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Life Extension Magazine

 
LE Magazine June 2001

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Homocysteine

Vegan diet-based lifestyle program rapidly lowers homocysteine levels.

BACKGROUND: Plasma homocysteine levels have been directly associated with cardiac disease risk. Current research raises concerns as to whether comprehensive lifestyle approaches including a plant-based diet may interact with other known modulators of homocysteine levels. METHODS: We report our observations of homocysteine levels in 40 self-selected subjects who participated in a vegan diet-based lifestyle program. Each subject attended a residential lifestyle change program at the Lifestyle Center of America in Sulphur, Oklahoma and had fasting plasma total homocysteine measured on enrollment and then after one week of lifestyle intervention. The intervention included a vegan diet, moderate physical exercise, stress management and spirituality enhancement sessions, group support, and exclusion of tobacco, alcohol and caffeine. Vitamin B supplements known to reduce blood homocysteine levels were not provided. RESULTS: Subjects' mean homocysteine levels fell 13%: from 8.66 micromol/L (SD 2.7 micromol/L) to 7.53 micromol/L (SD 2.12 micromol/L; P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed that homocysteine decreased across a range of demographic and diagnostic categories. Conclusions. Our results suggest that broad-based lifestyle interventions favorably impact homocysteine levels. Furthermore, analysis of Lifestyle Center of America program components suggests that other factors in addition to B vitamin intake may be involved in the observed homocysteine lowering.

Prev Med 2000 Mar;30(3):225-33

Inhibition of endothelial cell thromboresistance by homocysteine.

Homocysteine (HC) is a highly reactive thiol intermediate in amino acid metabolism, which can modify the function of endothelial cells in a myriad of ways. In vitro, homocysteine can inhibit the thromboresistance properties of the endothelial cell by induction of procoagulant factors, inactivation of natural anticoagulant systems, and suppression of vasodilatory and platelet-modulating factors. HC also inhibits the fibrinolytic system by impairing the ability of the endothelial cell to bind tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), by interacting directly with the t-PA binding “tail” domain of its endothelial cell receptor, annexin II. Moreover, HC influences endothelial cell gene expression as exemplified by induction of the elongation factor-1 family of polypeptides, which promote polypeptide chain elongation during mRNA translation. Induction of EF-1 subunits alpha, beta, gamma and delta by homocysteine is associated with increased turnover of at least one free thiol-containing protein, suggesting that up-regulation of these subunits may represent a mechanism for replacement of damaged or modified proteins. A more complete understanding of the diverse effects of homocysteine on endothelial cell function may provide important clues to the precise role homocysteine may play in the initiation and progression of vascular disease.

J Nutr 2000 Feb;130(2S Suppl):373S-376S

Serum homocysteine concentration as an indicator of survival in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

BACKGROUND: Circulating homocysteine levels are predictive of survival in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The prognostic value of serum homocysteine levels, obtained in the acute phase in patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that circulating homocysteine levels, obtained during the first 24 hours following hospital admission in patients with acute coronary syndromes, are predictive of long-term mortality. METHODS: To test this hypothesis we performed a prospective inception cohort study at a teaching hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden. A total of 579 patients (179 women and 400 men; median age, 67 years) were included (Q-wave myocardial infarction in 163 patients, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction in 210 patients, unstable angina pectoris in 206 patients). Main Outcome Measure: All-cause mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 628 days, 65 patients died. The serum homocysteine level (mean [SD]) was significantly lower in long-term survivors (n = 514) than in nonsurvivors (n=65) (12.3 [7.0] vs 14.3 [5.9] pmol/L; P=.003). The relative risk (all-cause mortality) for patients with homocysteine levels in the upper quartile was 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.0) compared with that of patients in the 3 lower quartiles. After adjustment for relevant confounders, the relative risk estimate remained significant (relative risk= 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.80). In a stepwise model the homocysteine level provided prognostic information additional to that of patient age, diabetes mellitus, and diuretic usage prior to hospital admission (P=.03). CONCLUSION: The serum homocysteine level on hospital admission is an independent predictor of long-term survival in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Arch Intern Med 2000 Jun 26;160(12):1834-40

Folate Depletion and Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Promote Oxidative Stress in Rat Livers.

This study was designed to determine whether nutritional folate depletion exerts hepatic oxidative stress in relation to elevated plasma homocysteine. To mimic various extents of folate depletion status in vivo, male Wistar rats were fed an amino acid-defined diet containing either 8 (control), 2, 0.5, or 0 mg folic acid/kg diet. After a 4-wk feeding period, the plasma and hepatic folate concentrations of the rats decreased significantly with each decrement of dietary folate. Folate depletion did not significantly affect two major liver antioxidants: reduced glutathione and alpha-tocopherol. Conversely, folate depletion decreased Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, but had no effect on catalase activity in liver homogenates. Lipid peroxidation products, as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, were significantly higher in livers of folate-depleted rats than in those of the controls. This occurrence of hepatic oxidative stress in folate-depleted rats was confirmed by demonstrating an increased susceptibility of livers of folate-depleted rats to lipid peroxidation induced by additional H(2)O(2) or Fe(2+) treatments compared with the controls. Decreasing dietary folate intake resulted in graded increases in plasma homocysteine concentrations of folate-depleted rats. Elevated plasma homocysteine and decreased plasma and hepatic folate concentrations in folate-depleted rats were all strongly and significantly correlated with increased liver lipid peroxidation (|r| >/= 0.58, P: < 0.0003). These data demonstrate that folate depletion and elevated plasma homocysteine promote oxidative stress in rat livers.

J Nutr 2001 Jan;131(1):33-38

The effect of diet on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy male subjects.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of habitual omnivorous and vegetarian diets on folate and vitamin B12 status and the subsequent effect on homocysteine concentration. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of free-living habitual meat-eaters and habitual vegetarians. SETTING: The study was conducted at RMIT University, Melbourne. SUBJECTS: One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegans n=18, ovolacto vegetarians n=43, moderate meat-eaters n=60 and high meat-eaters n=18) aged 20-55 who were recruited in Melbourne. OUTCOME MEASURES: Fasting plasma or serum from each subject was analysed for folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine concentration. A semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was completed by a subset of subjects from each group to determine methionine intake. RESULTS: The two meat eating groups consumed significantly greater levels of methionine (P<0.001). There was no clear trend in plasma folate status between groups, however the plasma vitamin B12 concentration decreased progressively from the high-meat-eating group to vegans (P<0.05). An inverse trend was observed with plasma homocysteine concentration, with vegans showing the highest levels and high meat eaters the lowest (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary methionine intake has no observable effect on plasma homocysteine concentration. In habitual diets, where folate intake is adequate, lowered vitamin B12 intake from animal foods leads to depleted plasma vitamin B12 concentration with a concomitant increase in homocysteine concentration. The suggested mechanism is the failure to transfer a methyl group from methyl tetrahydrofolate by vitamin B12 in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine.

Eur J Clin Nutr 1999 Nov;53(11):895-9

Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population.

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Previous studies identified suboptimal nutritional status and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 as determinants of elevated tHcy. OBJECTIVE: We identified other nutritional factors associated with tHcy in 260 retired schoolteachers in the Baltimore metropolitan area. DESIGN: We performed observational analyses of baseline and 2-4-month follow-up data collected in a study designed to test the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial of vitamin supplements by mail. The study population consisted of 151 women and 109 men with a median age of 64 y. At baseline, each participant completed a food-frequency questionnaire. At follow-up, fasting serum tHcy was measured. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression and generalized linear models, there was an independent, inverse dose-response relation between dietary protein and In tHcy (P = 0.002) and a positive, significant dose-response relation between coffee consumption and In tHcy (P for trend = 0.01). Other significant predictors of In tHcy were creatinine (positive; P = 0.0001) and prestudy use of supplemental B vitamins (inverse; P = 0.03). In stratified analyses restricted to persons receiving standard multivitamin therapy, the association of 1n tHcy with dietary protein and coffee persisted. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that increased protein intake and decreased coffee consumption may reduce tHcy and potentially prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other disease outcomes.

Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Mar;69(3):467-75

Role of oxidant stress in endothelial dysfunction produced by experimental hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in humans.

BACKGROUND: Moderate elevations in plasma homocysteine concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that experimental perturbation of homocysteine levels produces resistance and conduit vessel endothelial dysfunction and that this occurs through increased oxidant stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: Oral administration of L-methionine (100 mg/kg) was used to induce moderate hyperhomocysteinemia ( approximately 25 micromol/L) in healthy human subjects. Endothelial function of forearm resistance vessels was assessed by use of forearm vasodilatation to brachial artery administration of the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine. Conduit vessel endothelial function was assessed with flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. Forearm resistance vessel dilatation to acetylcholine was significantly impaired 7 hours after methionine (methionine, 477+/-82%; placebo, 673+/-110%; P=0.016). Methionine did not alter vasodilatation to nitroprusside and verapamil. Flow-mediated dilatation was significantly impaired 8 hours after methionine loading (0.3+/-2.7%) compared with placebo (8. 2+/-1.6%, P=0.01). Oral administration of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (2 g) prevented methionine-induced endothelial dysfunction in both conduit and resistance vessels (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Experimentally increasing plasma homocysteine concentrations by methionine loading rapidly impairs both conduit and resistance vessel endothelial function in healthy humans. Endothelial dysfunction in conduit and resistance vessels may underlie the reported associations between homocysteine and atherosclerosis and hypertension. Increased oxidant stress appears to play a pathophysiological role in the deleterious endothelial effects of homocysteine.

Circulation 1999 Sep 14;100(11):1161-8

Homocysteine-dependent alterations in mitochondrial gene expression, function and structure. Homocysteine and H2O2 act synergistically to enhance mitochondrial damage.

Mitochondrial abnormalities have been identified in hepatocytes of patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and in endothelial cells from the aortas of rats with diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. However, the mechanism by which homocysteine affects mitochondria is unknown. In this report, homocysteine-induced expression of the mitochondrial electron transport chain gene, cytochrome c oxidase III/ATPase 6,8 (CO3/ATPase 6,8), was identified in a human megakaryocytic cell line DAMI using mRNA differential display. Steady-state mRNA levels of CO3/ATPase 6,8, as well as other mitochondrial transcripts, were increased in DAMI cells by homocysteine in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Despite an increase in mitochondrial RNA levels and changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure, no effect on either cell growth or mitochondrial respiration rates was observed in DAMI cells exposed to homocysteine at concentrations up to 1 mM. In contrast, 1 mM homocysteine in the presence of Cu2+, which is known to generate H2O2, significantly decreased mitochondrial RNA levels, caused gross morphological changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure, and inhibited both cell growth and mitochondrial respiration rates. However, precursors of cellular glutathione and preexposure to heat shock blocked the decrease in mitochondrial RNA levels caused by homocysteine and Cu2+. The observations that (i) homocysteine and H2O2, but not H2O2 alone, caused a decrease in mitochondrial RNA levels, (ii) intracellular levels of H2O2 were significantly increased in the presence of homocysteine and Cu2+, and (iii) catalase, but not free radical scavengers, prevented a decrease in mitochondrial RNA levels, provide evidence that homocysteine and H2O2 act synergistically to cause mitochondrial damage. Furthermore, our findings suggest that intracellular glutathione and heat shock proteins play a role in protecting mitochondria against the adverse effects elicited by homocysteine and H2O2.

J Biol Chem 1998 Nov 13;273(46):30808-17

Homocysteine induces iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein that is prevented by alpha-tocopherol.

Homocystinuria is an inborn error of methionine metabolism that is characterized by the premature development of arteriosclerosis. As one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has received widespread attention by many investigators. In this study, to elucidate the relationship between elevated homocysteine levels and premature arteriosclerosis, we investigated the role of homocysteine in the iron-catalyzed oxidative modification of LDL. When LDL isolated from a healthy subject was incubated with homocysteine and ferric ion, a gradual decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and fluorescent substances, and the fragmentation of apoprotein B (apoB) were observed. The extent of oxidative modification was dependent on the concentration of homocysteine. Modification of LDL was suppressed until the remaining alpha-tocopherol concentration reached a critical level. When the alpha-tocopherol content of LDL was increased by 2.6-fold, both the formation of TBARS and the fragmentation of apoB were suppressed. These results suggest that homocysteine might promote iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL and imply its role for the development of premature arteriosclerosis.

Free Radic Res 1994 Oct;21(5):267-76

Increased plasma homocysteine is an independent predictor of new coronary events in older persons.

A prospective study investigated the association of plasma homocysteine and other risk factors with the incidence of new coronary events at 31 +/- 9 month follow-up in 153 men and 347 women, mean age 81 +/- 9 years. The stepwise Cox regression model showed that significant independent predictors of new coronary events in older persons were age (risk ratio 1.041), plasma homocysteine (risk ratio 1.073), current cigarette smoking (risk ratio 2.524), hypertension (risk ratio 2.032), diabetes mellitus (risk ratio 2.022), serum total cholesterol (risk ratio 1.013), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (risk ratio 0.925), and serum triglycerides (risk ratio 1.004).

Am J Cardiol 2000 Aug 1;86(3):346-7

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Oxidative stress in the aging rat heart is reversed by dietary supplementation with (R)-alpha lipoic acid.

Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causal factor in the aging process of the heart and other tissues. To determine the extent of age-related myocardial oxidative stress, oxidant production, antioxidant status, and oxidative DNA damage were measured in hearts of young (2 months) and old (28 months) male Fischer 344 rats. Cardiac myocytes isolated from old rats showed a nearly threefold increase in the rate of oxidant production compared to young rats, as measured by the rates of 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate oxidation. Determination of myocardial antioxidant status revealed a significant twofold decline in the levels of ascorbic acid (P = 0.03), but not alpha-tocopherol. A significant age-related increase (P = 0.05) in steady-state levels of oxidative DNA damage was observed, as monitored by 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. To investigate whether dietary supplementation with (R)-alpha lipoic acid (LA) was effective at reducing oxidative stress, young and old rats were fed an AIN-93M diet with or without 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 wk before death. Cardiac myocytes from old, LA-supplemented rats exhibited a markedly lower rate of oxidant production that was no longer significantly different from that in cells from unsupplemented, young rats. Lipoic acid supplementation also restored myocardial ascorbic acid levels and reduced oxidative DNA damage. Our data indicate that the aging rat heart is under increased mitochondrial-induced oxidative stress, which is significantly attenuated by lipoic acid supplementation.

FASEB J. 2001 Mar;15(3):700-6.

Protection against oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance in rat L6 muscle cells by mircomolar concentrations of alpha lipoic acid.

In diabetic patients, alpha lipoic acid (LA) improves skeletal muscle glucose transport, resulting in increased glucose disposal; however, the molecular mechanism of action of LA is presently unknown. We studied the effects of LA on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in cultured rat L6 muscle cells that overexpress GLUT4. When 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake was measured in these cells, they were more sensitive and responsive to insulin than wild-type L6 cells. LA, at concentrations < or = 1 mmol/l, had only small effects on glucose transport in cells not exposed to oxidative stress. When cells were exposed to glucose oxidase and glucose to generate H2O2 and cause oxidative stress, there was a marked decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Pretreatment with LA over the concentration range of 10-1,000 pmol/l protected the insulin effect from inhibition by H2O2. Both the R and S isomers of LA were equally effective. In addition, oxidative stress caused a significant decrease (approximately 50%) in reduced glutathione concentration, along with the rapid activation of the stress-sensitive p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Pretreatment with LA prevented both of these events, coincident with protecting insulin action. These studies indicate that in muscle, the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, one important effect of LA on the insulin-signaling cascade is to protect cells from oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance.

Diabetes 2001 Feb;50(2):404-10

Cataract development in diabetic sand rats treated with alpha-lipoic acid and its gamma-linolenic acid conjugate.

BACKGROUND: Diabetes commonly leads to long-term complications such as cataract. This study investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LPA) and its gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) conjugate on cataract development in diabetic sand rats. METHODS: Two separate experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, sand rats were fed a “high-energy”diet (70% starch), an acute model of Type 2 diabetes, and injected with LPA. In Experiment 2, the animals received a “medium-energy” diet (59% starch), a chronic diabetic model, and were intubated with LPA or its GLA conjugate. Throughout the experiments, blood glucose levels and cataract development were measured. At the termination of the experiments, lens aldose reductase (AR) activity and lenticular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were analyzed. RESULTS: LPA injection significantly inhibited cataract development and reduced blood glucose levels in rats fed the 'high-energy' diet. Lens AR activity tended to be lower, while lenticular GSH levels increased. In sand rats fed a “medium-energy”diet (59% starch), LPA intubation had no effect on blood glucose levels and cataract development but GSH levels were increased. In contrast, sand rats intubated with GLA conjugate showed the highest blood glucose levels and accelerated cataract development. The conjugate treatment also decreased lenticular GSH content. CONCLUSIONS: The hypoglycemic effects of LPA are beneficial in the prevention of acute symptoms of Type 2 diabetes. It remains to be shown that the antioxidant activity of LPA is responsible for prevention or inhibition of cataract progression in sand rats.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2001 Jan-Feb;17(1):44-50



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