer, Gregory M. Fahy, Ph.D., is the pioneer in the development of vitrification, a special method of cryopreservation that avoids the formation of ice crystals (the major cause of damage in frozen tissues).7 21st Century Medicine’s vitrification methods are the most advanced in the world, in large part because of the extraordinary expertise of Dr. Fahy, and in part because of another of its scientists, Brian Wowk, Ph.D, who has pioneered the discovery and development of ice-blockers that improve the vitrification process.
Recent advances in this laboratory include the cooling of rabbit kidneys to -45o C, with subsequent survival and good function after transplantation (after rewarming) of eight out of eight kidneys.8 This is by far the greatest advance in major organ cryopreservation, after decades of efforts in many laboratories around the world. Dr. Fahy’s research team is currently working to extend this success to kidneys cooled to as low as -150o C, which is cold enough to arrest biological changes for unlimited periods of time.
The lab has successfully vitrified corneas in both rabbits and humans and has successfully transplanted human corneas into rabbits. Negotiations are underway with doctors in China to conduct clinical transplant trials in humans with 21st Century Medicine’s vitrified corneas.
21st Century Medicine was recently awarded a $900,000 grant by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to pursue improvements in the hypothermic preservation of hearts. This research should eventually help to improve the transplantation of human hearts.
The lab is also in the early stages of a major project to vitrify rabbit brains. Studies have shown that entire brains can be vitrified with little apparent structural damage, and that brain slices can survive after vitrification and rewarming and can even produce electrical activity after exposure to vitrifiable solutions. The potential of this research project goes from providing neurobiologists with well-preserved brain tissue for research to the development of suspended animation in humans, which would enable people to escape death, even if they are dying years before rejuvenation therapies are available.
Life Extension is the foremost source of advanced dietary supplements to help our members maximize their current life span potential. These products are based upon research from laboratories around the world, including our own in-house research. Members can be assured that the Life Extension Foundation is doing everything it can to help them live longer now, while using product sales and membership dues to fund path-breaking research that will lead to radical breakthroughs in the control of aging and death.
1. Cao SX, Dhahbi JM, Mote PL, Spindler, SR. Genomic Profiling of Short- and Long-Term Calorie Restriction in the Liver of Aging Mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 2001;98:10630-10635.
3. Spindler SR, Dhahbi JM, Mote PL, Kim HJ, Tsuchiya T. (2003) Rapid Identification of Candidate CR Mimetics Using Microarrays. Presented at The International Association of Biomedical Gerontology, 10th Congress, Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence: Reasons Why Genuine Control of Aging may be Foreseeable, Queens’ College, Cambridge, England, 19-23 September 2003.
4. Dilman VM, Anisimov, VN. Effect of treatment with phenformin, diphenylhydantoin or L-dopa on life span and tumour incidence in C3H/Sn mice. Gerontology. 1980;26(5):241-6.
5. Tsuchiya T, Dhahbi JM, Cui X, et al. Additive Regulation of Hepatic Gene Expression by Dwarfism and Caloric Restriction. Physiol Genomics. 2004;17:307-15.
6. Dhahbi JM, Kim HJ, Mote PL, et al. Temporal linkage between the phenotypic and genomic responses to caloric restriction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(15): 5524-9.
7. Pegg, DE. Ice crystals in tissues and organs. In: Pegg DE,. Karow Jr. AM Eds. The Biophysics of Organ Cryopreservation. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1987:117-140.
8. Fahy, GM, Wowk, B, Wu, J, et al. Cryopreservation of organs by vitrification: perspectives and recent advances. Cryobiology 2004;48:157-78.