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Life Extension Magazine

LE Magazine June 2005
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Beta-Sitosterol

and the Aging Prostate GlandBy Stephen B. Strum, MD, FACP, and William Faloon
Table 2. Tumor Cell Lines and Effects of Phytosterols. Breast, prostate, and colon cancer cell lines showed significant decreases in cancer cell growth and tumor size after phytosterol administration. Metastases to lymph nodes and lungs were also decreased.

Combining Beta-Sitosterol and Resveratrol

Dr. Atif B. Awad and his team at the State University of New York at Buffalo have found that beta-sitosterol inhibits prostate and breast cancer cell growth, and induces cell cycle arrest. Yet since their studies were published in 2000-2001, little research has been done to determine the mechanisms by which this occurs.10-14

In the March 2005 issue of the journal Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Awad and his team published cutting-edge findings of the possible mechanisms by which resveratrol and beta-sitosterol inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer cells.15

After researchers supplemented prostate cancer cells with resveratrol and beta-sitosterol, they reported that long-term supplementation with either beta-sitosterol or resveratrol elevated basal prosta-glandin release, but that beta-sitosterol was more potent in this regard. Of the two phytochemicals, beta-sitosterol was also more effective in inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the growth at concentrations tested. The scientists concluded that these phytochemicals may induce the inhibition of tumor growth by stimulating apoptosis and arresting cells at different locations in the cell cycle, and that the mechanism may involve alterations in ROS (reactive oxygen species) and prostaglandin production.15

Conclusion

For millions of men in American, benign prostate enlargement will severely downgrade their quality of life. Yet across the ocean are drugs that have been shown in carefully controlled studies to alleviate much of the discomfort associated with prostate gland overgrowth.

Europeans use beta-sitosterol by itself or in combination with saw palmetto to alleviate urinary symptoms of benign prostate enlargement.

As the word gets out about the documented benefits of beta-sitosterol, American consumers can expect to see more prostate support products that contain this low-cost plant sterol.

References

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2. Homma Y, Imajo C, Takahashi S, Kawabe K, Aso Y. Urinary symptoms and urodynamics in a normal elderly population. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1994;157:27-30. PMID 7939451

3. Berges RR, Kassen A, Senge T. Treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia with beta-sitosterol: an 18-month follow-up. BJU Int. 2000 May;85(7):842-6. PMID 10792163

4. Berges RR, Windeler J, Trampisch HJ, Senge T. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Beta-sitosterol Study Group. Lancet. 1995 Jun 17;345(8964):1529-32. PMID 7540705

5. Klippel KF, Hiltl DM, Schipp B. A multicentric, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. German BPH-Phyto Study group. Br J Urol. 1997 Sep;80(3):427-32. PMID 9313662

6. Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Ishani A. beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. BJU Int. 1999 Jun;83(9):976-83. PMID 10368239

7. Wilt T, Ishani A, MacDonald R, Stark G, Mulrow C, Lau J. Beta-sitosterols for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001043. PMID 10796740

8. von Holtz RL, Fink CS, Awad AB. Beta-Sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 1998;32(1):8-12. PMID 9824850

9. Duan RD. Anticancer compounds and sphingolipid metabolism in the colon. In Vivo. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):293-300. PMID 15796189

10. Awad AB, Fink CS, Williams H, Kim U. In vitro and in vivo (SCID mice) effects of phytosterols on the growth and dissemination of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001 Dec;10(6):507-13. PMID 11916349

11. Awad AB, Gan Y, Fink CS. Effect of beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, on growth, protein phosphatase 2A, and phospholipase D in LNCaP cells. Nutr Cancer. 2000;36(1):74-8. PMID 10798219

12. Awad AB, Downie A, Fink CS, Kim U. Dietary phytosterol inhibits the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells grown in SCID mice. Anticancer Res. 2000 Mar-Apr;20(2A):821-4. PMID 10810360

13. Awad AB, Downie AC, Fink CS. Inhibition of growth and stimulation of apoptosis by beta-sitosterol treatment of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in culture. Int J Mol Med. 2000 May;5(5):541-5. PMID 10762659

14. Awad AB, Williams H, Fink CS. Phytosterols reduce in vitro metastatic ability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 2001;40(2):157-64. PMID 11962251

15. Awad AB, Burr AT, Fink CS. Effect of resveratrol and beta-sitosterol in combination on reactive oxygen species and prostaglandin release by PC-3 cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005 Mar;72(3):219-26. PMID 15664307

16. Awad AB, Chen YC, Fink CS, Hennessey T. beta-Sitosterol inhibits HT-29 human colon cancer cell growth and alters membrane lipids. Anticancer Res. 1996 Sep-Oct;16(5A):2797-804. PMID 8917388

17. Awad AB, von Holtz RL, Cone JP, Fink CS, Chen YC. beta-Sitosterol inhibits growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells by activating the sphingomyelin cycle. Anticancer Res. 1998 Jan-Feb;18(1A):471-3. PMID 9568122