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LE Magazine January 2002

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References for “Pentoxifylline Studies”

1. Navarro JF, Mora C, Rivero A, et al. Urinary protein excretion and serum tumor necrosis factor in diabetic patients with advanced renal failure: effects of pentoxifylline administration. Am J Kidney Dis 1999 Mar;33(3):458-63.

2. Boldt J, Brosch C, Piper SN, Suttner S, et al. Influence of prophylactic use of pentoxifylline on postoperative organ function in elderly cardiac surgery patients. Crit Care Med 2001 May;29(5):952-8.

3. Entzian P, Bitter-Suermann S, Burdon D, et al. Differences in the anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline and pentoxifylline: important for the development of asthma therapy? Allergy 1998 Aug;53(8):749-54.

4. Segal R, Dayan M, Zinger H, Mozes E. Suppression of experimental systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in mice via TNF inhibition by an anti-TNFalpha monoclonal antibody and by pentoxiphylline. Lupus 2001;10(1):23-31.

5. Navarro JF, Mora C, Garcia J, et al. Effects of pentoxifylline on the haematologic status in anaemic patients with advanced renal failure. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1999 Apr;33(2):121-5.

6. Gomez-Cambronero L, Camps B, de La Asuncion JG, et al. Pentoxifylline ameliorates cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats: role of glutathione and nitric oxide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000 May;293(2):670-6

7. Gilhar A, Grossman N, Kahanovicz S, Reuveni H, rt al. Antiproliferative effect of pentoxifylline on psoriatic and normal epidermis. In vitro and in vivo studies. Acta Derm Venereol 1996 Nov;76(6):437-41.

8. Marsella R, Olivry T. The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (XXII): nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2001 Sep 20;81(3-4):331-45.

9. Schwarz A, Krone C, Trautinger F, et al. Pentoxifylline suppresses irritant and contact hypersensitivity reactions. J Invest Dermatol 1993 Oct;101(4):549-52.

10. Welsh O, Gomez M, Mancias C, et al. A new therapeutic approach to type II leprosy reaction. Int J Dermatol 1999 Dec;38(12):931-3.

11. Sampaio EP, Moraes MO, Nery JA, et al. Pentoxifylline decreases in vivo and in vitro tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in lepromatous leprosy patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Clin Exp Immunol 1998 Feb;111(2):300-8.

12. Fischer M, Wohlrab J, Marsch W. Crux medicorum ulcerated radiation-induced fibrosis - successful therapy with pentoxifylline and vitamin E. Eur J Dermatol 2001 Jan-Feb;11(1):38-40.

13. Moser M, Zhang M, Gong Y, et al. Effect of preoperative interventions on outcome following liver resection in a rat model of cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2000 Feb;32(2):287-92.


References for “Chronic Inflammation”

1. Brod SA. Unregulated inflammation shortens human functional longevity. Inflamm Res 2000 Nov;49(11):561-70.

2. Ward PA. Cytokines, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Hosp Pract (Off Ed) 1995 May 15;30(5):35-41.

3. Van Noort JM, Amor S. Cell biology of autoimmune diseases. Int Rev Cytol 1998;178:127-206.

4. Brennan FM, Feldmann M. Cytokines in autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol 1992 Dec;4(6):754-9.

5. McCarty MF. Interleukin-6 as a central mediator of cardiovascular risk associated with chronic inflammation, smoking, diabetes, and visceral obesity: down- regulation with essential fatty acids, ethanol and pentoxifylline. Med Hypotheses 1999 May;52(5):465-77.

6. Rintala RJ, Lindahl H. Sodium cromoglycate in the management of chronic or recurrent enterocolitis in patients with Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg 2001 Jul;36(7):1032-5.

7. Bodger K, Bromelow K, Wyatt JI, et al. Interleukin 10 in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis: immunohistochemical localisation and in vitro effects on cytokine secretion. J Clin Pathol 2001 Apr;54(4):285-92.

8. Kiechl S, Egger G, Mayr M, et al. Chronic infections and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: prospective results from a large population study. Circulation 2001 Feb 27;103(8):1064-70.

9. Kanda T. C-reactive protein (CRP) in the cardiovascular system. Rinsho Byori 2001 Apr;49(4):395-401.

10. Smith DA, Irving SD, Sheldon J, et al. Serum levels of the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 are decreased in patients with unstable angina. Circulation 2001 Aug 14;104(7):746-9.

11. Speer CP. New insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation in preterm infants. Biol Neonate 2001;79(3-4):205-9.

12. Glabinski AR, O'Bryant S, Selmaj K, et al. CXC chemokine receptors expression during chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;917:135-44.

13. Ajuebor MN, Hogaboam CM, Kunkel SL, et al. The chemokine RANTES is a crucial mediator of the progression from acute to chronic colitis in the rat. J Immunol 2001 Jan 1;166(1):552-8.

14. Hogan SP, Mishra A, Brandt EB, et al. A pathological function for eotaxin and eosinophils in eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation. Nat Immunol 2001 Apr;2(4):353-60.

15. Shiels IA, Taylor SM, Fairlie DP. Cell phenotype as a target of drug therapy in chronic inflammatory diseases. Med Hypotheses 2000 Feb;54(2):193-7.

16. Licinio J, Wong ML. The role of inflammatory mediators in the biology of major depression: central nervous system cytokines modulate the biological substrate of depressive symptoms, regulate stress-responsive systems, and contribute to neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. Mol Psychiatry 1999 Jul;4(4):317-27.

17. Willard LB, Hauss-Wegrzyniak B, Wenk GL. Pathological and biochemical consequences of acute and chronic neuroinflammation within the basal forebrain cholinergic system of rats. Neuroscience 1999 Jan;88(1):193-200.

18. Van der Meide PH, Schellekens H. Cytokines and the immune response. Biotherapy 1996;8(3-4):243-9.

19. Blaser MJ. Hypotheses on the pathogenesis and natural history of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation. Gastroenterology 1992 Feb;102(2):720-7.

20. Cominelli F, Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis of and protection from inflammatory bowel disease. Biotherapy 1989;1(4):369-75.

21. Deon D, Ahmed S, Tai K, et al. Cross-talk between il-1 and il-6 signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. J Immunol 2001 Nov 1;167(9):5395-403

22. Top 12 Steps to Optimal Health and Longevity, www.lef.org/Top12

23. Yano M, Kishida E, Iwasaki M, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin E can reduce human monocytic U937 cell apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor. J Nutr 2000 May;130(5):1095-101.

24. Kelley DS, Taylor PC, Nelson GJ, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men. Lipids 1999 Apr;34(4):317-24.

25. De Caterina R, Spiecker M, Solaini G, et al. The inhibition of endothelial activation by unsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 1999;34 Suppl:S191-4.

26. Jeyarajah DR, Kielar M, Penfield J, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid, a component of fish oil, inhibits nitric oxide production in vitro. J Surg Res 1999 May 15;83(2):147-50.

27. De Caterina R, Bernini W, Carluccio MA, et al. Structural requirements for inhibition of cytokine-induced endothelial activation by unsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res 1998 May;39(5): 1062-70.

28. Khalfoun B, Thibault F, Watier H, et al. Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids inhibit in vitro human endothelial cell production of interleukin-6. Exp Med Biol 197;400B:589-97.

29. Das UN. Beneficial effect(s) of n-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases:but, why and how? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000 Dec;63(6):351-62.

30. Watanabe S, Katagiri K, Onozaki K, et al. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1 beta mRNA induction in mouse spleen leukocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000 Mar;62(3):147-52.

31. James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):343S-348S.

32. Kremer JM. n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):349S-51S.

33. Tepaske R, Velthuis H, Oudemans-van Straaten HM, et al. Effect of preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutritional supplement on patients at high risk of infection after cardiac surgery: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001 Sep 1;358(9283):696-701.

34. Haden ST, Glowacki J, Hurwitz S, et al. Effects of age on serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, IGF-I, and IL-6 levels in women. Calcif Tissue Int 2000 Jun;66(6):414-8.

35. Kipper-Galperin M, Galilly R, Danenberg HD, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone selectively inhibits production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 [correction of interlukin-6] in astrocytes. Int J Dev Neurosci 1999 Dec;17(8):765-75.

36. Straub RH, Konecna L, Hrach S, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate are negatively correlated with serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and DHEA inhibits IL-6 secretion from mononuclear cells in man in vitro: possible link between endocrinosenescence and immunosenescence. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998 Jun;83(6):2012-7.

37. James K, Premchand N, Skibinska A, et al. IL-6, DHEA and the ageing process. Mech Ageing Dev 1997 Feb;93(1-3):15-24.

38. Feher KG, Rakasz E, Biro J, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone modulates the spontaneous and IL-6 stimulated fibrinogen production of human hepatoma cells. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 1995;42(2):229-33.

39. Casson PR, Andersen RN, Herrod HG, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone in physiologic doses modulates immune function in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993 Dec;169(6):1536-9.

40. Daynes RA, Araneo BA, Ershler WB, et al. Altered regulation of IL-6 production with normal aging. Possible linkage to the age-associated decline in dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfated derivative. J Immunol 1993 Jun 15;150(12):5219-30.

41. Reddi K, Henderson B, Meghji S, et al. Interleukin 6 production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human fibroblasts is potently inhibited by naphthoquinone (vitamin K) compounds. Cytokine 1995 Apr;7(3):287-90.

42. Weber P. Management of osteoporosis: is there a role for vitamin K? Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1997;67(5):350-6.

43. DeLuca P, Rossetti RG, Alavian C, et al. Effects of gammalinolenic acid on interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes: studies in vitro and in vivo. J Investig Med 1999 May;47(5):246-50.

44. Mancuso P, Whelan J, DeMichele SJ, et al. Dietary fish oil and fish and borage oil suppress intrapulmonary proinflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis and attenuate pulmonary neutrophil accumulation in endotoxic rats. Crit Care Med 1997 Jul;25(7):1198-206.

45. Dirks J, van Aswegen CH, du Plessis DJ. Cytokine levels affected by gamma-linolenic acid. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998 Oct;59(4):273-7.

46. Purasiri P, Murray A, Richardson S, et al. Modulation of cytokine production in vivo by dietary essential fatty acids in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Sci (Colch) 1994 Dec;87(6):711-7.

47. Teucher T, Obertreis B, Ruttkowski T, et al. [Cytokine secretion in whole blood of healthy subjects following oral administration of Urtica dioica L. plant extract.] Arzneimittelforschung 1996 Sep;46(9):906-10.

48. Gosset P, Wallaert B, Tonnel AB: Thiol regulation of the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 by human alveolar.macrophages. Eur Respir J 1999 Jul;14(1):98-105.

49. Devaraj S, Jialal I: Alpha tocopherol supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and monocyte interleukin-6 levels in normal volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients. Free Radic Biol Med 2000 Oct 15;29(8):790-2.

50. Cuzzocrea S, Mazzon E, Dugo L, Serraino I: Protective effects of n-acetylcysteine on lung injury and red blood cell modification induced by carrageenan in the rat. FASEB J 2001 May;15(7):1187-200.

51. Horton JW, White DJ, Maass DL: Antioxidant vitamin therapy alters burn trauma-mediated cardiac NF-kappaB activation and cardiomyocyte cytokine secretion. J Trauma 2001 Mar;50(3):397-406; 407-8.

52. Upritchard JE, Sutherland WH, Mann JI: Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C on LDL oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000 Jun;23(6):733-8.

53. Langlois M, Duprez D, Delanghe J: Serum vitamin C concentration is low in peripheral arterial disease and is associated with inflammation and severity of atherosclerosis. Circulation 2001 Apr 10;103(14):1863-8.

54. Li Y, Liu L, Barger SW, Mrak RE: Vitamin E suppression of microglial activation is neuroprotective. J Neurosci Res 2001 Oct 15;66(2):163-70.

55. Winrow VR, Winyard PG, Morris CJ: Free radicals in inflammation: second messengers and mediators of tissue destruction. Br Med Bull 1993 Jul;49(3):506-22.

56. di Minno G, Mancini M. Drugs affecting plasma fibrinogen levels. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1992 Feb;6(1):25-7.

57. Gara II. [The effect of pentoxifylline and nicergoline on the systemic and cerebral hemodynamics and on the blood rheological properties in patients with an ischemic stroke and atherosclerotic lesions of the major cerebral arteries]. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1993;93(3):28-32.

58. de la Cruz JP, Romero MM, Sanchez P, et al. Antiplatelet effect of pentoxifylline in human whole blood. Gen Pharmacol 1993 May;24(3):605-9.

59. Gaur SP, Garg RK, Kar AM, et al. Effect of anti-platelet therapy (aspirin + pentoxiphylline) on plasma lipids in patients of ischaemic stroke. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1993 Apr;37(2):158-60.

60. Manrique RV, Manrique V. Platelet resistance to prostacyclin. Enhancement of the antiaggregatory effect of prostacyclin by pentoxifylline. Angiology 1987 Feb;38(2 Pt 1):101-8.

61. Packard CJ, et. al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1148-55.

Lindahl B, et. al. Markers of myocardial damage and inflammation in relation to long-term mortality in unstable coronary artery disease. FRISC Study Group. Fragmin during Instability in Coronary Artery Disease. N Engl J Med 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1139-47.

Rader DJ. Inflammatory markers of coronary risk. N Engl J Med 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1179-82.

62. Gan XH, Robin JP, Huerta JM, et al. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion but not IL-6 from activated human peripheral blood monocytes by a new synthetic demethylpodophyllotoxin derivative. J Clin Immunol 1994 Sep;14(5):280-8.

63. Neuner P, Klosner G, Schauer E, et al. Pentoxifylline in vivo down-regulates the release of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Immunology 1994 Oct;83(2):262-7.

64. Pollice PF, Rosier RN, Looney RJ, et al. Oral pentoxifylline inhibits release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from human peripheral blood monocytes : a potential treatment for aseptic loosening of total joint components. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001 Jul;83-A(7):1057-61.

65. Blam ME, Stein RB, Lichtenstein GR. Integrating anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: current and future perspectives. Am J Gastroenterol 2001 Jul;96(7):1977-97.

66. Carneiro-Filho BA, Souza ML, Lima AA, et al. The effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in Clostridium difficile toxin-induced paw oedema and neutrophil migration. Pharmacol Toxicol 2001 Jun;88(6):313-8.

67. Ventura AC, Bohnke M. Pentoxifylline influences the autocrine function of organ cultured donor corneas and enhances endothelial cell survival. Br J Ophthalmol 2001 Sep;85(9):1110-4.

68. Shemi D, Azab AN, Kaplanski J. Time-dependent effect of LPS on PGE2 and TNF-alpha production by rat glial brain culture: influence of COX and cytokine inhibitors. J Endotoxin Res 2000;6(5):377-81.

69. Noel C, Copin MC, Hazzan M, et al. Immunomodulatory effect of pentoxifylline during human allograft rejection: involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and adhesion molecules. Transplantation 2000 Mar 27;69(6):1102-7.

70. Stigendal L, Andre U, Christenson B. [Better AVK treatment with self monitoring. Dosage can be regulated in time.] Lakartidningen 1999 May 19;96(20):2482, 2485-7.

71. White RH, McCurdy SA, von Marensdorff H, et al. Home prothrombin time monitoring after the initiation of warfarin therapy. A randomized, prospective study. Ann Intern Med 1989 Nov 1;111(9):730-7.

72. Serrano-Duenas M. [Parkinsonism or Parkinson's disease unmasked by pentoxifylline?] Neurologia 2001 Jan;16(1):39-42.

73. Godwin-Austen RB, Twomey JA, Hanks G, et al. Oxpentifylline in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980 Apr;43(4):360-4.



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