Life Extension Magazine February 2012
Proven Methods to Reduce Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Levels
By William Faloon
Scientific studies indicate that any amount of fasting glucose over 85 mg/dL incrementally adds to heart attack risk.1
Postprandial glucose surges over 140 mg/dL lead to diabetic complications, even in those who are not diabetic.
If you can choose an ideal fasting glucose reading, it would probably be around 74 mg/dL.2 We know, however, that some people are challenged to keep their glucose under 100 mg/dL. What this means is that it is critically important for aging individuals to follow an aggressive program to suppress excess glucose as much as possible.
The good news is that many approaches that reduce glucose also lower insulin,3,4 LDL,3,5-7 triglycerides,3,8-10 and C-reactive protein,11 thereby slashing one’s risk of vascular disease,9,12-14 cancer,15-18 dementia,19-23 and a host of other degenerative disorders.
This month’s issue featured an in-depth review of green coffee bean extract that has been shown to reduce postprandial glucose levels by an average of 32%.24 It functions by inhibiting the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme that enables the body to create new surplus glucose and inappropriately release stored glucose from tissues.
To achieve optimal glucose levels, some people will need to take steps to impede glucose absorption and improve insulin sensitivity. In this section, we succinctly describe drugs, hormones, nutrients, and lifestyle changes that facilitate healthy glucose levels.
Since Life Extension® members know it is best to take dietary supplements with meals, it should not be difficult for them to make it a routine practice to shield their bloodstream from excessive calorie absorption by taking the proper nutrients before most meals.
An efficient way of obtaining nutrients that can impede the impact of carbohydrate and fat foods when taken before meals is a powdered drink mix that provides the nutrients in the box below.
For Sugar Addicts
For those whose glucose levels remain unacceptably high despite taking the powdered drink mix, there are encapsulated nutrients that work to specifically block the sucrase and glucosidase digestive enzymes. Sucrase breaks down sucrose to fructose and glucose, and glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage to all carbohydrates to release smaller sugars. Blocking these enzymes reduces the amount of glucose absorbed from dietary sources. One capsule containing L-arabinose and a special brown seaweed extract should be taken before eating sucrose (table sugar)-containing foods.34-36
Enhancing Insulin Sensitivity
Aging causes a loss of insulin sensitivity, which means that glucose that would normally be utilized by energy-producing cells instead either remains in the blood or converts to storage as triglycerides (in blood and fat cells) or glycogen in the liver.
A cinnamon extract has been developed to enhance the ability of insulin to drive blood glucose into muscle cells. This cinnamon compound that enhances insulin sensitivity is combined with brown seaweed extract (to inhibit the glucosidase enzyme) to provide additive control over glucose levels.36-42
An anti-diabetic drug that Life Extension suggests normal aging people consider taking to lower glucose is metformin (refer to article on page 56 of this month’s issue about metformin and cancer risk reduction). It is available in low-cost generic form.
Metformin has a long history of safe human use, plus intriguing data to suggest that it may possess anti-aging properties.43,44 We think that those with excess fasting blood glucose (above 80-85 mg/dL) should ask their doctor about metformin even if they are not diagnosed as diabetic.
Some of the side benefits of metformin include weight loss45-47 and triglyceride reduction,48-50 which are in themselves proven heart attack risk-reducers.
Metformin functions to reduce absorption of ingested carbohydrates,52-54 suppress appetite,55,56 enhance insulin sensitivity,57-59 and most uniquely, metformin inhibits the release of stored liver glucose (glycogen) back into the blood.60-63
One of the problems that frustrates so many people who follow a low-calorie diet, yet have persistently elevated glucose levels, is that the liver improperly dumps too much glucose into the blood. This of course is a vital life function in a starvation state, but for aging individuals, excess hepatic release of glycogen (called gluconeogenesis) causes them to suffer chronically high glucose and insulin levels. Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis.64,65
Another low-cost drug that lowers glucose levels is acarbose, which reduces the absorption of ingested carbohydrates by inhibiting the glucosidase and other sugar absorbing-enzymes in the small intestine. A typical dose is 50-100 mg of acarbose taken before each meal. Some people experience intestinal side effects, but otherwise, acarbose is highly efficacious in reducing blood glucose levels and reducing several cardiac risk markers in the blood.9,12,13
There are of course other FDA-approved drugs that will lower your glucose levels. Many of these drugs, however, function by mechanisms that carry side effect risks.
Life Extension stands on solid scientific ground in recommending that those with impaired glucose tolerance follow an aggressive program that involves eating healthier and smaller meals, exercising, and taking nutrients before meals that deflect the impact of excess calorie intake. Drugs like metformin may be considered for its multiple benefits that extend beyond mere glucose control. Acarbose should be utilized if glucose levels remain stubbornly high.
Normal aging is accompanied by a sharp decline in hormones that are involved in maintaining insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose control.
Restoring DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) levels to youthful ranges in men and women may help enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in the liver.66-70
Progressive doctors are realizing that in men, a testosterone deficiency can induce a serious reduction of insulin sensitivity. For men, restoring youthful levels of testosterone has been shown to be particularly beneficial in facilitating glucose control.71 Blood tests can assess your hormonal status so a man can replenish testosterone (and DHEA) to more youthful ranges. Optimal free testosterone blood levels in men are between 20-25 pg/mL.72
Life Extension has published articles showing that diabetic men can derive enormous benefits by restoring testosterone to youthful ranges, as opposed to overloading the body with excess insulin as mainstream doctors continue to do.73-75
People can achieve remarkable control over glucose levels by altering their diet and exercising more. Below are three dietary options to consider:
From a practical standpoint, achieving optimal glucose readings on your next blood test will probably involve a combination of the various approaches described in this section. Each individual will respond differently.
For some, a modest reduction in calorie intake and an increase in physical activity will sufficiently lower fasting and after-meal glucose levels. Most aging individuals, however, will need to take nutrients such as green coffee berry extract and other carbohydrate-enzyme inhibitors before heavy meals to impede the impact of ingested calories. Others should ask their doctor about prescription drugs such as metformin.
When one questions the importance of doing all this, please know that the incidence of pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is increasing at alarming rates. In fact, diseases related to glucose impairment are skyrocketing everywhere in the world that adopts unhealthy Western eating habits.
A medical catastrophe is predicted for the United States as the vast majority of the population is now overweight and suffers frighteningly high levels of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides.
The single most important component of one’s longevity program may be the steps taken before meals to neutralize the toxic effects of excess calories most of us invariably ingest.
Life Extension urges all members to enact a personal program designed to suppress fasting glucose levels to ranges below 86 mg/dL and keep two-hour after-meal glucose surges below 120-140 mg/dL. Fortunately, there is a wide range of options that enable aging humans to accomplish this profoundly effective anti-aging feat.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.
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