Life Extension Magazine

Life Extension Magazine December 2011

Report

Consumers Do Crave Healthy Foods!

By William Faloon

Fight Back Against Food Fraud

Fight Back Against Food Fraud

The "food fraud" perpetrated by processed food companies is unconscionable. They load supposedly healthy vegetable soups with rice, potatoes, pasta, and other high-glycemic ingredients. More than 80% of the American public has higher-than-optimal blood glucose levels,123,124 yet even when they try to eat better by consuming a can of commercial vegetable soup, they wind up with mostly glucose-spiking starches.

The American diet is overloaded with dangerous sugars that contribute to a growing health epidemic.125-128 By intentionally spiking vegetable soups with cheap sugars and starchy ingredients, processed food companies reap enormous profits while consumers pay the price with a shortened life span. Is it any wonder why Americans are accumulating so many fat pounds?

A pouch of Life Extension Vegetable Soups provides more than one pound of vegetables that will satiate most appetites—while delivering only 80 to 90 calories per serving.

There are 3.5 servings in each pouch, with each serving providing a full serving of healthy vegetables.

Life Extension's Vegetable Soups can be used as a mini-meal by those seeking to reduce their calorie intake, or as a vegetable side dish to serve three or more people with a single pouch.

Compare the healthy calories in these soups to the garbage foods you see endlessly advertised on TV. You'll easily see how commercial food companies are robbing Americans of their health by promoting foods that harm rather than protect.

Why Our Soups Don't Come in Cans

There is a concern that the lining of canned foods with bisphenol-A (found in 92% of canned foods) represents a health risk.147-148 It has been shown to be a "hormone disrupter," which raises concern about potential cancer risk.149,150

The FDA says bisphenol-A is safe, but we have little confidence in a government agency that is so beholden to the financial interests to processed food companies.

Life Extension's new vegetable soups are packaged in an advanced bisphenol-A and phthalate-free polymer pouch to not only preserve the integrity of the cruciferous vegetables, but also protect our members against bisphenol-A exposure.

Life Extension Members Recognize Value

The nearly two-year development of these unique cruciferous soup recipes has cost the Life Extension Buyers Club® an enormous amount of money. While pessimists suggested early on that we abandon the project and stick with our expertise in nutritional supplements, we persevered nonetheless.

We proved cynics wrong from the start when Life Extension members overwhelmed us with orders for the first production run of these cruciferous vegetables soups… even though we needed to charge a retail price of $11.95 per two-pound pouch.

Even at the discounted price members pay (as low as $8.44 per pouch), these vegetable soups are higher priced than what is typically found in grocery stores. The question was whether consumers wanted to continue using vegetable soups laden with sugar-starches and other mediocre ingredients? Our members sure didn't, as orders and re-orders poured in for these cruciferous vegetable soups.

TV commercials endlessly promote the unhealthiest of foods, but consumers have woken up to the high price one pays when a toxic diet destroys their precious health.

We have spent the last year improving the taste and consistency of our Cruciferous Vegetable and Asian Cruciferous Vegetable soups and believe they are superior to anything else on the market. No prepared food comes close to providing this broad-spectrum of healthy ingredients—with none of the cheap fillers and starches that create biological havoc in aging individuals.

Life Extension looks forward to expanding into a broader line of health-promoting foods… and lowering prices in the process.

What's Missing From Cooked Vegetables?
What's Missing From Cooked Vegetables?

There is one important caveat about cooked vegetables you should know about. During the heating process required to make any soup, some of the beneficial compounds contained in the vegetables are invariably lost.

Those concerned about certain health issues often rely on supplements that contain standardized potencies of nutrients found in healthy vegetables such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C),66,129-132 diindolylmethane (DIM),131-137 sulforaphane,138-142 and apigenin.143-146

Even when including cooked vegetables in your diet, it is still important to obtain standardized potencies of cruciferous and other vegetable extracts from your supplements and/or carefully steamed vegetables.

If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.

 

References

1. Brandi G, Schiavano GF, Zaffaroni N, et al. Mechanisms of action and antiproliferative properties of Brassica oleracea juice in human breast cancer cell lines. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1503-9.

2. Ambrosone CB, McCann SE, Freudenheim JL, et al. Breast cancer risk in premenopausal women is inversely associated with consumption of broccoli, a source of isothiocyanates, but is not modified by GST genotype. J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1134-8.

3. Canene-Adams K, Lindshield BL, Wang S, Jeffery EH, Clinton SK, Erdman JW Jr. Combinations of tomato and broccoli enhance antitumor activity in dunning r3327-h prostate adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 15;67(2):836-43.

4. Gamet-Payrastre L, Li P, Lumeau S, et al. Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2000 Mar 1;60(5):1426-33.

5. Kensler TW, Chen JG, Egner PA, et al. Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthrene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo township, Qidong, People's Republic of China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Nov;14(11 Pt 1):2605-13.

6. Dinkova-Kostova AT, Fahey JW, Benedict AL, et al. Dietary glucoraphanin-rich broccoli sprout extracts protect against UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010 Apr;9(4):597-600.

7. Liu W, Huang XF, Qi Q, et al. Asparanin A induces G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Apr 17;381(4):700-5.

8. van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA. Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;472:159-68.

9. Verhagen H, Poulsen HE, Loft S, van Poppel G, Willems MI, van Bladeren PJ. Reduction of oxidative DNA-damage in humans by brussels sprouts. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Apr;16(4):969-70.

10. Hoelzl C, Glatt H, Meinl W, et al.Consumption of Brussels sprouts protects peripheral human lymphocytes against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and oxidative DNA-damage: results of a controlled human intervention trial. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Mar;52(3):330-41.

11. Available at: http://www.dietsinreview.com/diets/the-low-glycemic-index-diet/. Accessed September 20, 2010.

12. López-Miranda J, Pérez-Jiménez F, Ros E, et al. Olive oil and health: summary of the II international conference on olive oil and health consensus report, Jaén and Córdoba (Spain) 2008. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 May;20(4):284-94.

13. Wolk A, Bergström R, Hunter D, et al. A prospective study of association of monounsaturated fat and other types of fat with risk of breast cancer. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Jan 12;158(1):41-5.

14. Trichopoulou A, Vasilopoulou E. Mediterranean diet and longevity. Br J Nutr. 2000 Dec;84 Suppl 2:S205-9.

15. Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Atherosclerosis—epidemiological studies on the health effects of a Mediterranean diet. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Mar;43 Suppl 1:I/2-5.

16. Masella R, Vari R, D'Archivio M, et al. Extra virgin olive oil biophenols inhibit cell-mediated oxidation of LDL by increasing the mRNA transcription of glutathione-related enzymes. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):785-91.

17. Haban P, Klvanova J, Zidekova E, Nagyova A. Dietary supplementation with olive oil leads to improved lipoprotein spectrum and lower n-6 PUFAs in elderly subjects. Med Sci Monit. 2004 Apr;10(4):PI49-54.

18. Aviram M. Interaction of oxidized low density lipoprotein with macrophages in atherosclerosis, and the antiatherogenicity of antioxidants. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1996 Aug;

34(8):599-608.

19. Carluccio MA, Siculella L, Ancora MA et al. Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation antiatherogenic properties of mediterranean diet phytochemicals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Apr 1;23(4):622-9.

20. Perona JS, Cabello-Moruno R, Ruiz-Gutierrez V. The role of virgin olive oil components in the modulation of endothelial function.

J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Jul;17(7):429-45.

21. Masella R, Giovannini C, Vari R, et al. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil phenols on low density lipoprotein oxidation in hyperlipidemic patients. Lipids. 2001Nov;36(11):1195-202.

22. Murie-Fernandez M, Irimia P, Toledo E, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness changes with Mediterranean diet: A randomized trial (PREDIMED-Navarra). Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul 6.

23. Covas MI. Olive oil and the cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Res. 2007 Mar;55(3):175-86.

24. Kontogianni MD, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Pitsavos C, Zampelas A, Stefanadis C. The impact of olive oil consumption pattern on the risk of acute coronary syndromes: The CARDIO2000 case-control study. Clin Cardiol. 2007 Mar;30(3):125-9.

25. Ruano J, López-Miranda J, de la Torre R, et al. Intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil improves the postprandial prothrombotic profile in hypercholesterolemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;86(2):341-6.

26. Covas MI, Nyyssonen K, Poulsen HE, et al. The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Sep 5;145(5):333-41.

27. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2004/ucm108368.htm. Accessed September 20, 2010.

28. Puel C, Coxam V, Davicco MJ. Mediterranean diet and osteoporosis prevention. Med Sci (Paris). 2007 Aug-Sep;23(8-9):756-60.

29. Trichopoulou A, Georgiou E, Bassiakos Y, et al. Energy intake and monounsaturated fat in relation to bone mineral density among women and men in Greece. Prev Med. 1997 May-Jun;26(3):395-400.

30. Santiago-Mora R, Casado-Díaz A, De Castro MD, Quesada-Gómez JM. Oleuropein enhances osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis: the effect on differentiation in stem cells derived from bone marrow. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Feb;22(2):675-84.

31. Puel C, Quintin A, Agalias A, et al. Olive oil and its main phenolic micronutrient (oleuropein) prevent inflammation-induced bone loss in the ovariectomised rat. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jul;92(1):119-27.

32. Fito M, Cladellas M, de la Torre R, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of virgin olive oil in stable coronary disease patients: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;62(4):570-4.

33. Berbert AA, Kondo CR, Almendra CL, Matsuo T, Dichi I. Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition. 2005 Feb;21(2):131-6.

34. Mena MP, Sacanella E, Vazquez-Agell M, et al. Inhibition of circulating immune cell activation: a molecular antiinflammatory effect of the Mediterranean diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;89(1):248-56.

35. Bogani P, Galli C, Villa M, Visioli F. Postprandial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jan;190(1):181-6.

36. Martínez-Domínguez E, de la Puerta R, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V. Protective effects upon experimental inflammation models of a polyphenol-supplemented virgin olive oil diet. Inflamm Res. 2001 Feb;50(2):102-6.

37. Berr C, Portet F, Carriere I, et al. Olive oil and cognition: results from the three-city study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009;28(4):357-64.

38. Pitt J, Roth W, Lacor P, et al. Alzheimer's-associated Abeta oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009 Oct 15;240(2):189-97.

39. González-Correa JA, Navas MD, Lopez-Villodres JA, Trujillo M, Espartero JL, De La Cruz JP. Neuroprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol acetate in rat brain slices subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Dec 3;446(2-3):143-6.

40. Perez-Jimenez F, Alvarez de Cienfuegos G, Badimon L, et al. International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil. Eur J Clin Invest. 2005 Jul;35(7):421-4.

41. Machowetz A, Poulsen HE, Gruendel S, et al. Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans. FASEB J. 2007 Jan;21(1):45-52.

42. Menendez JA, Lupu R. Mediterranean dietary traditions for the molecular treatment of human cancer: anti-oncogenic actions of the main olive oil's monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (18:1n-9). Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006 Dec;7(6):495-502.

43. Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S, et al. Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Jan 18;87(2):110-6.

44. Garcia-Segovia P, Sanchez-Villegas A, Doreste J, Santana F, Serra-Majem L. Olive oil consumption and risk of breast cancer in the Canary Islands: a population-based case-control study. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1A):163-7.

45. Hashim YZ, Eng M, Gill CI, McGlynn H, Rowland IR. Components of olive oil and chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. Nutr Rev. 2005 Nov;63(11):374-86.

46. Kountouri AM, Kaliora AC, Koumbi L, Andrikopoulos NK. In-vitro gastric cancer prevention by a polyphenol-rich extract from olives through induction of apoptosis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009 Feb;18(1):33-9.

47. Norrish AE, Jackson RT, Sharpe SJ, Skeaff CM. Men who consume vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fat: their dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer (New Zealand). Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Aug;11(7):609-15.

48. Kong JS, Yoo SA, Kim HS, et al. Inhibition of synovial hyperplasia, rheumatoid T cell activation, and experimental arthritis in mice by sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Jan;62(1):159-70.

49. Dong L, Xia S, Gao F, Zhang D, Chen J, Zhang J. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane attenuates experimental arthritis and osteoclastogenesis. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Mar 1;79(5):715-21.

50. Dey M, Kuhn P, Ribnicky D, Premkumar V, Reuhl K, Raskin I. Dietary phenethylisothiocyanate attenuates bowel inflammation in mice. BMC Chem Biol. 2010 Apr 27;10:4.

51. Ovesen LF. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of ischemic heart disease. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005 Jun 20;167(25-31):2742-7.

52. Xu Y, Szép S, Lu Z. The antioxidant role of thiocyanate in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and other inflammation-related diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 1;106(48):20515-9.

53. Riedl MA, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clin Immunol. 2009 Mar;130(3):244-51.

54. Zakkar M, Van der Heiden K, Luong le A, et al. Activation of Nrf2 in endothelial cells protects arteries from exhibiting a proinflammatory state. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009 Nov;29(11):1851-7.

55. Adams MR, Golden DL, Chen H, Register TC, Gugger ET. A diet rich in green and yellow vegetables inhibits atherosclerosis in mice. J Nutr. 2006 Jul;136(7):1886-9.

56. Kim HJ, Barajas B, Wang M, Nel AE. Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane restores the age-related decrease of T(H)1 immunity: role of dendritic cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 May;121(5):1255-1261.e7.

57. Moeller SM, Jacques PF, Blumberg JB. The potential role of dietary xanthophylls in cataract and age-related macular degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):522S-527S.

58. Tavani A, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Food and nutrient intake and risk of cataract. Ann Epidemiol. 1996 Jan;6(1):41-6.

59. Noyan-Ashraf MH, Sadeghinejad Z, Juurlink BH. Dietary approach to decrease aging-related CNS inflammation. Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(2):101-10.

60. Brennan P, Hsu CC, Moullan N, et al. Effect of cruciferous vegetables on lung cancer in patients stratified by genetic status: a mendelian randomisation approach. Lancet. 2005 Oct 29;366(9496):1558-60.

61. Kuang YF, Chen YH. Induction of apoptosis in a non-small cell human lung cancer cell line by isothiocyanates is associated with p53 and p21. Food Chem Toxic 2004 Oct; 42(10):1711-8.

62. Tang L, Zirpoli GR, Guru K, et al. Consumption of raw cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Apr;17(4):938-44.

63. Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Apr 7; 91(7):605-12.

64. Bonnesen C, Eggleston IM, Hayes JD. Dietary indoles and isothiocyanates that are generated from cruciferous vegetables can both stimulate apoptosis and confer protection against DNA damage in human colon cell lines. Cancer Res. 2001 Aug 15; 61(6):6120-30.

65. Frydoonfar HR, McGrath DR, Spigelman AD. Sulforaphane inhibits growth of a colon cancer cell line. Colorectal Dis. 2004 Jan;6(1):28-31.

66. Plate AY, Gallaher DD. Effects of indole-3-carbinol and phenethyl isothiocyanate on colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Feb;27(2):287-92.

67. Lin HJ, Probst-Hensch NM, Louie AD, et al. Glutathione transferase null genotype, broccoli, and lower prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998 Aug;7(8):647-52.

68. Tadi K, Chang Y, Ashok BT, et al. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane, a cruciferous vegetable derived synthetic anti-proliferative compound in thyroid disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Nov 25;337(3):1019-25.

69. Ambrosone CB, McCann SE, Freudenheim JL, et al. Breast cancer risk in premenopausal women is inversely associated with consumption of broccoli, a source of isothiocyanates, but is not modified by GST genotype. J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1134-8.

70. Fowke JH, Longcope C, Hebert JR. Brassica vegetable consumption shifts estrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Aug;9(8):773-9.

71. Tseng E, Scott-Ramsay EA, Morris ME. Dietary organic isothiocyanates are cytotoxic in human breast cancer MCF-7 and mammary epithelial MCF-12A cell lines. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Sep;229(8):835-42.

72. Qi M, Anderson AE, Chen DZ, Sun S, Auborn KJ. Indole-3-carbinol prevents PTEN loss in cervical cancer in vivo. Mol Med. 2005 Jan;11(1-12):59-63.

73. Li ZD, Hu XW, Wang YT, Fang J. Apigenin inhibits proliferation of ovarian cancer A2780 cells through Id1. FEBS Lett. 2009 Jun 18;583(12):1999-2003.

74. Chiao JW, Wu H, Ramaswamy G, et al. Ingestion of an isothiocyanate metabolite from cruciferous vegetables inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Carcinogenesis. 2004 25:1403-8.

75. Srivastava SK, Xiao D, Lew KL, et al. Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Carcinogenesis. 2003 Oct; 24(10):1665-70.

76. Traka M, Gasper AV, Melchini A, et al. Broccoli consumption interacts with GSTM1 to perturb oncogenic signalling pathways in the prostate. PLoS ONE. 2008 Jul 2;3(7):e2568.

77. Basu A, Haldar S. Anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on human pancreatic cancer cells is linked to death receptor activation and RasGAP/Rac1 down-modulation. Int J Oncol. 2009 Sep;35(3):593-9.

78. Sun T, Powers JR, Tang J. Enzyme-catalyzed change of antioxidants content and antioxidant activity of asparagus juice. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 10;55(1):56-60.

79. Zhao J, Zhang W, Zhu X, et al. The aqueous extract of Asparagus officinalis L. by-product exerts hypoglycaemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Aug 30;91(11):2095-9.

80. Kim BY, Cui ZG, Lee SR, et al. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism. J Food Sci. 2009 Sep;74(7):H204-8.

81. Macho A, Lucena C, Sancho R, et al. Non-pungent capsaicinoids from sweet pepper synthesis and evaluation of the chemopreventive and anticancer potential. Eur J Nutr. 2003 Jan;42(1):2-9.

82. Fusco BM, Giacovazzo M. Peppers and pain. The promise of capsaicin. Drugs. 1997 Jun;53(6):909-14.

83. Jeong WY, Jin JS, Cho YA, et al. Determination of polyphenols in three Capsicum annuum L. (bell pepper) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Their contribution to overall antioxidant and anticancer activity. J Sep Sci. 2011 Sep 6.

84. Hervert-Hernández D, Sáyago-Ayerdi SG, Goñi I. Bioactive compounds of four hot pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.), antioxidant capacity, and intestinal bioaccessibility. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Mar 24;58(6):3399-406.

85. Luqman S, Meena A, Marler LE, Kondratyuk TP, Pezzuto JM. Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α-Induced Nuclear Factor κB activation and aromatase Activity by capsaicin and its analog capsazepine. J Med Food. 2011 Jun 11.

86. Kolarovic J, Popovic M, Mikov M, Mitic R, Gvozdenovic L. Protective effects of celery juice in treatments with Doxorubicin. Molecules. 2009 Apr 24;14(4):1627-38.

87. Al-Howiriny T, Alsheikh A, Alqasoumi S, Al-Yahya M, ElTahir K, Rafatullah S. Gastric antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties of celery (Apium graveolens) in rats. Pharm Biol. 2010 Jul;48(7):786-93.

88. Mencherini T, Cau A, Bianco G, Della Loggia R, Aquino RP, Autore G. An extract of Apium graveolens var. dulce leaves: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;59(6):891-7.

89. Zhou Y, Taylor B, Smith TJ, et al. A novel compound from celery seed with a bactericidal effect against Helicobacter pylori. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;61(8):1067-77.

90. Sultana S, Ahmed S, Jahangir T, Sharma S. Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development. Cancer Lett. 2005 Apr 18;221(1):11-20.

91. Longnecker MP, Newcomb PA, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Intake of carrots, spinach, and supplements containing vitamin A in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Nov;6(11):887-92.

92. Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Sep 15;156(6):536-47.

93. Gramenzi A, Gentile A, Fasoli M, Negri E, Parazzini F, La Vecchia C. Association between certain foods and risk of acute myocardial infarction in women. BMJ. 1990 Mar 24;300(6727):771-3.

94. Budoff MJ, Ahmadi N, Gul KM, et al. Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial. Prev Med. 2009 Aug-Sep;49(2-3):101-7.

95. Borek C. Garlic reduces dementia and heart-disease risk. J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):810S-812S.

96. Anoush M, Eghbal MA, Fathiazad F, Hamzeiy H, Kouzehkonani NS. The protective effects of garlic extract against acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress and glutathione depletion. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009 May 15;12(10):765-71.

97. Josling P. Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Adv Ther. 2001 Jul-Aug;18(4):189-93.

98. Sowjanya BL, Devi KR, Madhavi D. Modulatory effects of garlic extract against the cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes in vitro. J Environ Biol. 2009 Sep;30(5):663-6.

99. Pruijm M, Wuerzer G, Forni V, Bochud M, Pechère-Bertschi A, Burnier M. Nutrition and hypertension: more than table salt. Rev Med Suisse. 2010 Sep 15;6(262):1715-6, 1718-20.

100. Kuriyama I, Musumi K, Yonezawa Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of glycolipids fraction from spinach on mammalian DNA polymerase activity and human cancer cell proliferation. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Oct;16(10):594-601.

101. Wang Y, Chang CF, Chou J, et al. Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage. Exp Neurol. 2005 May;193(1):75-84.

102. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 15;19(18):8114-21.

103. Breitbart E, Lomnitski L, Nyska A, et al. Effects of water-soluble antioxidant from spinach, NAO, on doxorubicin-induced heart injury. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Jul;20(7):337-45.

104. Ait M'barek L, Ait Mouse H, Jaâfari A, et al. Cytotoxic effect of essential oil of thyme (Thymus broussonettii) on the IGR-OV1 tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007 Nov;40(11):1537-44.

105. Kulisić T, Krisko A, Dragović-Uzelac V, Milos M, Pifat G. The effects of essential oils and aqueous tea infusions of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) on the copper-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 Mar;58(2):87-93.

106. Naemura A, Ura M, Yamashita T, Arai R, Yamamoto J. Long-term intake of rosemary and common thyme herbs inhibits experimental thrombosis without prolongation of bleeding time. Thromb Res. 2008;122(4):517-22.

107. Kemmerich B. Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of dry extracts of thyme herb and primrose root in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007 57(9):607-15.

108. Bukovská A, Cikos S, Juhás S, Il'ková G, Rehák P, Koppel J. Effects of a combination of thyme and oregano essential oils on TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Mediators Inflamm. 2007;2007: 23296.

109. Schnitzler P, Koch C, Reichling J. Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 May;51(5):1859-62.

110. Santoro GF, das Graças Cardoso M, Guimarães LG, Salgado AP, Menna-Barreto RF, Soares MJ. Effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oils on Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) growth and ultrastructure. Parasitol Res. 2007 Mar;100(4):783-90.

111. Ozsoy-Sacan O, Yanardag R, Orak H, Ozgey Y, Yarat A, Tunali T. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) extract versus glibornuride on the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):175-81.

112. Johnson JJ. Carnosol: a promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Cancer Lett. 2011 Jun 1;305(1):1-7.

113. Yarnell E. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract. World J Urol. 2002 Nov;20(5):285-93.

114. Opalchenova G, Obreshkova D. Comparative studies on the activity of basil--an essential oil from Ocimum basilicum L.--against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas by using different test methods. J Microbiol Methods. 2003 Jul;54(1):105-10.

115. Wan J, Wilcock A, Coventry MJ. The effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. J Appl Microbiol. 1998 Feb;84(2):152-8.

116. Elgayyar M, Draughon FA, Golden DA, Mount JR. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms. J Food Prot. 2001 Jul;64(7):1019-24.

117. Wood N, Johnson RB. The relationship between tomato intake and congestive heart failure risk in periodontitis subjects. J Clin Periodontol. 2004 Jul;31(7):574-80.

118. Silaste ML, Alfthan G, Aro A, et al. Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation. Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec;98(6):1251-8.

119. Hu MY, Li YL, Jiang CH, Liu ZQ, Qu SL, Huang YM. Comparison of lycopene and fluvastatin effects on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in rabbits. Nutrition. 2008 Oct;24(10):1030-8.

120. Sesso HD, Liu S, Gaziano JM, Buring JE. Dietary lycopene, tomato-based food products and cardiovascular disease in women. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7):2336-41.

121. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Mar 6;94(5):391-8.

122. Yamamoto J, Taka T, Yamada K, et al. Tomatoes have natural anti-thrombotic effects. Br J Nutr. 2003 Dec;90(6):1031-8.

123. Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB. Normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Am J Med. 2008 Jun;121(6):519-24.

124. Kato M, Noda M, Suga H, Matsumoto M, Kanazawa Y. Fasting plasma glucose and incidence of diabetes—implication for the threshold for impaired fasting glucose: results from the population-based Omiya MA cohort study. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16(6):857-61.

125. Lorenzo C, Okoloise M, Williams K, Stern MP, Haffner SM. The metabolic syndrome as predictor of type 2 diabetes: the San Antonio heart study. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):3153-9.

126. Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA. 2002 Dec 4;288(21):2709-16.

127. Dandona P, Aljada A, Chaudhuri A, Mohanty P, Garg R. Metabolic syndrome: a comprehensive perspective based on interactions between obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. Circulation. 2005 Mar 22;111(11):1448-54.

128. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 2002 Jan 16;287(3):356-9.

129. Ashok BT, Chen YG, Liu X, et al. Multiple molecular targets of indole-3-carbinol, a chemopreventive anti-estrogen in breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Aug;11 Suppl 2S86-S93.

130. Garikapaty VP, Ashok BT, Chen YG, et al. Anti-carcinogenic and anti-metastatic properties of indole-3-carbinol in prostate cancer. Oncol Rep. 2005 Jan;13(1):89-93.

131. Nachshon-Kedmi M, Yannai S, Haj A, Fares FA. Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Jun;41(6):745-52.

132. Yuan F, Chen DZ, Liu K, et al. Anti-estrogenic activities of indole-3-carbinol in cervical cells: implication for prevention of cervical cancer. Anticancer Res. 1999 May;19(3A):1673-80.

133. Ge X, Yannai S, Rennet G, Gruener N, Fares FA. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 1996 Nov 1;228(1):153–8.

134. Li Y, Chinni SR, Sarkar FH. Selective growth regulatory and pro-apoptotic effects of DIM is mediated by AKT and NF-kappaB pathways in prostate cancer cells. Front Biosci. 2005 Jan 1;10:236-43.

135. Rahman KW, Sarkar FH. Inhibition of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B contributes to 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2005 Jan 1;65(1):364-71.

136. Chang X, Tou JC, Hong C, et al. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane inhibits angiogenesis and the growth of transplantable human breast carcinoma in athymic mice. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr;26(4):771-8.

137. Chen DZ, Qi M, Auborn KJ, Carter TH.Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and in murine HPV16-transgenic preneoplastic cervical epithelium. J Nutr. 2001 Dec;131(12):3294-302.

138. Clarke JD, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):291-304.

139. Jackson SJ, Singletary KW. Sulforaphane: a naturally occurring mammary carcinoma mitotic inhibitor, which disrupts tubulin polymerization. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Feb;25(2):219-27.

140. Singh AV, Xiao D, Lew KL, et al. Sulforaphane induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in cultured PC-3 human prostate cancer cells and retards growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jan 25;25(1):83-90.

141. Frydoonfar HR, McGrath DR, Spigelman AD. Sulforaphane inhibits growth of a colon cancer cell line. Colorectal Dis. 2004 Jan;6(1):28-31.

142. Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 May 28; 99(11):7610-5.

143. Fang J, Zhou Q, Liu LZ, et al. Apigenin inhibits tumor angiogenesis through decreasing HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Apr;28(4):858-64.

144. Lee WJ, Chen WK, Wang CJ, Lin WL, Tseng TH. Apigenin inhibits HGF-promoted invasive growth and metastasis involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway and beta 4 integrin function in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Jan 15;226(2):178-91.

145. Hu XW, Meng D, Fang J. Apigenin inhibited migration and invasion of human ovarian cancer A2780 cells through focal adhesion kinase. Carcinogenesis. 2008 Dec;29(12):2369-76.

146. Salabat MR, Melstrom LG, Strouch MJ, et al. Geminin is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and downregulated by the bioflavanoid apigenin in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Mol Carcinog. 2008 Nov;47(11):835-44.

147. Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, et al. Association of urinary bisphenol A concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. JAMA. 2008 Sep 17;300(11):1303-10.

148. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20100518/canned-food-may-expose-people-to-bpa. Accessed September 27, 2011.

149. Choi IS, Cho JH, Park EJ, et al. Multiple effects of bisphenol A, an endocrine disrupter, on GABA(A) receptors in acutely dissociated rat CA3 pyramidal neurons. Neurosci Res. 2007 Sep;59(1):8-17.

150. Ho SM, Tang WY, Belmonte de FJ, Prins GS. Developmental exposure to estradiol and bisphenol A increases susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis and epigenetically regulates phosphodiesterase type 4 variant 4. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 1;66(11):5624-32.