Life Extension Magazine

Life Extension Magazine April 2005


Anti-Aging Benefits of Creatine

By Will Brink

By Will Brink

Creatine Improves Brain Function

Perhaps the most compelling case for creatine supplementation is its ability to modulate brain function and metabolism. Previous articles in Life Extension have examined some of creatine’s applications in promoting muscle, brain, and heart health.1,2 Ongoing research indicates that creatine is an important nutrient for brain function and metabolism in both healthy people and those who suffer from brain damage or brain-related disease. Traumatic brain injuries affect thousands each year. Adding to this tragedy is that much of the damage is caused not by the immediate injury to the brain, but by cell death caused by ischemia (lack of blood flow and oxygen to tissues), free radical damage, and oxidative stress.

A cell’s ability to function is directly related to its mitochondrial health and ATP status. Even small changes in ATP supply can have profound effects on the tissues’ ability to function properly. Heart tissue, brain neurons, and other highly active tissues are very sensitive to diminished ATP levels. Creatine appears to be among the most effective nutritional supplements for maintaining or raising ATP levels.

Recent research indicates that creatine affords the human nervous system significant protection against ischemic and oxidative insults.43-56 A study published in the Annals of Neurology examined creatine’s effects on brain tissue damage following simulated traumatic brain injury in animals.57 Administration of creatine ameliorated the extent of cortical damage by as much as 36% in mice and 50% in rats. The researchers noted that this protection may be tied to creatine-induced maintenance of mitochondrial bioenergetics. They concluded that creatine “. . . may provide clues to the mechanisms responsible for neuronal loss after traumatic brain injury and may find use as a neuroprotective agent against acute and delayed neurodegenerative processes.” This study suggests that creatine therapy should be initiated as soon as possible after traumatic brain injury. People who have already been using creatine regularly may be afforded considerable protection against additional brain damage following such an injury.

Research also indicates that creatine improves brain function in healthy adults. A recent double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study examined how six weeks of creatine supplementation affected cognitive function in adult vegetarians.58 Subjects were given five grams of creatine daily. Following creatine supplementation, the study participants demonstrated improved scores on tests assessing intelligence and working memory. Creatine’s effects may be due to its ability to increase the cellular energy available to the brain. Although creatine supplementation may have a less dramatic effect on non-vegetarians who obtain some creatine from dietary sources such as meat, it is likely that creatine benefits brain function in meat eaters and vegetarians. Supplemental creatine thus appears to improve function and performance in healthy and injured brains alike.


Through its role in promoting an abundant pool of cellular energy, creatine helps support the healthy functioning of muscle, brain, and other body tissues. A substantial body of research demonstrates that creatine is a safe and effective tool for managing a wide range of pathologies, and may be a powerful anti-aging nutrient. Healthy adults may benefit from supplementing with two to three grams of creatine daily, while those seeking to address specific health concerns such as muscle loss or brain injury may benefit from five to ten grams of creatine daily.

Additional information on how creatine and other supplements may benefit athletes is available at


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