Life Extension Skin Care Sale

Life Extension Magazine

LE Magazine August 2005

Women and Coronary Heart Disease

A Novel Approach to Coronary Heart Disease Prevention By Dr. Sergey Dzugan


In the cases just described, each woman had several risk factors for CHD before initiating an individualized anti-aging program of hormone restoration therapy.

We believe that hormone restoration may help prevent the development of CHD in women by helping to eliminate cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, being overweight or obese, elevated blood lipids and blood sugar, and abnormal responses to stress.

We further believe that individualized hormonorestorative therapy using bioidentical hormones applied in a cyclical manner and balancing levels of all the body’s major steroid hormones may help women achieve the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the premenopausal years.

Hormone restoration is not yet widely practiced because it is not always easy to implement, requiring as it does an individualized regimen tailored to the needs of each patient. The two cases just described may help us understand what can be done to reduce or eliminate CHD risk factors in women through the application of hormonorestorative therapy.


1. Available at: Accessed May 27, 2005.

2. Lewis V, Hoeger K. Prevention of coronary heart disease: a nonhormonal approach. Semin Reprod Med. 2005 May;23(2):157-66.

3. Baxter JD, Young WF, Jr., Webb P. Cardiovascular endocrinology: introduction. Endocr Rev. 2003 Jun;24(3):253-60.

4. Mendelsohn ME, Karas RH. The protective effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jun 10;340(23):1801-11.

5. Bush TL, Barrett-Connor E, Cowan LD, et al. Cardiovascular mortality and noncontraceptive use of estrogen in women: results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow-up Study. Circulation. 1987 Jun;75(6):1102-09.

6. Grady D, Rubin SM, Petitti DB, et al. Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Dec 15;117(12):1016-37.

7. Mendelsohn ME and Karas RH. Estrogen and the blood vessel wall. Curr Opin Cardiol. 1994 Sep;9(5):619-26.

8. Karas RH, Patterson BL, Mendelsohn ME. Human vascular smooth muscle cells contain functional estrogen receptor. Circulation. 1994 May;89(5):1943-50.

9. Kask E. 17-Ketosteroids and arteriosclerosis. Angiology. 1959 Oct;10:358-68.

10. Bernini GP, Sgro’ M, Moretti A, et al. Endogenous androgens and carotid intimal-medial thickness in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jun;84(6):2008-12.

11. Ebeling P, Koivisto VA. Physiological importance of dehydroepiandrosterone. Lancet. 1994 Jun 11;343(8911):1479-81.

12. Vermeulen A. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and aging. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1995 Dec 29;774:121-7.

13. Labrie F, Belanger A, Luu-The V, et al. DHEA and the intracrine formation of androgens and estrogens in peripheral target tissues: its role during aging. Steroids. 1998 May;63(5-6):322-8.

14. Wu FC, von EA. Androgens and coronary artery disease. Endocr Rev. 2003 Apr;24(2):183-217.

15. Yager JD. Endogenous estrogens as carcinogens through metabolic activation. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2000;(27):67-73.

16. Head KA. Estriol: safety and efficacy. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Apr;3(2):101-13.

17. Apgar BS, Greenburg G. Using progestins in clinical practice. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Oct 15;62(8):1839-46, 1849-50.

18. Mosca LJ. Contemporary management of hyperlipidemia in women. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002 Jun;11(5):423-32.

19. Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA. 2002 Jul 3;288(1):49-57.

20. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33.

21. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 2002 Jan 16;287(3):356-9.

22. Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA. 2002 Dec 4;288(21):2709-16.

23. Mosca L, Grundy SM, Judelson D, et al. Guide to Preventive Cardiology for Women. AHA/ACC Scientific Statement Consensus panel statement. Circulation. 1999 May 11;99(18):2480-4.

24. Clarke R, Daly L, Robinson K, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: an independent risk factor for vascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1991 Apr 25;324(17):1149-55.

25. Robinson K, Mayer E, Jacobsen DW. Homocysteine and coronary artery disease. Cleve Clin J Med. 1994 Nov;61(6):438-50.

26. Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA. 1995 Oct 4;274(13):1049-57.

27. Mitra B, Panja M. High sensitive C-reactive protein: a novel biochemical markers and its role in coronary artery disease. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005 Jan;53:25-32.

28. Ridker PM, Morrow DA. C-reactive protein, inflammation, and coronary risk. Cardiol Clin. 2003 Aug;21(3):315-25.

29. Merriman S, Haw C, Kirk J, Stubbs J. Risk factors for coronary heart disease among inpatients who have mild intellectual disability and mental illness. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2005 May;49(Pt 5):309-16.

30. Gupta R, Sarna M, Thanvi J, et al. High prevalence of multiple coronary risk factors in Punjabi Bhatia community: Jaipur Heart Watch-3. Indian Heart J. 2004 Nov;56(6):646-52.

31. Cassidy AE, Bielak LF, Zhou Y, et al. Progression of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: does obesity make a difference? Circulation. 2005 Apr 19;111(15):1877-82.

32. Bunker SJ, Colquhoun DM, Esler MD, et al. “Stress” and coronary heart disease: psychosocial risk factors. Med J Aust. 2003 Mar 17;178(6):272-6.

33. Banerjee A, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC. Streptokinase—a clinically useful thrombolytic agent. Biotechnol Adv. 2004 Feb;22(4):287-307.