Oxidative stress and neuro-degeneration.
Oxidative stress is a well-studied early response in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, where neuronal loss can exceed 90% in the vulnerable neuronal population. Oxidative stress affects all classes of macromolecules (sugar, lipids, proteins, and DNA), leading inevitably to neuronal dysfunction. We observed that Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), the predominant advanced glycation end product that accumulates in vivo, along with its glycation-specific precursor hexitol-lysine, are increased in neurons from cases of Alzheimer’s disease, especially those containing intracellular neurofibrillary pathology. The increase in hexitol-lysine and CML can result from either lipid peroxidation or advanced glycation, whereas hexitol-lysine is solely a product of glycation, suggesting that two distinct oxidative processes act in concert in the neuropathology of the disease. Furthermore, using olfactory neurons as an experimental model, we observed an increase in glycation products in neurons derived from Alzheimer’s disease patients. Our findings support the idea that aldehyde-mediated modifications, in concert with oxyradical-mediated modifications, are critical early pathogenic factors in Alzheimer’s disease.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:545-52
Hypoxia facilitates Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis by up-regulating BACE1 gene expression.
The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of the majority of cases of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is unknown. A history of stroke was found to be associated with development of some AD cases, especially in the presence of vascular risk factors. Reduced cerebral perfusion is a common vascular component among AD risk factors, and hypoxia is a direct consequence of hypoperfusion. Previously we showed that expression of the beta-site beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) gene BACE1 is tightly controlled at both the transcriptional and translational levels and that increased BACE1 maturation contributes to the AD pathogenesis in Down’s syndrome. Here we have identified a functional hypoxia-responsive element in the BACE1 gene promoter. Hypoxia up-regulated beta-secretase cleavage of APP and amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) production by increasing BACE1 gene transcription and expression both in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxia treatment markedly increased Abeta deposition and neuritic plaque formation and potentiated the memory deficit in Swedish mutant APP transgenic mice. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that hypoxia can facilitate AD pathogenesis, and they provide a molecular mechanism linking vascular factors to AD. Our study suggests that interventions to improve cerebral perfusion may benefit AD patients.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 5;103(49):18727-32
Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.
Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-22
The protective action of alpha-tocopherol on the white matter lipids during moderate hypoxia in rats.
Hypoxia and ischemia acting on the brain cause alterations of the level of lipids and sterols. Famile 3.0-3.5-month-old rats were used for the experiment. They were given alpha-tocopherol in the dose of 11.43 mg/kg of body weight through seven days, then underwent hypoxia (7% of oxygen in the breathing mixture) and myelin was isolated in four times after experiment: 4, 24 hours, 14 days and 2 months after experiment. Three lipids groups were isolated that are neutral lipids, galactolipids and phospholipids. They were quantitatively analyzed with spectrophotocolorimetry. The obtained results indicate that vitamin E administration to animals does not cause significant changes of brain lipids levels. However, alpha-tocopherol administred before moderate hypoxia balances the concentrations of lisophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositide and cerebrosides with control level 2 months after experiment. Vitamin E changes in concentration of the myelin neutral lipids. Vitamin E administered before experimental moderate hypoxia stabilizes some membrane lipids and could be used in brain hypoxia.
Folia Neuropathol. 2005;43(2):103-8
Protective effect of resveratrol against oxygen-glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures: Involvement of PI3-K pathway.
Here we investigated the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol in an in vitro model of ischemia. We used organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In OGD-vehicle exposed cultures, about 46% of the hippocampus was labeled with PI, indicating a robust percentage of cell death. When cultures were treated with resveratrol 10, 25, and 50 microM, the cell death was reduced to 22, 20, and 13% respectively. To elucidate a possible mechanism by which resveratrol exerts its neuroprotective effect, we investigated the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3-k) pathway using LY294002 (5 microM) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) using PD98059 (20 microM). The resveratrol (50 microM) neuroprotection was prevented by LY294002 but was not by PD98059. Immunoblotting revealed that resveratrol 50 microM induced the phosphorylation/activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) and the phosphorylation/inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Our results suggest that PI3-k/Akt pathway are involved in the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol.
Neurobiol Dis. 2006 Oct;24(1):170-82. Epub 2006 Jul 24
A diet enriched with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid reduces amyloid burden in an aged Alzheimer mouse model.
Epidemiological studies suggest that increased intake of the omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). DHA levels are lower in serum and brains of AD patients, which could result from low dietary intake and/or PUFA oxidation. Because effects of DHA on Alzheimer pathogenesis, particularly on amyloidosis, are unknown, we used the APPsw (Tg2576) transgenic mouse model to evaluate the impact of dietary DHA on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and amyloid burden. Aged animals (17-19 months old) were placed in one of three groups until 22.5 months of age: control (0.09% DHA), low-DHA (0%), or high-DHA (0.6%) chow. beta-Amyloid (Abeta) ELISA of the detergent-insoluble extract of cortical homogenates showed that DHA-enriched diets significantly reduced total Abeta by >70% when compared with low-DHA or control chow diets. Dietary DHA also decreased Abeta42 levels below those seen with control chow. Image analysis of brain sections with an antibody against Abeta (amino acids 1-13) revealed that overall plaque burden was significantly reduced by 40.3%, with the largest reductions (40-50%) in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. DHA modulated APP processing by decreasing both alpha- and beta-APP C-terminal fragment products and full-length APP. BACE1 (beta-secretase activity of the beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme), ApoE (apolipoprotein E), and transthyretin gene expression were unchanged with the high-DHA diet. Together, these results suggest that dietary DHA could be protective against beta-amyloid production, accumulation, and potential downstream toxicity.
J Neurosci. 2005 Mar 23;25(12):3032-40
Actions of Ginkgo Biloba related to potential utility for the treatment of conditions involving cerebral hypoxia.
Neuronal hypoxia results from a variety of cerebrovascular accidents or ‘normal’ age-associated anatomic changes. The consequences vary from mild deficits in neurologic function to massive neuropathology. Present pharmacotherapeutic therapy is not ideal. Two apparently disparate approaches to the search for better treatment or prevention-one involving reassessment of herbal remedies as ‘alternative’ medicine and the other one involving the desirability of increased structural diversity in HTS (high-throughput screening) libraries and as combinatorial chemistry templates-have converged in a rekindling of interest and a reevaluation of the pharmacologic properties of substances such as extract from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba Linne (form. Salisburia adiantifolia Sm.). There are reports of positive results from a small number of controlled clinical trials (albeit with small numbers of patients) sufficient to suggest that ‘Ginkgo’ might have therapeutic benefit in some situations or subset of patients. The pharmacologic mechanism by which Ginkgo might be able to provide the observed effect is not clear. However, it is believed that the flavonoid and terpenoid components of Ginkgo extract might produce beneficial therapeutic effects through mechanisms acting separately or in concert, such as the antagonism of PAF (platelet activating factor), antioxidant and metabolic actions, and effects on neurotransmitters. These mechanisms are reviewed in this article.
Life Sci. 2000 Aug 11;67(12):1389-96