Life Extension Magazine July 2011
As We See It
An Epidemic of Denial
By William Faloon
By William Faloon
Chronically Bloated Bloodstreams an Obesity Culprit
Another culprit involved in age-related weight gain is that our bloodstreams become chronically bloated with glucose, insulin, and triglycerides.60-64 One reason for this is that aging people lose their sensitivity to insulin.
As glucose accumulates in the bloodstream, the pancreas secretes insulin to reduce blood glucose. (Type 2 diabetes results when the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin to control blood sugar levels as cells throughout the body lose sensitivity to insulin.) In the presence of high fasting insulin (hyperinsulinemia), sustained weight loss can become difficult to achieve.
A diet high in unhealthy fats and simple carbohydrates results in chronically elevated blood triglyceride levels. These triglycerides further impair insulin sensitivity and contribute to glucose dysregulation and elevated insulin levels.65
Life Extension’s longstanding position is that diabetes and obesity prevention begins by eating less calories. Futhermore, blocking the negative impact of excess amounts of simple carbohydrate and fat calories by taking certain nutrients and/or drugs before heavy meals can also reduce the calorie burden.
Further steps to improve systemic insulin sensitivity can result in a reversal of metabolic derangements associated with obesity, including the insulin resistance observed in the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Study subjects taking the new dual plant extract showed reductions in triglyceride and glucose blood levels.50 This indicates these plants are functioning across a broad spectrum of biological activities to correct underlying metabolic imbalances that predispose aging humans to weight gain.
A Powerful New Weapon…
According to the US Depart-ment of Agriculture, Americans consumed an extra 331 calories each day in the year 2006, compared with 1978. That translates into roughly 34 pounds of stored body fat.66
Virtually everyone consumes excess calories that they could cut out without depriving themselves. It is not unreasonable for a doctor to ask an overweight patient to determine which calories are the least important and to delete these from one’s normal diet. Examples are eliminating bread and butter before a meal or a dessert after a meal if these are not vital to achieving satiety. Once one gets used to cutting calories that are not that important, it is easy to stay away from them over the long term. An article in this month’s issue by the founders of the CR Way Program sheds new light on the multiple benefits that occur when humans reduce their calorie burdens.
A problem most in the Western world face is that they consume too many calories even when trying to cut back. This is why it is so important for anyone seeking to lose weight (and live longer) to reduce the number of ingested calories that make it into the bloodstream. Fortunately, there are nutrients and safe medications that neutralize enzymes in the digestive tract that break down food for rapid absorption into the bloodstream. We urge any overweight member to take nutrients and/or medications before meals that impede calorie absorption to lower blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides.
You might think that cutting back a bit on how much you eat and impeding absorption of fats and carbohydrates would induce considerable weight loss. For some individuals, significant weight loss will occur. For most overweight and obese individuals, however, they need to improve calorie utilization at the cellular level and mobilize their surplus fat stores in order to achieve a safe body weight.
Fortunately, a novel dual plant extract technology has been developed that functions to inhibit the development of bloated, dysfunctional adipocytes, impede the uptake of fatty acids into adipocytes, and facilitate the breakdown of stored lipids in existing adipocytes.
The dual plant extract described in the first article in this month’s issue provides a powerful new weapon for those seeking to achieve healthier body weight, especially when it comes to reducing stubborn visceral fat that accumulates in the bellies of so many aging individuals.
For longer life,
1. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2003-05-13-obesity-usat_x.htm. Accessed April 21, 2011.
2. Available at: http://www.harrisinteractive.com/NewsRoom/HarrisPolls/tabid/447/mid/1508/articleId/558/ctl/ReadCustom%20Default/Default.aspx.
3. Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ. 2007 Dec 1;335(7630):1134.
4. Calle EE, Kaaks R. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004 Aug;4(8):579-91.
5. Schapira DV, Kumar NB, Lyman GH. Estimate of breast cancer risk reduction with weight loss. Cancer. 1991 May 15;67(10):2622-5.
6. Lorincz AM, Sukumar S. Molecular links between obesity and breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006;13:279–92.
7. Pan SY, DesMeules M, Morrison H, Wen SW. Obesity, high energy intake, lack of physical activity, and the risk of kidney cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Dec;15(12):2453-60.
8. Ahrens W, Timmer A, Vyberg M, et al. Risk factors for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men: medical conditions and lifestyle: results from a European multicentre case-control study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Aug;19(8):623-30.
9. Ceschi M, Gutzwiller F, Moch H, Eichholzer M, Probst-Hensch NM. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of obesity as cause of cancer. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007;137:50–6.
10. Despres JP, Lemieux I. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nature. 2006 Dec 14;444(7121):881-7.
11. Hirani V, Zaninotto P, Primatesta P. Generalised and abdominal obesity and risk of diabetes, hypertension and hypertension-diabetes co-morbidity in England. Public Health Nutr. 2008 May;11(5):521-7.
12. Meisinger C, Doring A, Thorand B, Heier M, Lowel H. Body fat distribution and risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population: are there differences between men and women? The MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep;84(3):483-9.
13. Kenchaiah S, Evans JC, Levy D, et al. Obesity and the risk of heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2002 Aug 1;347(5):305-13.
14. Logue J, Murray HM, Welsh P, et al. Obesity is associated with fatal coronary heart disease independently of traditional risk factors and deprivation. Heart. 2011 Apr;97(7):564-8.
15. Arnlov J, Ingelsson E, Sundstrom J, Lind L. Impact of body mass index and the metabolic syndrome on the risk of cardiovascular disease and death in middle-aged men. Circulation. 2010 Jan 19;121(2):230-6.
16. Wong CY, O’Moore-Sullivan T, Leano R, Byrne N, Beller E, Marwick TH. Alterations of left ventricular myocardial characteristics associated with obesity. Circulation. 2004 Nov 9;110(19):3081-7.
17. Safar ME, Czernichow S, Blacher J. Obesity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular risk. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4 Suppl 2):S109-11.
18. Calabro P, Yeh ET. Intra-abdominal adiposity, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk: new insight into global cardiometabolic risk. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2008 Feb;10(1):32-8.
19. Suk SH, Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, et al. Abdominal obesity and risk of ischemic stroke: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Stroke. 2003 Jul;34(7):1586-92.
20. Yatsuya H, Folsom AR, Yamagishi K, North KE, Brancati FL, Stevens J. Race- and sex-specific associations of obesity measures with ischemic stroke incidence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Stroke. 2010 Mar;41(3):417-25.
21. O’Donnell MJ, Xavier D, Liu L, et al. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral aemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study. Lancet. 2010 Jul 10;376(9735):112-23.
22. Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Berger K, et al. Body mass index and the risk of stroke in men. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Dec 9-23;162(22):2557-62.
23. Bosnar-Pureti M, Basi-Kes V, Jurasi MJ, Zavoreo I, Demarin V. The association of obesity and cerebrovascular disease in young adults--a pilot study. Acta Clin Croat. 2009 Sep;48(3):295-8.
24. Available at: http://www.wfaa.com/news/health/Study-75-percent-of-Americans-will-be-overweight-by-2020-103639534.html. Accessed April 21, 2011.
25. Available at: http://www.unitedhealthgroup.com/hrm/UNH_WorkingPaper5_FactSheet.pdf. Accessed April 12, 2011.
26. Krotkiewski M, Bjorntorp P, Sjostrom L, Smith U. Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women. Importance of regional adipose tissue distribution. J Clin Invest. 1983 Sep;72(3):1150-62.
27. Arner E, Westermark PO, Spalding KL, et al. Adipocyte turnover: relevance to human adipose tissue morphology. Diabetes. 2010 Jan;59(1):105-9.
28. Karlsson EA, Beck MA. The burden of obesity on infectious disease. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Dec;235(12): 1412-24.
29. Smith AG, Sheridan PA, Harp JB, Beck MA. Diet-induced obese mice have increased mortality and altered immune responses when infected with influenza virus. J Nutr. 2007 May;137(5):1236-43.
30. Louie JK, Acosta M, Samuel MC, et al. A novel risk factor for a novel virus: obesity and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb;52(3):301-12.
31. Karlsson EA, Sheridan PA, Beck MA. Diet-induced obesity impairs the T cell memory response to influenza virus infection. J Immunol. 2010 Mar 15;184(6):3127-33.
32. Leveille SG, Wee CC, Iezzoni LI. Trends in obesity and arthritis among baby boomers and their predecessors, 1971-2002. Am J Public Health. 2005 Sep;95(9):1607-13.
33. Voigt LF, Koepsell TD, Nelson JL, Dugowson CE, Daling JR. Smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Epidemiology. 1994 Sep;5(5):525-32.
34. Badley EM, Ansari H. Arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations in the United States and Canada: a cross-border comparison. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 Mar;62(3):308-15.
35. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5939.pdf. Accessed April 12, 2011.
36. O’Shea D, Cawood TJ, O’Farrelly C, Lynch L. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 25;5(1):e8660.
37. Available at: http://www.nature.com/oby/journal/v17/n3/full/oby2008565a.html. Accessed April 13, 2011.
38. Available at: http://endo.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/149/7/3370.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2011.
39. Nave H, Beutel G, Kielstein JT. Obesity-related immunodeficiency in patients with pandemic influenza H1N1. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Jan;11(1):14-5.
40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hospitalized patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection - California, April-May, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 May 22;58(19):536-41.
41. Pan CY, Gao Y, Chen JW, et al. Efficacy of acarbose in Chinese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Sep;61(3):183-90.
42. Hauner H. The impact of pharmacotherapy on weight management in type 2 diabetes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Jun;23 Suppl 7:S12-7.
43. Golay A. Metformin and body weight. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Jan;32(1):61-72.
44. Desilets AR, Dhakal-Karki S, Dunican KC. Role of metformin for weight management in patients without type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Jun;42(6):817-26.
45. Paolisso G, Amato L, Eccellente R, et al. Effect of metformin on food intake in obese subjects. Eur J Clin Invest. 1998 Jun;28(6):441-6.
46. Fontbonne A, Charles MA, Juhan-Vague I, et al. The effect of metformin on the metabolic abnormalities associated with upper body fat distribution. Results of the BIGPRO 1 trial. Diabetes Care. 1996 Sept; 19:920-6.
47. Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, et al. Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 2;363(23):2211-9.
48. Guo W, Pirtskhalava T, Tchkonia T, et al. Aging results in paradoxical susceptibility of fat cell progenitors to lipotoxicity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Apr;292(4):E1041-51.
49. Results based on initial analysis of unpublished research data.
50. Lau FC, Golakoti T, Krishnaraju AV, Sengupta K, Bagchi D. Efficacy and tolerability of Merastin™- A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. FASEB J. April 2011; 25:(Meeting Abstract Supplement) 601.9. Presented at Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC. April 10, 2011. Program No. 601.9, Poster No. A278.
51. Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Waki H, et al. The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nat Med. 2001;7:941-6.
52. Shand BI, Scott RS, Elder PA, George PM. Plasma adiponectin in overweight, nondiabetic individuals with or without insulin resistance. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2003 Sep;5(5):349-53.
53. Yamamoto Y, Hirose H, Saito I, Nishikai K, Saruta T. Adeponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, predicts future insulin resistance: two-year follow-up study in Japanese population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jan;89(1):87-90.
54. Ryo M, Nakamura T, Kihara S, et al. Adeponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome. Circ J. 2004 Nov;68(11):975-81.
55. Fasshauer M, Paschke R, Stumvoll M. Adeponectin, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Biochimie. 2004 Nov;86(11):779-84.
56. Pischon T, Girman CJ, Hotamisligil GS, Rifai N, Hu FB, Rimm EB. Plasma adiponectin levels and risk of myocardial infarction in men. JAMA. 2004 Jul 7;292(1):40.
57. Han SH, Quon MJ, Kim JA, Koh KK. Adeponectin and cardiovascular disease: response to therapeutic interventions. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Feb 6;49(5):531-8.
58. Kumada M, Kihara S, Sumitsuji S, et al. Association of hypoadiponectinemia with coronary artery disease in men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Jan 1;23(1):85-9.
59. Okui H, Hamasaki S, Ishida S, et al. Adeponectin is a better predictor of endothelial function of the coronary artery than HOMA-R, body mass index, immunoreactive insulin, or triglycerides. Int J Cardiol. 2008 May 7;126(1):53-61.
60. Ribeiro RT, Afonso RA, Guarino MP, Macedo MP. Loss of postprandial insulin sensitization during aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Jun;63(6):560-5.
61. Preuss HG. Effects of glucose/insulin perturbations on aging and chronic disorders of aging: the evidence. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Oct;16(5):397-403.
62. Godsland IF, Crook D, Walton C, Wynn V, Oliver MF. Influence of insulin resistance, secretion, and clearance on serum cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure in healthy men. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992 Sep;12(9):1030-5.
63. Ginsberg HN, Zhang YL, Hernandez-Ono A. Regulation of plasma triglycerides in insulin resistance and diabetes. Arch Med Res. 2005 May-Jun;36(3):232-40.
64. Simental-Mendía LE, Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. The product of fasting glucose and triglycerides as surrogate for identifying insulin resistance in apparently healthy subjects. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2008 Dec;6(4):299-304.
65. Chalkley SM, Hettiarachchi M, Chisholm DJ, Kraegen EW. Long-term high-fat feeding leads to severe insulin resistance but not diabetes in Wistar rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jun;282(6):E1231-8.
66. Available at: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2010/05/12/white-house-obesity-report-suggests-more-pe-is-not-enough/. Accessed April 13, 2011.
67. Silk AW, McTigue KM. Reexamining the physical examination for obese patients.
68. Moss BG, Yeaton WH. Young children’s weight trajectories and associated risk factors: results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Am J Health Promot. 2011 Jan-Feb;25(3):190-8.