1. Gallardo-Williams MT, Maronpot RR, Wine RN, et al. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of prostate-specific antigen by boric acid and 3-nitrophenyl boronic acid. Prostate. 2003 Jan 1;54(1):44-9.
2. Cohen P, Graves HC, Peehl DM, et al. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 protease found in seminal plasma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Oct;75(4):1046-53.
3. Cohen P, Peehl DM, Graves HC, et al. Biological effects of prostate specific antigen as an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 protease. J Endocrinol. 1994 Sep;142(3):407-15.
4. Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Dec 6;87(23):1767-76.
5. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998 Mar 18;90(6):440-6.
6. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2018-23.
7. Giovannucci E. A review of epidemiologic studies of tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.). 2002 Nov;227(10):852-9.
8. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y et al. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Mar 6;94(5):391-8.
9. Lee MM, Gomez SL, Chang JS, et al. Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Jul;12(7):665-8.
10. Jian L, Xie LP, Lee AH et al. Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in southeast China. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 1;108(1):130-5.
11. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):204-16.
12. Cui Y, Winton MI, Zhang ZF, et al. Dietary boron intake and prostate cancer risk. Oncol Rep. 2004 Apr;11(4):887-92.
13. Ansari MS, Gupta NP. A comparison of lycopene and orchidectomy vs orchidectomy alone in the management of advanced prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2003 Sep;92(4):375-8.
14. Ansari MS, Gupta NP. Lycopene: a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2004 Sep;22(5):415-20.
15. Thiel R, Effert P. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. J Urol. 2002 Nov;168(5):1891-6.
16. Holund B. Latent prostatic cancer in a consecutive autopsy series. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1980;14(1):29-35.
17. Sakr WA, Haas GP, Cassin BF et al. The frequency of carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the prostate in young male patients. J Urol. 1993 Aug;150(2 Pt 1):379-85.
18. Geller J, Sionit L. Castration-like effects on the human prostate of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1992;16H:109-12.
19. Deslypere JP, Young M, Wilson JD et al. Testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone interact differently with the androgen receptor to enhance transcription of the MMTV-CAT reporter gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992 Oct;88(1-3):15-22.
20. Wright AS, Thomas LN, Douglas RC et al. Relative potency of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in preventing atrophy and apoptosis in the prostate of the castrated rat. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 1;98(11):2558-63.
21. Andriole GL, Humphrey P, Ray P, et al. Effect of the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride on markers of tumor regression in prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004 Sep; 172(3):915-9.
22. Lazier CB, Thomas LN, Douglas RC et al. Dutasteride, the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, inhibits androgen action and promotes cell death in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Prostate. 2004 Feb 1;58(2):130-44.
23. Andriole GL, Roehrborn C, Schulman C, et al. Effect of dutasteride on the detection of prostate cancer in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2004 Sep;64(3):537-41.
24. Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 17;349(3):215-24.
25. Pezzato E, Sartor L, Dell’Aica I, et al. Prostate carcinoma and green tea: PSA-triggered basement membrane degradation and MMP-2 activation are inhibited by (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Int J Cancer. 2004 Dec 10;112(5):787-92.
26. Sonoda T, Nagata Y, Mori M, et al. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet. Cancer Sci. 2004 Mar;95(3):238-42.
27. Dalais FS, Meliala A, Wattanapenpaiboon N, et al. Effects of a diet rich in phytoestrogens on prostate-specific antigen and sex hormones in men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Urology. 2004 Sep;64(3):510-5.
28. Partin AW, Pound CR, Clemens JQ, et al. Serum PSA after anatomic radical prostatectomy. The Johns Hopkins experience after 10 years. Urol Clin North Am. 1993 Nov;20(4):713-25.
29. Pound CR, Partin AW, Epstein JI et al. Prostate-specific antigen after anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy. Patterns of recurrence and cancer control. Urol Clin North Am. 1997 May;24(2):395-406.
30. Hanlon AL, Hanks GE. Failure patterns and hazard rates for failure suggest the cure of prostate cancer by external beam radiation. Urology. 2000 May;55(5):725-9.
31. Han M, Partin AW, Pound CR et al. Long-term biochemical disease-free and cancer-specific survival following anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy. The 15-year Johns Hopkins experience. Urol Clin North Am. 2001 Aug;28(3):555-65.
32. Hanks GE, Hanlon AL, Epstein B et al. Dose response in prostate cancer with 8-12 years’ follow-up. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Oct 1;54(2):427-35.
33. Kupelian PA, Potters L, Khuntia D, et al. Radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy <72 Gy, external beam radiotherapy > or =72 Gy, permanent seed implantation, or combined seeds/external beam radiotherapy for stage T1-T2 prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Jan 1;58(1):25-33.
34. Jones EC, McNeal J, Bruchovsky N et al. DNA content in prostatic adenocarcinoma. A flow cytometry study of the predictive value of aneuploidy for tumor volume, percentage Gleason grade 4 and 5, and lymph node metastases. Cancer. 1990 Aug 15;66(4):752-7.
35. Deitch AD, Miller GJ, deVere White RW. Significance of abnormal diploid DNA histograms in localized prostate cancer and adjacent benign prostatic tissue. Cancer. 1993 Sep 1;72(5):1692-700
36. Perlman EJ, Epstein JI, Long PP et al. Cytogenetic and ploidy analysis of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol. 1993 May;6(3):348-52.
37. Shankey TV, Jin JK, Dougherty S, et al. DNA ploidy and proliferation heterogeneity in human prostate cancers. Cytometry. 1995 Sep 1;21(1):30-9.
38. Bowen P, Chen L, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, et al. Tomato sauce supplementation and prostate cancer: lycopene accumulation and modulation of biomarkers of carcinogenesis. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002 Nov;227(10):886-93.
39. Gallardo-Williams MT, Chapin RE, King PE, et al. Boron supplementation inhibits the growth and local expression of IGF-1 in human prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) tumors in nude mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2004 Jan;32(1):73-8.
40. Barranco WT, Eckhert CD. Boric acid inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Lett. 2004 Dec 8;216(1):21-9.
41. Deeb D, Xu YX, Jiang H, et al. Curcumin (diferuloyl-methane) enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Jan;2(1):95-103.
42. Deeb D, Jiang H, Gao X, et al. Curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo2L by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB through suppression of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2004 Jul;3(7):803-12.
43. Chendil D, Ranga RS, Meigooni D et al. Curcumin confers radiosensitizing effect in prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Oncogene. 2004 Feb 26;23(8):1599-607.
44. Dorai T, Dutcher JP, Dempster DW et al. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in prostate cancer—V: Interference with the osteomimetic properties of hormone refractory C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2004 Jun 15;60(1):1-17.
45. Adams BK, Ferstl EM, Davis MC, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel curcumin analogs as anti-cancer and anti-angiogenesis agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Jul 15;12(14):3871-83.
46. Adams BK, Cai J, Armstrong J, et al. EF24, a novel synthetic curcumin analog, induces apoptosis in cancer cells via a redox-dependent mechanism. Anticancer Drugs. 2005 Mar;16(3):263-75.
47. D’Amico AV, Chen MH, Roehl KA et al. Preoperative PSA velocity and the risk of death from prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jul 8;351(2):125-35.
48. Cote RJ, Skinner EC, Salem CE, et al. The effect of finasteride on the prostate gland in men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Br J Cancer. 1998 Aug;78(3):413-8.
49. Andriole GL, Kirby R. Safety and tolerability of the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol. 2003 Jul;44(1):82-8.
50. Lowe FC, McConnell JD, Hudson PB, et al. Long-term 6-year experience with finasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2003 Apr;61(4):791-6.
51. Lee C, Sutkowski DM, Sensibar JA, et al. Regulation of proliferation and production of prostate-specific antigen in androgen-sensitive prostatic cancer cells, LNCaP, by dihydrotestosterone. Endocrinology. 1995 Feb;136(2):796-803.
52. Murphy BC, Pienta KJ, Coffey DS. Effects of extracellular matrix components and dihydrotestosterone on the structure and function of human prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 1992;20(1):29-41.