Weight Loss Sale

Life Extension Magazine

LE Magazine April 2003

image

Carcinogens Are Everywhere,
But Do You Have To Worry?

What Life Extension members should do

Chlorophyllin protects against many different carcinogens

There are over fifty cancer-causing agents known to occur in the human diet that chlorophyllin has been shown to protect against including:

(1) benzo(a)pyrene43-45
(2) DMBA [dimethylbenzanthracene]
45-47
(3) dibenzopyrene38,46 TRP-P236
(4) aflatoxin B-1 and aflatoxin B-248-54
(5) aminoanthracene 45
(6) 2-nitrofluorene 45, 52
(7) 1-nitropyrene 52
(8) 1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-pyridine] [PHIP] 53
(9) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, [IQ] 41

Many of these carcinogens are found in ordinary broiled, boiled, baked and otherwise high-temperature cooked foods.35 PHIP is considered the most abundant heterocyclic amine in fried ground beef.35,53 It causes colon cancers in F344 rats, and is considered a leading suspect as a cancer agent in man.35,53 Chlorophyllin (0.1%) in the drinking water of rats reduced aberrant crypt foci 50% in the colon when exposed to PHIP[17]. In another study with F344 rats, a diet with 2000 parts per million (ppm) chlorophyllin significantly protected them from diethylnitrosamine-induced liver neoplasms.54

image

The press often comes up with a "carcinogen of the week" scare. These are easy stories to create because as you have just learned, carcinogens are literally everywhere.

Health conscious individuals should weigh the potential benefit of a food against its potential cancer risk. It certainly makes sense to minimize exposure to highly concentrated carcinogens like tobacco smoke, UV radiation from sunlight and overcooked foods. Even though fruits and vegetables contain some carcinogens, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown in human epidemiological studies to decrease cancer risk.

If we remember that all cancers are caused initially by mutations to our DNA genes, then we can fully appreciate the importance of consuming supplements that specifically protect our cells against these mutagenic agents. Antioxidants provide some protection by preventing gene-damaging free radicals that are generated by carcinogens. The three most important nutrients to guard our genes against carcinogens are chlorophyllin, folic acid and indole-3-carbinol (I3C). These supplements are inexpensive, yet may be the most effective means of protecting our cells against the hundreds of carcinogens we are inevitably exposed to every day.

Life Extension magazine cuts through media hype in order to inform members about practical solutions to prevent disease (such as cancer) and slow premature aging. When you read about a potential cancer risk in the mass media, seldom is there an in-depth analysis of what the real risk posed is, or what you can do to neutralize that risk. Life Extension members want the facts-which is what we seek to deliver with every issue of this magazine.

For longer life,

image

William Faloon


References

1. Willett, Walter C. Diet, nutrition and avoidable cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives, November 1995, 103 suppl. 8: 165-170.

2. Study released on January 30, 2003 by Mount Sinai School of Community Medicine and the Environmental Working Group, www.ewg.org.

3. CDC study released on January 31, 2003.

4. Richard Wiles, vice president, Environmental Working Group

5. Ames, BN. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens. Science, September 23, 1983, 221: 1256-64.

6. Ames BN. Profet M, Gold LS, Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., October 1990, 87: 7777-82.

7. Ames, BN. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis: endogenous and exogenous factors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 1989, 14, Suppl. 16: 66-77.

8. Ames, BN. Mutagens, carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. Basic Life Sciences, 1982, 21: 499-508.

9. Lijinsky W. A view of the relation between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 1989, 16: 78-84.

10. Ames BN, and Gold LS. Chemical carcinogenesis: too many rodent carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., October 1990, 87: 7772-76.

11. Ames BN, Profet M, Gold LS. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., October 1990, 87: 7782-6.

12. Ames BN, Magaw R, Gold LS. Ranking possible carcinogenic hazards. Science, April 17, 1987, 236: 271-80.

13. Ames BN. Six Common errors relating to environmental pollution. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1987, 7: 279-83.

14. Ames BN, Gold LS. Environmental pollution, pesticides, and the prevention of cancer: misconceptions. FASEB J, November 1997, 11: 1041-52.

15. Ames BN, Gold LS. Paracelsus to parascience: the environmental cancer distraction. Mutation Research, 2000, 447: 3-13.

16. Youngman LD, Park JY, Ames BN. Protein oxidation associated with aging is reduced by dietary restriction of protein or calories. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., October 1992, 89: 9112-16.

17. Ames BN. Micronutrients prevent cancer and delay aging. Toxicology Letters, 1998, 102-103: 5-

18. Ames BN. DNA damage from micronutrient deficiencies is likely to be a major cause of cancer. Mutation Research, 2001, 475: 7-20.

19. Ames BN. The prevention of cancer. Drug Metabolism Reviews, 1998, 30(2): 201-223.

20. Voelker, Rebecca. Ames agrees with mom's advice: eat your fruits and vegetables. JAMA, April 12, 1996, 273(14): 1077-8.

21. Beckman KB, Ames BN. Oxidative decay of DNA. J. Biol. Chem., August 8, 1997, 272(32): 19663-6.

22. Ames BN. Endogenous DNA damage as related to cancer and aging. Mutation Research, 1989, 214:41-46.

23. Richter C, Park JW, Ames, BN. Normal oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nucleur DNA is extensive. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., September 1988, 85: 6465.

24. Saul RL, Ames BN. Background levels of DNA damage in the population. Basic Life Sciences, 1986, 38: 529-35.

25. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Gold LS. DNA lesions, inducible DNA repair and cell division: three key factors in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 1993, 101(suppl. 5): 35-44.

26. Giovannucci Edw., et al. Multivitamin use, folate and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study. Annals of Internal Medicine, October 1, 1998, 129(7): 517-24.

27. Zhang S, et al. A prospective study of folate intake and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA, May 5, 1999, 281(17): 1632-7.

28. Sellers T et al. Dietary folate intake, alcohol and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology, 2001, 12 420-428.

29. Voorrips LE, et al. A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate and male lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, April 2000, 9(4): 357-65.

30. 1988 Yale study on nutrients and cancer of esophagus and stomach.

31 Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ et al. Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers. J Natl. Cancer Inst. March 17, 1999, 91(6):535-41.

32. Sharp, David. Acrylamide in food. Lancet, February 1, 2003, 361:361-2.

33. Zheng W et al. Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl. Cancer Inst., 1998, Nov. 18; 90(22): 1724-9 & 18; 9o(22): 1687-9.

34. Gross GA, st al. Quantitation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in food products. J. Chromatogr, Feb. 21, 1992;592(1-2): 271-8.

35. Guengerich F, et al. Cytochrome P-450 oxidations and the generation of biologically reactive intermediates. Biological Reactive Intermediates IV, 1991, Plenum Press, New York.

36. Negishi T et al. Antigenotoxic activity of natural chlorophyls. Mutation Research, May 1997, 376(1-2): 97-100.

37. Tsunoda S et al. Effects of Sasa Health, extract of bamboo grass leaves, on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in SHN mice. Anticancer Res. Jan-Feb 1988, 18(1A): 153-8.

38. Kamat JP, et al. Chlorophyllin as an effective antioxidant against membrane damage in vitro and in vivo. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, September 27, 2000, 1487(2-3): 11327.

39. Boloor KK, et al. Chlorophyllin as a protector of mitochondrial membranes against gamma-radiation and photosensitization. Toxicology, Nov. 30, 2000, 155(1-5): 63-7.

40. Wei YH et al. Mitochondrial theory of aging matures-roles of mtDNA mutation and oxidative stress in human aging. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) May 2001, 64(5): 259-270.

41. Hernaez J et al. Effects of tea and chlorophyllin on the mutagenicity of N-hydroxy-IQ: studies of enzyme inhibition, molecular complex formation, and degradation/scavenging of the active metabolites. Environ. Mol. Mutagen, 1997, 30(4): 468-74.

42. Dashwood R et al. Study of the forces of stabilizing complexes between chlorophylis and heterocyclic amine mutagens. Environ. Mol. Mutagen, 1996, 27(3): 211-8.

43. Madrigal-Bujaidar E et al. Inhibitory effect of chlorophyllin on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges produced by benzo(a)pyrene in vivo. Mutation Res, Jan 15, 1997, 388(1): 79-83.

44. Cho D. Protection by chlorophyllin on mutagenicity and toxicity of 6-sulfooxy methylbenzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Lett. Oct 22, 1996, 107(2): 223-8.

45. Cabrera G. Effect of five dietary antimutagens on the genotoxicity of six mutagens in the microscreen prophage-induction assay. Environ. Mol. Mutagen, 2000, 36(3): 206-20.

46. Chung WY, et al. Protective effects of hemin and tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin on bacterial mutagenesis and mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Mutation Res, Dec 20, 2000, 472(1-2): 139-45.

47. Chung WY et al. Inhibitory effects of chlorophyllin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced bacterial mutagenesis and mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett., Oct 18, 1999, 145(1-2): 57-64.

48. Egner PA, et al. Identification and characterization of chlorin e(4) ethyl ester in sera of individuals participating in the chlorophyllin chemoprevention trial. Chem. Res. Toxicol. Sept 2000, 13(9): 900-6.

49. Breinholt V, et al. Chlorophyllin chemoprevention in trout initiated by aflatoxin B(1) bath treatment: An evaluation of reduced bioavailability vs. target organ protective mechanisms. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol, July 15, 1999, 158.

50. Kensler TW et al. Use of aflatoxin adducts as intermediate endpoints to assess the efficacy of chemopreventive interventions in animals and man. Mutation Res, June 18, 1998, 402(1-2): 165-72.

51. Dashwood R et al. Chemoprevention properties of chlorophylls towards aflatoxin B1: a review of the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity data in rainbow trout. Mutation Res, March 20, 1998 399(2): 245-53.

52. Tang X. et al. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene by vitamins, porphyrins and related compounds, and vegetable and fruit juices and solvent extracts. Food Chem Toxicol, Mar-Apr 1997, 35(3-4): 373-8.

53. Guo D. Protection by chlorophyllin and 13C against 1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b) pyridine (PHIP). Carcinogenesis, Dec. 1995, 16(12): 2931-7.

54. Sugie S. Inhibitory effect of chlorophyllin on diethylnitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. Jpn J Cancer Res, Oct 1996, 87(10): 1045-51.

55. Egner PA et al. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, Dec 4, 2001, 98(25): 14601-6.

56. Smith WA et al. Effect of chemopreventive agents on DNA adduction induced by the potent mammary carcinogen dibenzo(a)pyrene in the human breast cells MCF-7. Mutation Res., Sept. 2001, 480-481: 109-29.

57. Tachino N, et al. Mechanisms of the in vitro antimutagenic action of chlorophyllin against benzo(a)pyrene: studies of enzyme inhibition, molecular complex formation and degradation of the ultimate carcinogen. Mutation Res, July 16, 1994, 308(2): 191-203.

58. Friesen H, et al. Indole-3-carbinol as a chemopreventive agent in 2-amino-1- methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) carcinogenesis: inhibition of PhIP-DNA adduct formation, acceleration of PhIP metabolism, and induction of cytochrome P450 in female F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol (2000 Jan) 38(1):15-23.

59. Telang N, et al. Inhibition of proliferation and modulation of estradiol metabolism: novel mechanisms for breast cancer prevention by the phytochemical indole-3-carbinol. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med (1997 Nov) 216(2):246-52.

60. DeVito et al. Comparisons of estimated human body burdens of dioxinlike chemicals and TCDD body burdens in experimentally exposed animals. Environ. Health Persp. 1995. 103(3):820-831.

image


Back to the Magazine Forum