Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder?
The role of free radicals in fibromyalgia is controversial. In this study, 85 female patients with primary fibromyalgia and 80 age-, height-, and weight-matched healthy women were evaluated for oxidant/antioxidant balance. Malondialdehyde is a toxic metabolite of lipid peroxidation used as a marker of free radical damage. Superoxide dismutase is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme and shows antioxidant capacity. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale. Tender points were assessed by palpation. Age, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and duration of disease were also recorded. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher and superoxide dismutase levels significantly lower in fibromyalgic patients than controls. Age, BMI, smoking, and duration of disease did not affect these parameters. We found no correlation between pain and number of tender points. In conclusion, oxidant/antioxidant balances were changed in fibromyalgia. Increased free radical levels may be responsible for the development of fibromyalgia. These findings may support the hypothesis of fibromyalgia as an oxidative disorder.
Rheumatol Int. 2005 Apr;25(3):188-90
Inhibition of cell growth by overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in human pancreatic carcinoma.
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) levels have been found to be low in human pancreatic cancer [Pancreas 26, (2003), 23] and human pancreatic cancer cell lines [Cancer Res. 63, (2003), 1297] when compared to normal human pancreas. We hypothesized that stable overexpression of pancreatic cancer cells with MnSOD cDNA would alter the malignant phenotype. MIA PaCa-2 cells were stably transfected with a pcDNA3 plasmid containing sense human MnSOD cDNA or containing no MnSOD insert by using the lipofectAMINE method. G418-resistant colonies were isolated, grown and maintained. Over expression of MnSOD was confirmed in two selected clones with a 2-4-fold increase in MnSOD immunoreactive protein. Compared with the parental and neo control cells, the MnSOD-over-expressing clones had decreased growth rates, growth in soft agar and plating efficiency in vitro, while in vivo, the MnSOD-over-expressing clones had slower growth in nude mice. These results suggest that MnSOD may be a tumor suppressor gene in human pancreatic cancer.
Free Radic Res. 2004 Nov;38(11):1223-33
Influence of an orally effective SOD on hyperbaric oxygen-related cell damage.
In a prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, we tested the hypothesis that a new formulation consisting of wheat gliadin chemically combined with a vegetal (thus orally effective) preparation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) allows to prevent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)-induced oxidative cell stress. Twenty healthy volunteers were exposed to 100% oxygen breathing at 2.5 ATA for a total of 60 min. DNA strand breaks (tail moments) were determined using the alkaline version of the comet assay. Whole blood concentrations of reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione and F2-isoprostanes, SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (Cat) activities and red cell malondialdehyde (MDA) content were determined. After HBO exposure the tail moment (p = 0.03) and isoprostane levels (p = 0.049) were significantly lower in the group that received the vegetal formulation. Neither SOD and Cat nor GSH and GSSG were significantly affected by this preparation or HBO exposure. By contrast, blood GPx activity, which tended to be lower in the SOD-group already before the HBO exposure (p = 0.076), was significantly lower afterwards (p = 0.045). We conclude that an orally effective SOD-wheat gliadin mixture is able to protect against DNA damage, which coincided with reduced blood isoprostane levels, and may therefore be used as an antioxidant.
Free Radic Res. 2004 Sep;38(9):927-32
Supplementation with gliadin- combined plant superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences and protects against oxidative stress.
The potential benefits to health of antioxidant enzymes supplied either through dietary intake or supplementation is still a matter of controversy. The development of dietary delivery systems using wheat gliadin biopolymers as a natural carrier represents a new alternative. Combination of antioxidant enzymes with this natural carrier not only delayed their degradation (i.e. the superoxide dismutase, SOD) during the gastrointestinal digestive process, but also promoted, in vivo, the cellular defences by strengthening the antioxidant status. The effects of supplementation for 28 days with a standardized melon SOD extract either combined (Glisodin) or not with gliadin, were evaluated on various oxidative-stress biomarkers. As already described there was no changeeither in superoxide dismutase, catalase or glutathione peroxidase activities in blood circulation or in the liver following non-protected SOD supplementation. However, animals supplemented with Glisodin showed a significant elevation in circulated antioxidant enzymes activities, correlated with an increased resistance of red blood cells to oxidative stress-induced hemolysis. In the presence of Sin-1, a chemical donor of peroxynitrites, mitochondria from hepatocytes regularly underwent membrane depolarization as the primary biological event of the apoptosis cascade. Hepatocytes isolated from animals supplemented with Glisodin presented a delayed depolarization response and an enhanced resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. It is concluded that supplementation with gliadin-combined standardized melon SOD extract(Glisodin) promoted the cellular antioxidant status and protected against oxidative stress-induced cell death.
Phytother Res. 2004 Dec;18(12):957-62