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Life Extension Magazine

Top Ten Recommendations

1: Life Extension Mix

2: Life Extension Super Booster

3: Coenzyme Q10

4: Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer

5: Cognitex

6: Super EPA/DHA with Sesame Lignans

7: Enhanced Natural Prostate with Cernitin (Men)

7: Bone Restore (Women)

8: Restoring Youthful Hormone Balance

9: S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe)

10: Aspirin

Recommendation: 4
Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer

DOSAGE: Two capsules, two times per day.

It is well established that free radical damage is a culprit behind premature aging.1 To counteract toxic free radicals, health conscious people supplement with antioxidants such as green tea, grape-seed, lycopene, gamma tocopherol, and other plant extracts.

Scientific studies have identified factors that contribute to age-related disorders in addition to free radicals. One of the most serious events that cause the loss of cellular vitality is the depletion of mitochondrial energy function. Cells require healthy mitochondrial activity to perform life-sustaining metabolic processes. As mitochondrial function weakens in our cells, so does the vitality of organs such as the heart and brain, or in some cases, the entire body.2-7

While coenzyme Q10 is necessary for youthful mitochondrial energy function, there are other essential nutrients involved in the mitochondria’s “respiratory chain.” In order for the mitochondria to create the energy needed to sustain cellular function, fatty acids (which serve as the mitochondria’s fuel) must be transported through the cell membrane and into the mitochondria.8-10 The amino acid acetyl-l-carnitine boosts mitochondrial energy production by facilitating fatty acid transport and oxidation within the cell.11-13

As the mitochondria burn fatty acids to produce cellular energy, it generates a host of free radicals in the process. That is why a mitochondrial antioxidant like lipoic acid is so critical. The new Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer provides a much more potent form of lipoic acid (called R-lipoic acid), along with a more effective form of carnitine called acetyl-l-carnitine arginate.

The new Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer incorporates the tremendous advances in our knowledge about the importance of maintaining mitochondrial integrity as we age. Scientists now know that mitochondrial decay in aging is a major driving force behind the aging process.2,5

All the cells in our bodies contain 300-400 tiny organelles called mitochondria that function to produce cellular energy by means of the ATP cycle. Mitochondria produce the vast majority of free radicals in our cells. Fatty acids that serve as the fuel for the mitochondria are pulled across the mitochondrial membrane by carnitine and other forms, like acetyl-l-carnitine.14,15 As we age, we lose the ability to pull fatty acids across the membrane because of membrane damage from this ‘blast furnace’ effect inside the mitochondria. From birth we have a 1-2% leakage of reactive oxygen species from the respiratory chain in the mitochondria that increases dramatically with age; generating huge amounts of free radicals.16 We call this leakage the “loss of respiratory control.”

The new Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer helps restore mitochondrial respiratory control by lowering natural antioxidant leakage and boosting cellular levels of R-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes.

A New Brain Regeneration Nutrient
Brain cells communicate with each other because they are connected to one another by neurites (dendrites and axons). Neurites are long filament-like terminal branches of nerve cells that grow much like branches of a tree. Neurites function to provide the communication circuitry pathways between the nerve cells.

As we age, there is a loss of neurites, which results in slowed thinking as neural-connection pathways are reduced from many in number to only a few. The effect of the age-related neurite loss is that thought processing pathways, thinking time, and reaction times are all significantly diminished.

Acetyl-l-carnitine arginate is a patented form of carnitine that stimulates the growth of neurites in the brain. Studies show that acetyl carnitine arginate stimulates the growth of new neurites by an astounding 19.5% (similar to that of Nerve Growth Factor itself). Acetyl carnitine arginate acts together with acetyl carnitine to increase neurite outgrowth.17

Acetyl-l-carnitine by itself stimulates neurite growth after five days by 5.6%. Acetyl carnitine arginate, on the other hand, stimulates neurite outgrowth in the same time period by 19.5%…an increase of over three-fold!17

An equally impressive finding was the average length of the neurites produced by the acetyl-carnitine arginate is 21% longer than in the acetyl-l-carnitine-only group.17

When scientists compared the effects of acetyl-l-carnitine and arginine, the mixture gave the same growth results as acetyl carnitine by itself, i.e. 5.6%. This study showed that acetyl-l-carntine arginate induced 3.48 times more neurite growth compared to acetyl-l-carnitine mixed with arginine.17

Multiple Neurological Effects of Acetyl-l-Carnitine
The acetylated form of L-carnitine (acetyl-l-carnitine) facilitates the release and synthesis of acetylcholine by donating its acetyl group to the production of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter.18 Acetyl-l-carnitine also enhances the release of dopamine from neurons and helps it bind to dopamine receptors.19,20 Numerous human and animal studies validate the multiple beneficial mechanisms that acetyl-l-carnitine exerts in the brain.

Acetyl-l-carnitine is more effective than L-carnitine in carrying fatty acids across the membrane into the cell where they are burned as energy. Since 1995, Life Extension members have been supplementing with acetyl-l-carnitine and deriving the many benefits this form of carnitine has shown in published scientific studies.

Acetyl-l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine arginate work particularly well together because of the high amount of free carnitine contained in the acetyl-l-carnitine. With the discovery of acetyl-l-carnitine arginate, the benefits of acetyl-l-carnitine can now be greatly augmented. The new Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer provides both acetyl-l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine arginate.

Suppressing Mitochondria-Generated Free Radicals
Alpha lipoic acid is a particularly potent antioxidant because of its ability to boost glutathione levels inside cells to protect against mitochondrial-generated free radicals.21-27 Lipoic acid functions as a fat and water-soluble antioxidant.28 It easily crosses cell membranes to confer antioxidant protection to interior and exterior cellular structures.28,29

Most people don’t know that the active part of alpha lipoic acid is the “R”-lipoic acid’ isomer.28 R-lipoic acid, also referred to as “natural lipoic acid,” is found in very small amounts in the tissues and is tightly bound to mitochondrial complexes. Due to the difficulty of isolating R-lipoic, researchers originally conducted studies using only alpha lipoic acid.

Alpha lipoic acid contains 50% “R”-lipoic and 50% “S”-lipoic acids. While the body can utilize both forms of lipoic acid, the R-lipoic form is far more biologically active. For example, the “R”-form improves ATP synthesis in isolated cells, whereas the “S”-lipoic form does not. The R-lipoic acid form was shown to increase cell membrane fluidity and transport.30,31

As the biologically active form of the key “mitochondrial antioxidant” known as “alpha lipoic acid,” R-lipoic acid is directly involved in cellular metabolism. It is a vital component of the intracellular antioxidant cycle, able to scavenge a variety of free radicals and reactive oxygen species while recycling vitamins C, E and glutathione.31-36

“R”-lipoic acid readily crosses the blood brain barrier and has been shown effective for elevating intracellular glutathione levels.37 This biologically active lipoic acid isomer helps regulate neuronal calcium homeostasis,38,39 regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines,40-43 and alters the expression of ‘toxic genes.’44 “R”-lipoic acid has been used to protect against adverse glucose reactions in the body and recommended as a ‘neuroprotective agent.’37,45-47 Because “R”-lipoic is the naturally occurring form found in mitochondrial complexes, it offers substantially greater benefits at significantly lower doses than the synthetic forms of lipoic acid currently available.

The daily dose of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer provides 150 net milligrams of expensive R-lipoic acid, which provides more protection against free radicals than higher amounts of alpha lipoic acid.

A Powerful New Antioxidant
Three types of sprout concentrates—soy, corn and wheat—are added to the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer to stimulate the endogenous production of antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) that increase energy output in mitochondria by further restoring respiratory control. Wheat sprout enzymes have been shown to increase serum and blood levels of SOD.48 The effects of increased SOD levels block inflammatory processes and provide relief from associated disorders.

Guarding Against Glycation
Aging causes irreversible damage to the body’s proteins. The underlying mechanism behind this damage is glycation. A simple definition of glycation is the cross-linking of proteins and sugars to form non-functioning structures in the body. The process of glycation can be superficially seen as unsightly wrinkled skin. Glycation is also an underlying cause of age-related calamities including the neurologic, vascular, and eye disorders.49-58 Carnosine is a multifunctional dipeptide that interferes with the glycation process.59-62 When compared to the anti-glycating drug aminoguanidine, carnosine has been shown to inhibit glycation earlier in the process.

Carnosine levels are reduced with age. Muscle levels decline 63% from age 10 to age 70, which may account for the normal age-related decline in muscle mass and function.60 Since carnosine acts as a pH buffer, it can keep on protecting muscle cell membranes from oxidation under the acidic conditions of muscular exertion. Carnosine enables the heart muscle to contract more efficiently through enhancement of calcium response in heart myocytes.63 Long-lived cells such as nerve cells (neurons) and muscle cells (myocytes) contain high levels of carnosine. Muscle levels of carnosine correlate with the maximum life spans of animals.

Carnosine is one of the few compounds that increase the life span of human cells in culture. Human fibroblasts divide 40 to 45 times before they become senescent. The presence of carnosine allows the cells to divide 8 to 10 times more before they stop dividing, increasing cell life span 20% or more.64-66 The daily dose of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer provides 1000 mg of carnosine.

Protecting Cells Against Glucose Toxicity
Benfotiamine and vitamin B1 act synergistically to prevent glucose from reacting with our proteins. Benfotiamine is simply a fat-soluble vitamin B-1 that helps inhibit the majority of complications by preventing glucose from reacting with kidneys, eyes, arteries, and other organs.67-70 The Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer contains the ideal potencies of benfotiamine and vitamin B1.

Improving Systemic Energy Levels
Rhodiola is an herb that has been shown to support mental well being, improve associative thinking, increase short-term memory, calculation, ability of concentration, and speed of audio-visual perception in several human double blind crossover studies.71-73

Rhodolia works primarily on the mitochondria in the central and parasympathetic nervous system. In small doses, rhodolia increases the bioelectric activity of the brain and stimulates norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin, all major neurotransmitters.74

Every study with Rhodiola that shows positive effects uses the Russian Rhodiola standardized to 3% rosavins and 1% salidrosides. The Russian Rhodiola became so scarce because of demand, that many manufacturers began using the wrong species of Rhodiola or the wrong concentrations of active principals. Life Extension uses only the original Russian formulation that demonstrated the greatest efficacy in published substitute “reports” [studies].”74

Suppressing Inflammatory Cytokines
A great majority of studies investigating interleukin-6 (IL-6) show that higher levels of this cytokine are associated with many undesirable effects. A recent study of people who have reached or passed their 100th birthday reveals that they uniformly express lower than normal IL-6 levels.75

Luteolin is a flavonoid that is found in olive oil, green pepper, and perilla plant, and has been shown to lower pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vitro and in vivo.76-78 In particular, luteolin is a strong IL-6 inhibitor that may work via several different mechanisms to reduce this lethal inflammatory cytokine. Some studies show that luteolin down regulates pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha activity to lower IL-6 levels. Others studies demonstrate that luteolin reduces NF-kappa B levels that control IL-6 production.79,80 Additional studies show that luteolin reduces across the board the majority of the most dangerous inflammatory factors in the body including NF-kappa Beta, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6.79-81

The upregulation of inflammatory genes is one of the cruelest aspects of the aging process. Luteolin is an ideal supplement that is orally very effective as a potent inhibitor of IL-6 and related inflammatory cytokines at low doses. The new Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer provides 8 mg of standardized luteolin per daily dose.

Life Extension members can be assured that they now have access to the highest quality maximum strength, state-of-the-art, antiaging, and energy-restoring mitochondrial supplement in the world—the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer. Here is the complete formula that only requires four capsules per day:

Acetyl-l-carnitine arginate HCl

750 mg

Acetyl-l-carnitine HCl

750 mg

Carnosine

1000 mg

R-lipoic acid

150 mg

Benfotiamine

150 mg

Vitamin B1

50 mg

Rhodiola rosea

150 mg

Luteolin

8 mg

Sprout concentrates

300 mg

The cost of taking all of the individual ingredients found in the new Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer would be prohibitive for most people. Members save huge dollars by stocking up on this comprehensive formula during the annual SUPER SALE.

Compared to the Chronoforte formula that requires six capsules per day, the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer (that only requires four capsules) represents a substantial savings. To order the new Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer, call 1-800-544-4440.

Note: It is important to take four capsules per day of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer in order to benefit from carnosine. The reason is the body automatically metabolizes lower amounts of carnosine into an inert substance, but the body cannot neutralize the amount of carnosine (1000 mg) contained in four capsules of Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer. Please be advised that Chronoforte is still available for those who want to continue using this particular formula.

More Info on Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer

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References

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78. Xagorari A, Papapetropoulos A, Mauromatis A, et al. Luteolin inhibits an endotoxin-stimulated phosphorylation cascade and proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jan;296(1):181-7.

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