Life Extension Magazine October 2010
As We See It
Aggressive Actions Needed to Avert Obesity Crisis
By William Faloon
Don’t Fall Victim to Institutional Ignorance!
As a member of the Life Extension Foundation, you do not have to suffer from the blatant failings of our conventional institutions.
When you turn this page, you’ll see a striking graphic highlighting 27 inducers of unwanted fat storage. The first article in this issue describes how the new Calorie Control Weight Management Formula attacks 12 of these 27 causes of weight gain, making it an important weapon in a comprehensive program to reduce body mass.
The article Low Testosterone Promotes Abdominal Obesity in Aging describes the multiple beneficial effects that occur when aging men restore free testosterone to youthful ranges. Not only does testosterone facilitate reduction in abdominal fat, but it also reduces blood glucose levels by improving insulin sensitivity.
The article Critical Need to Control Fasting and After-Meal Glucose Levels outlines the importance of maintaining tight glucose control and reveals methods to not only lose weight, but to also turn on one’s youth-promoting longevity genes.
Every component of Life Extension’s weight loss protocols are supported by findings from the peer-reviewed scientific literature, yet conventional doctors and the federal government wallow in a state of ignorance as they desperately warn of an impending obesity crisis, but offer no practical approaches to avert it.
As you’ll learn in this issue of Life Extension Magazine, age-related weight gain is reversible when the multiple underlying inducers of obesity are thwarted.
For longer life,
1. Available at: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/Views/Exhibit/narrative/smoking.html. Accessed May 31, 2010
2. Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/health_priority/en/index.html. Accessed May 31, 2010.
3. Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ. 2007 Dec 1;335(7630):1134.
4. Calle EE, Kaaks R. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004 Aug;4(8):579-91.
5. Schapira DV, Kumar NB, Lyman GH. Estimate of breast cancer risk reduction with weight loss. Cancer. 1991 May 15;67(10):2622-5.
6. Pan SY, DesMeules M, Morrison H, Wen SW. Obesity, high energy intake, lack of physical activity, and the risk of kidney cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Dec;15(12):2453-60.
7. Calabro P, Yeh ET. Intra-abdominal adiposity, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk: new insight into global cardiometabolic risk. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2008 Feb;10(1):32-8.
8. Bodary PF, Iglay HB, Eitzman DT. Strategies to reduce vascular risk associated with obesity. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;5(4):249-58.
9. Rosa EC, Zanella MT, Ribeiro AB, Kohlmann JO. Visceral obesity, hypertension and cardio-renal risk: a review. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2005 Apr;49(2):196-204.
10. Lacquemant C, Vasseur F, Lepretre F, Froguel P. Adipocytokins, obesity and development of type 2 diabetes. Med Sci (Paris). 2005 Dec 21; Spec No:10-8.
11. Gandhi R, Wasserstein D, Razak F, Davey JR, Mahomed NN. BMI independently predicts younger age at hip and knee replacement. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Apr 8.
12. Dahl A, Hassing LB, Fransson E, et al. Being overweight in midlife is associated with lower cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in late life. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Jul 3;29(6):543-52.
13. Available at: http://www.downeyobesityreport.com/category/fact-sheets/. Accessed June 2, 2010.
14. Conway B, Rene A. Obesity as a disease: no lightweight matter. Obes Rev. 2004 3:145-51.
15. Available at: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2010/05/12/white-house-obesity-report-suggests-more-pe-is-not-enough/. Accessed June 2, 2010.
16. Abate N, Haffner SM, Garg A, Peshock RM, Grundy SM. Sex steroid hormones, upper body obesity, and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;87(10):4522-7.
17. Unoki H, Bujo H, Yamagishi S, Takeuchi M, Imaizumi T, Saito Y. Advanced glycation end products attenuate cellular insulin sensitivity by increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 May;76(2):236-44.
18. Alfonzo-Gonzalez G, Doucet E, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Greater than predicted decrease in resting energy expenditure with age: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;60(1):18-24.
19. Ames BN. Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1019:406-11.
20. Palacios OM, Carmona JJ, Michan S, et al. Diet and exercise signals regulate SIRT3 and activate AMPK and PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle. Aging (Albany NY). 2009 Aug 15;1(9):771-83.
21. Chessler SD, Fujimoto WY, Shofer JB, Boyko EJ, Weigle DS. Increased plasma leptin levels are associated with fat accumulation in Japanese Americans. Diabetes. 1998 Feb;47(2):239-43.
22. Scarpace PJ, Zhang Y. Leptin resistance: a prediposing factor for diet-induced obesity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Mar;296(3):R493-500.
23. Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, Mbofung CM, Oben JE. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids Health Dis. 2009 Mar 2;8:7.
24. Klaus S, Pultz S, Thone-Reineke C, Wolfram S. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates diet-induced obesity in mice by decreasing energy absorption and increasing fat oxidation. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jun;29(6):615-23.
25. Yatagai T, Nagasaka S, Taniguchi A, et al. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance in Japanese men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2003 Oct;52(10):1274-8.
26. Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Nov 13;7:44.
27. Wise LS, Green H. Participation of one isozyme of cytosolic glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in the adipose conversion of 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1979 Jan 25;254(2):273-5.
28. Ngondi JL, Djiotsa EJ, Fossouo Z, Oben J. Hypoglycaemic effect of the methanol extract of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on streptozotocin diabetic rats. Afr J Trad CAM. 2006;3(4):74–7.
29. Zhang XQ, Yang MY, Ma Y, Tian J, Song JR. Isolation and activity of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Dec;42(12):1282-7.
30. Udani J, Singh BB. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using a proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):32-7.
31. Wolfram S, Wang Y, Thielecke F. Anti-obesity effects of green tea: from bedside to bench. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Feb;50(2):176-87.
32. Kusano R, Andou H, Fujieda M, Tanaka T, Matsuo Y, Kouno I. Polymer-like polyphenols of black tea and their lipase and amylase inhibitory activities. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Mar;56(3):266-72.
33. Juhel C, Armand M, Pafumi Y, Rosier C, Vandermander J, Lairon D. Green tea extract (AR25) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 Jan;11(1):45-51.
34. Di Pierro F, Borsetto Menghi AM, Barreca A, Lucarelli M, Calandrelli A. Highly bioavailable green tea: Clinical study on obese subjects. Integr Nutr. 2008;11(2):1-14.
35. Kobayashi M, Ichitani M, Suzuki Y, et al. Black-tea polyphenols suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by suppressing lymphatic transport of dietary fat in rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Aug 12;57(15):7131–6.
36. Rossner S, Sjostrom L, Noack R, Meinders AE, Noseda G. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and improved cardiovascular risk factors after 2 years treatment with orlistat for obesity. Obes Res. 2000 Jan;8(1):49-61
37. Heilbronn LK, de Jonge L, Frisard MI, et al. Effect of 6-month calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity, metabolic adaptation, and oxidative stress in overweight individuals: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1539-48.
38. Larson-Meyer DE, Heilbronn LK, Redman LM, et al. Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, fat cell size, and ectopic lipid in overweight subjects. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jun;29(6):1337-44.
39. Martins C, Morgan LM, Robertson MD. Effects of restrained eating behaviour on insulin sensitivity in normal-weight individuals. Physiol Behav. 2009 Mar 23;96(4-5):703-8.
40. Barger JL, Kayo T, Vann JM, et al. A low dose of dietary resveratrol partially mimics caloric restriction and retards aging parameters in mice. PLoS One. 2008 Jun 4;3(6):e2264.
41. Joseph JA, Fisher DR, Cheng V, Rimando AM, Shukitt-Hale B. Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Nov 26;56(22):10544-51.
42. Ceriello A, Taboga C, Tonutti L, et al. Evidence for an independent and cumulative effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress generation: effects of short- and long-term simvastatin treatment. Circulation. 2002 Sep 3;106(10):1211-8.
43. Ceriello A. Impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease: the possible role of post-prandial hyperglycemia. Am Heart J. 2004 May;147(5):803-7.
44. Chong MF, Fielding BA, Frayn KN. Mechanisms for the acute effect of fructose on postprandial lipemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1511-20.
45. Hosoda K , Wang MF , Liao ML , et al. Antihyperglycemic effect of oolong tea in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 26:1714-8.
46. Fukino Y, Ikeda A, Maruyama K, Aoki N, Okubo T, Iso H. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;62(8):953-60.
47. Ngondi JL, Fossouo Z, Djiotsa EJ, Oben J. Glycaemic variations after administration of Irvingia gabonensis seeds fractions in normoglycemic rats. Afri J Trad Cam. 2006;3(4):94-101.
48. Poppitt SD, van Drunen JD, McGill AT, Mulvey TB, Leahy FE. Supplementation of a high-carbohydrate breakfast with barley beta-glucan improves postprandial glycaemic response for meals but not beverages. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007 16(1):16-24.
49. Li Y, Wen S, Kota BP, et al. Punica granatum flower extract, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves postprandial hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun 3;99(2):239-44.
50. Pasiakos SM, Mettel JB, West K, et al. Maintenance of resting energy expenditure after weight loss in premenopausal women: potential benefits of a high-protein, reduced-calorie diet. Metabolism. 2008 Apr;57(4):458-64.
51. Chen K, Li F, Li J, et al. Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin. Nat Med. 2006 Apr;12(4):425-32.
52. Jeanrenaud B. Hyperinsulinemia in obesity syndromes: its metabolic consequences and possible etiology. Metabolism. 1978 Dec;27(12 Suppl 2):1881–92.
53. Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Etiology of insulin resistance. Am J Med. 2006 May;119(5 Suppl 1):S10-6.
54. Slabber M, Barnard HC, Kuyl JM, Dannhauser A, Schall R. Effects of a low-insulin-response, energy-restricted diet on weight loss and plasma insulin concentrations in hyperinsulinemic obese females. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(1):48-53.
55. Kromhout D, Bloemberg B, Seidell JC, Nissinen A, Menotti A. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels: the Seven Countries Study. Int J ObeS Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Mar;25(3):301-6.
56. Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997 Feb 12;277(6):472-7.
57. Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care. 1997 Apr;20(4):545-50.
58. Sierra M, Garcia JJ, Fernández N, Diez MJ, Calle AP, Sahagún AM. Effects of ispaghula husk and guar gum on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Apr;55(4):235-43.
59. Ou S, Kwok K, Li Y, Fu L. In vitro study of possible role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Feb;49(2):1026-9.
60. Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE, et al. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):920-7.
61. Breum L, Rasmussen MH, Hilsted J, Fernstrom JD. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 May;77(5):1112-8.
62. Heraief E, Burckhardt P, Wurtman JJ, Wurtman RJ. Tryptophan administration may enhance weight loss by some moderately obese patients on a protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) diet. Int J Eating Disord. 1985; 4(3):281-92.
63. Tsai EC, Boyko EJ, Leonetti DL, Fujimoto WY. Low serum testosterone level as a predictor of increased visceral fat in Japanese-American men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Apr;24(4):485-91.
64. Marin P, Krotkiewski M, Bjorntorp P. Androgen treatment of middle-aged, obese men: effects on metabolism, muscle and adipose tissues. Eur J Med. 1992 Oct;1(6):329-36.
65. Marin P, Oden B, Bjorntorp P. Assimilation and mobilization of triglycerides in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue in vivo in men: effects of androgens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Jan;80(1):239-43.
66. Lee JR, Hanley J, Hopkins V. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Premenopause: Balance Your Hormones and Your Life from Thirty to Fifty. New York, NY: Warner Books;1999.
67. Pedersen O, Richelsen B, Bak J, et al. Characterization of the insulin resistance of glucose utilization in adipocytes from patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism. Acta Endocrin. 1998 Oct;119(2):228-34.
68. Hamburg NM, McMackin CJ, Huang AL, et al. Physical inactivity rapidly induces insulin resistance and microvascular dysfunction in healthy volunteers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Dec;27(12):2650-6.
69. Hawley JA, Lessard SJ. Exercise training-induced improvements in insulin action. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008 Jan;192(1):127-35.
70. Solomon TP, Haus JM, Kelly KR, et al. Randomized trial on the effects of a 7-d low-glycemic diet and exercise intervention on insulin resistance in older obese humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1222-9.
71. Heller RF, Heller RF. Hyperinsulinemic obesity and carbohydrate addiction: the missing link is the carbohydrate frequency factor. Med Hypotheses. 1994 May;42(5):307-12.
72. Alemzadeh R, Langley G, Upchurch L, Smith P, Slonim AE. Beneficial effect of diazoxide in obese hyperinsulinemic adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jun;83(6):1911-5.
73. Westerterp-Plantenga M, Diepvens K, Joosen AM, Berube-Parent S, Tremblay A. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine. Physiol Behav. 2006 Aug 30;89(1):85-91.
74. Gastaldelli A, Toschi E, Pettiti M, et al. Effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on gluconeogenesis in nondiabetic subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2001 Aug;50(8):1807-12.
75. Basu R, Chandramouli V, Dicke B, Landau B, Rizza R. Obesity and type 2 diabetes impair insulin-induced suppression of glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis. Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):1942-8.
76. Furukawa Y. Enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion and modification of glucose metabolism by biotin. Nippon Rinsho. 1999 Oct;57(10):2261-9.
77. Spiegel K, Knutson K, Leproult R, Tasali E, Van Cauter E. Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Nov;99(5):2008-19.
78. Donga E, van Dijk M, van Dijk JG, et al. A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;95(6):2963-8.
79. Wolden-Hanson T, Mitton DR, McCants RL, et al. Daily melatonin administration to middle-aged male rats suppresses body weight, intraabdominal adiposity, and plasma leptin and insulin independent of food intake and total body fat. Endocrinology. 2000 Feb;141(2):487-97.
80. Steckler TL, Herkimer C, Dumesic DA, Padmanabhan V. Developmental programming: excess weight gain amplifies the effects of prenatal testosterone excess on reproductive cyclicity--implication for polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinology. 2009 Mar;150(3):1456-65.
81. Carmina E, Bucchieri S, Esposito A, et al. Abdominal fat quantity and distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and extent of its relation to insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul;92(7):2500-5.
82. Christakou CD, Diamanti-Kandarakis E. Role of androgen excess on metabolic aberrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2008 Nov;4(6):583-94.
83. Purnell JQ, Kahn SE, Samuels MH, Brandon D, Loriaux DL, Brunzell JD. Enhanced cortisol production rates, free cortisol, and 11beta-HSD-1 expression correlate with visceral fat and insulin resistance in men: effect of weight loss. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Feb;296(2):E351-7.
84. Mattsson C, Olsson T. Estrogens and glucocorticoid hormones in adipose tissue metabolism. Curr Med Chem. 2007 14(27):2918-24.
85. Malone M, Alger-Mayer SA, Anderson DA. Medication associated with weight gain may influence outcome in a weight management program. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Jul-Aug;39(7-8):1204-8.
86. Verrotti A, la Torre R, Trotta D, Mohn A, Chiarelli F. Valproate-induced insulin resistance and obesity in children. Horm Res. 2009;71(3):125-31.
87. Gaysina D, Hotopf M, Richards M, Colman I, Kuh D, Hardy R. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and change in body mass index from adolescence to adulthood: results from a British birth cohort. Psychol Med. 2010 Mar 18:1-10.
88. Malone M, Alger-Mayer SA, Anderson DA. The lifestyle challenge program: a multidisciplinary approach to weight management. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Dec;39(12):2015-20.
89. Nagpal J, Pande JN, Bhartia A. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabet Med. 2009 Jan;26(1):19-27.
90. von Hurst PR, Stonehouse W, Coad J. Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2010 Feb;103(4):549-55.
91. Pinelli NR, Jaber LA, Brown MB, Herman WH. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and glucose intolerance among Arab Americans. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun;33(6):1373-5.
92. Gugliucci A, Kotani K, Taing J, et al. Short-term low calorie diet intervention reduces serum advanced glycation end products in healthy overweight or obese adults. Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;54(3):197-201.
93. Braun LT. Cholesterol and triglyceride management: “if I take my medication, can I eat what I want?”. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2010 May-Jun;25(3):241-6.
94. Tugrul S, Kutlu T, Pekin O, Baglam E, Kiyak H, Oral O. Clinical, endocrine, and metabolic effects of acarbose, a alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, in overweight and nonoverweight patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008 Oct;90(4):1144-8.
95. Oyama T, Saiki A, Endoh K, et al. Effect of acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on serum lipoprotein lipase mass levels and common carotid artery intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes mellitus treated by sulfonylurea. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2008 Jun;15(3):154-9.
96. Available at: http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/obesitymay2010.pdf. Accessed June 4, 2010.
97. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figpersons.htm. Accessed July 20, 2010.
98. Available at: http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/short/hlthaff.28.5.w822. Accessed July 20, 2010.