Life Extension Magazine September 2008
The Disease-Fighting Power of Berries
By Alison Cherlet
Scientists now agree that one of the best ways to protect against the killer diseases of aging is to consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
Yet even the scarce few who manage to consume the recommended five daily servings of fruits and vegetables may not be obtaining enough antioxidant protection to ward off cancer, cognitive decline, and cardiovascular disease. The reason is that it requires about ten daily servings of typically consumed fruits and vegetables to obtain the level of antioxidant protection recommended by USDA scientists.1
Fortunately, berries and other richly colored plants possess supercharged antioxidant power, allowing you to dramatically boost your levels of antioxidant protection. By stoking up the body’s defenses against damaging free radicals, berries and other richly colored foods provide unprecedented protective effects.2
A Rainbow of Health Benefits
During a typical mealtime, take a look at your plate. If you’re not seeing a rainbow of color, you may be missing out on some major disease-preventing nutrients. Leading physicians are advising that as many richly colored fruits and vegetables as possible be consumed in order to safeguard our health.
Why all the fuss about color? Because a wealth of scientific studies have demonstrated that the natural pigments that give fruits and vegetables their vibrant hues offer remarkable health benefits. A major class of compounds in this category is the flavonoids. Powerful antioxidants, flavonoids are linked with health benefits that include protection from cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes, and stroke, to name just a few.1
Antioxidants provide health benefits by subduing free radicals, which play a role in the development of many age-related diseases. The antioxidant value of a food can be estimated using a measure called oxygen radical absorbance capacity, or ORAC. Foods with a higher ORAC value possess a higher ability to quench dangerous oxygen free radicals in the test tube.2 Scientists have found that boosting your daily intake of foods with high ORAC values increases the body’s plasma and tissue antioxidant protection, guarding your body’s tissues against the onslaught of free radicals that can lead to decay and disease.1,2
Anthocyanins Fight Disease
One of nature’s most potent classes of flavonoids is the anthocyanins. These compounds have some of the highest ORAC values recorded among the compounds found in fruits and vegetables. They are responsible for the deep colors of berries, and as a rule of thumb, the more deeply colored your fruits and vegetables, the more nutrient-packed they are.
Worldwide, studies with anthocyanins and other compounds derived from berries and other fruits have demonstrated their benefits in fighting such conditions as cancer,3 diabetes,4,5 arthritis, and allergies by reducing inflammation.6 They are particularly effective at counteracting the effects of aging, showing benefits against several age-related diseases, particularly neurological disorders7 such as Alzheimer’s disease8 and macular degeneration (a leading cause of blindness in the elderly).9 Anthocyanin-rich fruit extracts also directly protect blood vessels,10 reduce blood pressure,11 and lower cholesterol12—offering protection against cardiovascular disease.13 Some studies have even linked berry extract with protection against osteoporosis.14 The list starting on the next column reveals anthocyanin-rich foods and their major health benefits.
Richly colored fruits and vegetables provide nature’s most abundant sources of disease-preventive compounds. By regularly consuming these nutritional powerhouses, you can help guard your cells against the daily onslaught of free radicals and fortify your body’s defenses against ailments ranging from cancer and cardiovascular disease to cognitive decline and macular degeneration.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension Health Advisor at 1-800-226-2370.
1. Cao G, Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Prior RL. Increases in human plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of controlled diets high in fruit and vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Nov;68(5):1081-7.
2. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/feb99/aging0299.pdf. Accessed July 3, 2008.
3. Seeram NP. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):630-5.
4. Valcheva-Kuzmanova S, Kuzmanov K, Tancheva S, Belcheva A. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;29(2):101-5.
5. Bertuglia S, Malandrino S, Colantuoni A. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on ischaemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Pharmacol Res. 1995 Mar;31(3-4):183-7.
6. Borissova P, Valcheva S, Belcheva A. Antiinflammatory effect of flavonoids in the natural juice from Aronia melanocarpa, rutin and rutin-magnesium complex on an experimental model of inflammation induced by histamine and serotonin. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1994;20(1):25-30.
7. Galli RL, Shukitt-Hale B, Youdim KA, Joseph JA. Fruit polyphenolics and brain aging: nutritional interventions targeting age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;959:128-32.
8. Joseph JA, Denisova NA, Arendash G, et al. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model. Nutr Neurosci. 2003 Jun;6(3):153-62.
9. Blodi BA. Nutritional supplements in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration. Insight. 2004 Jan;29(1):15-6.
10. Bell DR, Gochenaur K. Direct vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts. J Appl Physiol. 2006 Apr;100(4):1164-70.
11. Aviram M, Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis. 2001 Sep;158(1):195-8.
12. Valcheva-Kuzmanova S, Kuzmanov K, Mihova V, Krasnaliev I, Borisova P, Belcheva A. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007 Mar;62(1):19-24.
13. Andriambeloson E, Magnier C, Haan-Archipoff G, et al. Natural dietary polyphenolic compounds cause endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat thoracic aorta. J Nutr. 1998 Dec;128(12):2324-33.
14. Devareddy L, Hooshmand S, Collins JK, et al. Blueberry prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Mar 5.
15. Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, et al. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 1;54(22):8604-10.
16. Del Pozo-Insfran D, Percival SS, Talcott ST. Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) polyphenolics in their glycoside and aglycone forms induce apoptosis of HL-60 leukemia cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 22;54(4):1222-9.
17. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/ORAC/ORAC07.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2008.
18. Ohgami K, Ilieva I, Shiratori K, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jan;46(1):275-81.
19. Lala G, Malik M, Zhao C, et al. Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):84-93.
20. Valcheva-Kuzmanova S, Borisova P, Galunska B, Krasnaliev I, Belcheva A. Hepatoprotective effect of the natural fruit juice from Aronia melanocarpa on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2004 Dec;56(3):195-201.
21. Valcheva-Kuzmanova S, Marazova K, Krasnaliev I, et al. Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2005 Apr;56(6):385-92.
22. Magistretti MJ, Conti M, Cristoni A. Antiulcer activity of an anthocyanidin from Vaccinium myrtillus. Arzneimittelforschung. 1988 May;38(5):686-90.
23. Zhao C, Giusti MM, Malik M, Moyer MP, Magnuson BA. Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6122-8.
24. Misikangas M, Pajari AM, Paivarinta E, et al. Three Nordic berries inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis in multiple intestinal neoplasia/+ mice by modulating beta-catenin signaling in the tumor and transcription in the mucosa. J Nutr. 2007 Oct;137(10):2285-90.
25. Milbury PE, Graf B, Curran-Celentano JM, Blumberg JB. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 May;48(5):2343-9.
26. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/tayside_and_central/5234108.stm. Accessed July 2, 2008.
27. Nakaishi H, Matsumoto H, Tominaga S, Hirayama M. Effects of black current anthocyanoside intake on dark adaptation and VDT work-induced transient refractive alteration in healthy humans. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Dec;5(6):553-62.
28. Marniemi J, Hakala P, Maki J, Ahotupa M. Partial resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidation in vivo after increased intake of berries. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000 Dec;10(6):331-7.
29. Yuko N, Hitoshi M, Kazuo T. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by blackcurrant concentrate in rat thoracic aorta. Japan J Pharm. 2002;89(1):29-35.
30. Jones E, Hughes RE. Quercetin, flavonoids and the life-span of mice. Exp Gerontol. 1982;17(3):213-7.
31. Matsumoto H, Takenami E, Iwasaki-Kurashige K, et al. Effects of blackcurrant anthocyanin intake on peripheral muscle circulation during typing work in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 May;94(1-2):36-45.
32. Puupponen-Pimia R, Nohynek L, Meier C, et al. Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries. J Appl Microbiol. 2001 Apr;90(4):494-507.
33. Cavanagh HM, Hipwell M, Wilkinson JM. Antibacterial activity of berry fruits used for culinary purposes. J Med Food. 2003;6(1):57-61.
34. Available at: http://www.cas.flinders.edu.au/sanra/research/proj0026.html. Accessed July 2, 2008.
35. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, et al. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 13;54(25):9329-39.
36. Acquaviva R, Russo A, Galvano F, et al. Cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D -glucoside as DNA cleavage protectors and antioxidants. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2003 Aug;19(4):243-52.
37. Lieberman S. The antioxidant power of purple corn: a research review. Altern Compl Ther. 2007 Apr 1;13(2):107-10.
38. Tsuda T, Shiga K, Ohshima K, Kawakishi S, Osawa T. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the active oxygen radical scavenging effect of anthocyanin pigments isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris L. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Oct 11;52(7):1033-9.
39. Tsuda T, Horio F, Kitoh J, Osawa T. Protective effects of dietary cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Aug 15;368(2):361-6.
40. Tsuda T, Horio F, Kato Y, Osawa T. Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside attenuates the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through a decrease in the neutrophil chemoattractant production in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Apr;48(2):134-41.
41. Tsuda T, Horio F, Osawa T. Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside suppresses nitric oxide production during a zymosan treatment in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Aug;48(4):305-10.
42. Tsuda T, Horio F, Osawa T. Dietary cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside increases ex vivo oxidation resistance of serum in rats. Lipids. 1998 Jun;33(6):583-8.
43. Serraino I, Dugo L, Dugo P, et al. Protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from blackberry extract against peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure. Life Sci. 2003 Jul 18;73(9):1097-114.
44. Xu BJ, Yuan SH, Chang SK. Comparative analyses of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and color of cool season legumes and other selected food legumes. J Food Sci. 2007 Feb 9; 72(2):S167 – 77.
45. Xu BJ, Yuan SH, Chang SK. Comparative studies on the antioxidant activities of nine common food legumes against copper-induced human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. J Food Sci. 2007 Sep;72(7):S522-7.
46. Bere E. Wild berries: a good source of omega-3. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;61(3):431-3.
47. Kalea AZ, Lamari FN, Theocharis AD, et al. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Feb;17(2):109-16.
48. Norton C, Kalea AZ, Harris PD, Klimis-Zacas DJ. Wild blueberry-rich diets affect the contractile machinery of the vascular smooth muscle in the Sprague-Dawley rat. J Med Food. 2005;8(1):8-13.
49. Andres-Lacueva C, Shukitt-Hale B, Galli RL et al. Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance memory. Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(2):111-20.
50. Lau FC, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA. The beneficial effects of fruit polyphenols on brain aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Dec;26 Suppl 1:128-32.
51. Shukitt-Hale B, Carey AN, Jenkins D, Rabin BM, Joseph JA. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior in a rodent model of accelerated aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Aug;28(8):1187-94.
52. Osman N, Adawi D, Ahrne S, Jeppsson B, Molin G. Probiotics and Blueberry Attenuate the Severity of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Feb 15.
53. Osman N, Adawi D, Ahrne S, Jeppsson B, Molin G. Endotoxin- and D-galactosamine-induced liver injury improved by the administration of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and blueberry. Dig Liver Dis. 2007 Sep;39(9):849-56.
54. Anthony JP, Fyfe L, Stewart D, McDougall GJ, Smith HV. The effect of blueberry extracts on Giardia duodenalis viability and spontaneous excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, in vitro. Methods. 2007 Aug;42(4):339-48.
55. Cevallos-Casals BA, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Stoichiometric and kinetic studies of phenolic antioxidants from Andean purple corn and red-fleshed sweetpotato. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 May 21;51(11):3313-9.
56. Tsuda T, Horio F, Uchida K, Aoki H, Osawa T. Dietary cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color prevents obesity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in mice. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7):2125-30.
57. Hagiwara A, Miyashita K, Nakanishi T et al. Pronounced inhibition by a natural anthocyanin, purple corn color, of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in male F344 rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Cancer Lett. 2001 Sep 28;171(1):17-25.
58. Jacob RA, Spinozzi GM, Simon VA, et al. Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003 Jun;133(6):1826-9.
59. Kelley DS, Rasooly R, Jacob RA, Kader AA, Mackey BE. Consumption of Bing sweet cherries lowers circulating concentrations of inflammation markers in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):981-6.
60. van Acker SA, Tromp MN, Haenen GR, van d, V, Bast A. Flavonoids as scavengers of nitric oxide radical. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Sep 25;214(3):755-9.
61. Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 23;342(12):836-43.
62. Available at:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070430074703.htm. Accessed July 2, 2008.
63. Jayaprakasam B, Vareed SK, Olson LK, Nair MG. Insulin secretion by bioactive anthocyanins and anthocyanidins present in fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jan 12;53(1):28-31.
64. Kang SY, Seeram NP, Nair MG, Bourquin LD. Tart cherry anthocyanins inhibit tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and reduce proliferation of human colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2003 May 8;194(1):13-9.
65. Clark SS. Perillyl alcohol induces c-Myc-dependent apoptosis in Bcr/Abl-transformed leukemia cells. Oncology. 2006;70(1):13-8.
66. Yuri T, Danbara N, Tsujita-Kyutoku M, et al. Perillyl alcohol inhibits human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004 Apr;84(3):251-60.
67. Chung BH, Lee HY, Lee JS, Young CY. Perillyl alcohol inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2006 May 18;236(2):222-8.
68. Xu M, Floyd HS, Greth SM, et al. Perillyl alcohol-mediated inhibition of lung cancer cell line proliferation: potential mechanisms for its chemotherapeutic effects. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004 Mar 1;195(2):232-46.
69. Jepson RG, Craig JC. A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in UTI prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):738-45.
70. Liu Y, Gallardo-Moreno AM, Pinzon-Arango PA, Reynolds Y, Rodriguez G, Camesano TA. Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2008 Aug 1;65(1):35-42.
71. Zhang L, Ma J, Pan K, Go VL, Chen J, You WC. Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Helicobacter. 2005 Apr;10(2):139-45.
72. Burger O, Weiss E, Sharon N, Tabak M, Neeman I, Ofek I. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus by a high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry juice. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002;42(3 Suppl):279-84.
73. Neto CC. Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies. J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1 Suppl):186S-93S.
74. McKay DL, Blumberg JB. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Nutr Rev. 2007 Nov;65(11):490-502.
75. Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M, et al. Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama. J Altern Complement Med. 1995;1(4):361-9.
76. Freedman JE, Parker C, III, Li L, et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation. 2001 Jun 12;103(23):2792-8.
77. Day AP, Kemp HJ, Bolton C, Hartog M, Stansbie D. Effect of concentrated red grape juice consumption on serum antioxidant capacity and low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Ann Nutr Metab. 1997;41(6):353-7.
78. Miyagi Y, Miwa K, Inoue H. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids in red wine and grape juice. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Dec 15;80(12):1627-31.
79. Olson ER, Naugle JE, Zhang X, Bomser JA, Meszaros JG. Inhibition of cardiac fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation by resveratrol. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Mar;288(3):H1131-8.
80. Lu KT, Chiou RY, Chen LG, et al. Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on cerebral ischemia-induced neuron loss mediated by free radical scavenging and cerebral blood flow elevation. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 19;54(8):3126-31.
81. Miura D, Miura Y, Yagasaki K. Hypolipidemic action of dietary resveratrol, a phytoalexin in grapes and red wine, in hepatoma-bearing rats. Life Sci. 2003 Aug 1;73(11):1393-400.
82. Zern TL, Wood RJ, Greene C, et al. Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1911-7.
83. Stewart JR, Artime MC, O’Brian CA. Resveratrol: a candidate nutritional substance for prostate cancer prevention. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2440S-3S.
84. Ruano-Ravina A, Figueiras A, Barros-Dios JM. Type of wine and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study in Spain. Thorax. 2004 Nov;59(11):981-5.
85. Marambaud P, Zhao H, Davies P. Resveratrol promotes clearance of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta peptides. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 11;280(45):37377-82.
86. Szewczuk LM and Penning TM. Mechanism-based inactivation of COX-1 by red wine m-hydroquinones: a structure-activity relationship study. J Nat Prod. 2004 Nov;67(11):1777-82.
87. Hu H, Qin YM. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract induced mitochondria-associated apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia 14.3D10 cells. Chin Med J (Engl.). 2006 Mar 5;119(5):417-21.
88. Faria A, Calhau C, de F, V, Mateus N. Procyanidins as antioxidants and tumor cell growth modulators. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2392-7.
89. Waffo-Teguo P, Hawthorne ME, Cuendet M, et al. Potential cancer-chemopreventive activities of wine stilbenoids and flavans extracted from grape (Vitis vinifera) cell cultures. Nutr Cancer. 2001;40(2):173-9.
90. Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):423-33.
91. Malik A, Afaq F, Sarfaraz S et al. Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005 Oct 11;102(41):14813-8.
92. Pantuck AJ, Leppert JT, Zomorodian N, et al. Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;12(13):4018-26.
93. Kohno H, Suzuki R, Yasui Y, et al. Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid suppresses chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Sci. 2004 Jun;95(6):481-6.
94. Adams LS, Seeram NP, Aggarwal BB, et al. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells. J Agri Food Chem. 2006 Feb 8;54(3):980-5.
95. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, et al. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Jun;16(6):360-7.
96. Khan N, Hadi N, Afaq F, et al. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prosurvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jan;28(1):163-73.
97. Kim ND, Mehta R, Yu W, et al. Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002 Feb;71(3):203-17.
98. Aslam MN, Lansky EP, Varani J. Pomegranate as a cosmeceutical source: pomegranate fractions promote proliferation and procollagen synthesis and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-1 production in human skin cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):311-8.
99. Ballot D, Baynes RD, Bothwell TH, et al. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal. Br J Nutr. 1987 May;57(3):331-43.
100. Yang Y, Gallaher DD. Effect of dried plums on colon cancer risk factors in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(1):117-25.
101. Utsunomiya H, Yamakawa T, Kamei J, Kadonosono K, Tanaka S. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of plum in a rat model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, Wistar fatty rat. Biomed Res. 2005 Oct;26(5):193-200.
102. Bu SY, Lucas EA, Franklin M, et al. Comparison of dried plum supplementation and intermittent PTH in restoring bone in osteopenic orchidectomized rats. Osteoporos Int. 2007 Jul;18(7):931-42.
103. Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Lucas EA, et al. Dried plums improve indices of bone formation in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002 Jan;11(1):61-8.
104. McDougall GJ, Ross HA, Ikeji M, Stewart D. Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 14;56(9):3016-23.
105. Parry J, Su L, Moore J, et al. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 31;54(11):3773-8.
106. Ross HA, McDougall GJ, Stewart D. Antiproliferative activity is predominantly associated with ellagitannins in raspberry extracts. Phytochemistry. 2007 Jan;68(2):218-28.
107. Available at: http://www.red-raspberry.org/health/ellagicacid.html. Accessed July 7, 2008.
108. Meyers KJ, Watkins CB, Pritts MP, Liu RH. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of strawberries. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Nov 5;51(23):6887-92.
109. Naemura A, Mitani T, Ijiri Y, et al. Anti-thrombotic effect of strawberries. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2005 Oct;16(7):501-9.
110. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=224949. Accessed July 14. 2008.