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Boswellia

Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee—a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial.

Osteoarthritis is a common, chronic, progressive, skeletal, degenerative disorder, which commonly affects the knee joint. Boswellia serrata tree is commonly found in India. The therapeutic value of its gum (guggulu) has been known. It possesses good anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic activity. A randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Boswellia serrata Extract (BSE) in 30 patients of osteoarthritis of knee, 15 each receiving active drug or placebo for eight weeks. After the first intervention, washout was given and then the groups were crossed over to receive the opposite intervention for eight weeks. All patients receiving drug treatment reported decrease in knee pain, increased knee flexion and increased walking distance. The frequency of swelling in the knee joint was decreased. Radiologically there was no change. The observed differences between drug treated and placebo being statistically significant, are clinically relevant. BSE was well tolerated by the subjects except for minor gastrointestinal ADRs. BSE is recommended in the patients of osteoarthritis of the knee with possible therapeutic use in other arthritis.

Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):3-7

Dietary support with Boswellia resin in canine inflammatory joint and spinal disease.

An open multi-centre veterinary clinical trial, comparing conditions before and after treatment with a herbal dietary supplement consisting of a natural resin extract of Boswellia serrata, was conducted by 10 practicing veterinarians in Switzerland. This traditional plant-based supplement is known for its anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory properties. 29 dogs with manifestations of chronic joint and spinal disease were enrolled. Osteoarthritis and degenerative conditions were confirmed radiologically in 25 of 29 cases. The resin extract (BSB108, product of Bogar AG) was administered with the regular food at a dose of 400 mg/10 kg body weight once daily for 6 weeks. Already after two weeks of treatment, an overall efficacy of the dietary supplement was evident in 71% of 24 eligible dogs. A statistically significant reduction of severity and resolution of typical clinical signs in individual animals, such as intermittent lameness, local pain and stiff gait, were reported after 6 weeks. Effects of external factors that aggravate lameness, such as “lameness when moving” and “lameness after a long rest” diminished gradually. In 5 dogs, reversible brief episodes of diarrhea and flatulence occurred, but only once was a relationship to the study preparation suspected. Because quality and stability of the resin extract were ensured, these data suggest that a standardized preparation can be recommended as a herbal dietary supplement providing symptomatic support in canine osteoarthritic disease.

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2004 Feb;146(2):71-9

Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells.

Inflammatory disorders represent a substantial health problem. Medicinal plants belonging to the Burseraceae family, including Boswellia, are especially known for their anti-inflammatory properties. The gum resin of Boswellia serrata contains boswellic acids, which inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis. A series of chronic inflammatory diseases are perpetuated by leukotrienes. Although Boswellia extract has proven to be anti-inflammatory in clinical trials, the underlying mechanisms remain to be characterized. TNF alpha represents one of the most widely recognized mediators of inflammation. One mechanism by which TNFalpha causes inflammation is by potently inducing the expression of adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1. We sought to test the genetic basis of the antiinflammatory effects of BE (standardized Boswellia extract, 5-Loxin) in a system of TNF alpha-induced gene expression in human microvascular endothelial cells. We conducted the first whole genome screen for TNF alpha- inducible genes in human microvascular cells (HMEC). Acutely, TNF alpha induced 522 genes and downregulated 141 genes in nine out of nine pairwise comparisons. Of the 522 genes induced by TNF alpha in HMEC, 113 genes were clearly sensitive to BE treatment. Such genes directly related to inflammation, cell adhesion, and proteolysis. The robust BE-sensitive candidate genes were then subjected to further processing for the identification of BE-sensitive signaling pathways. The use of resources such as GenMAPP, KEGG, and gene ontology led to the recognition of the primary BE-sensitive TNF alpha-inducible pathways. BE prevented the TNF alpha-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases. BE also prevented the inducible expression of mediators of apoptosis. Most strikingly, however, TNF alpha-inducible expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were observed to be sensitive to BE. Realtime PCR studies showed that while TNF alpha potently induced VCAM-1 gene expression, BE completely prevented it. This result confirmed our microarray findings and built a compelling case for the anti-inflammatory property of BE. In an in vivo model of carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation, we observed a significant antiinflammatory property of BE consistent with our in vitro findings. These findings warrant further research aimed at identifying the signaling mechanisms by which BE exerts its anti-inflammatory effects.

DNA Cell Biol. 2005 Apr;24(4):244-55

Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leukocyte elastase.

Frankincense extracts and boswellic acids, biologically active pentacyclic triterpenes of frankincense, block leukotriene biosynthesis and exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. Screening for additional effects of boswellic acids on further proinflammatory pathways, we observed that acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, an established direct, nonredox and noncompetitive 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, decreased the activity of human leukocyte elastase (HLE) in vitro with an IC50 value of about 15 microM. Among the pentacyclic triterpenes tested in concentrations up to 20 microM, we also observed substantial inhibition by beta-boswellic acid, amyrin and ursolic acid, but not by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. The data show that the dual inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and HLE is unique to boswellic acids: other pentacyclic triterpenes with HLE inhibitory activities (e.g., ursolic acid and amyrin) do not inhibit 5-lipoxygenase, and leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors from different chemical classes (e.g., NDGA, MK-886 and ZM-230,487) do not impair HLE activity. Because leukotriene formation and HLE release are increased simultaneously by neutrophil stimulation in a variety of inflammation- and hypersensitivity-based human diseases, the reported blockade of two proinflammatory enzymes by boswellic acids might be the rationale for the putative antiphlogistic activity of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and derivatives.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):460-3

Boswellia carterii extract inhibits TH1 cytokines and promotes TH2 cytokines in vitro.

Traditional herbal formulas used to treat inflammatory arthritis in China and India include Boswellia carterii or Boswellia serrata. They both contain boswellic acids (BAs) which have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties. This study tests the hypothesis that mixtures of BAs derived from B. carterii have immunomodulatory properties. B. carterii plant resin obtained from China was prepared as an ethanol extract, and the presence of seven BAs was confirmed by column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and UV laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. The extract was then tested for its ability to alter in vitro production of TH1 cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) by murine splenocytes. Delivery of the resin extract using ethanol as a solvent resulted in significant cellular toxicity not seen with the addition of ethanol alone. By contrast, delivery of the resin extract using a sesame oil solvent resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of TH1 cytokines coupled with a dose-dependent potentiation of TH2 cytokines. These results indicate that a purified mixture of BAs from B. carterii plant resin exhibits carrier-dependent immunomodulatory properties in vitro.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 May;12(5):575-80

Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases.

Oleogum resins from BOSWELLIA species are used in traditional medicine in India and African countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Animal experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The mechanism of this action is due to some boswellic acids. It is different from that of NSAID and is related to components of the immune system. The most evident action is the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. However, other factors such as cytokines (interleukins and TNF-alpha) and the complement system are also candidates. Moreover, leukocyte elastase and oxygen radicals are targets. Clinical studies, so far with pilot character, suggest efficacy in some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and bronchial asthma. Side effects are not severe when compared to modern drugs used for the treatment of these diseases.

Planta Med. 2006 Oct;72(12):1100-16

Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study.

The gum resin of Boswellia serrata, known in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as Salai guggal, contains boswellic acids, which have been shown to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study forty patients, 23 males and 17 females in the age range of 18 - 75 years having mean duration of illness, bronchial asthma, of 9.58 +/- 6.07 years were treated with a preparation of gum resin of 300 mg thrice daily for a period of 6 weeks. 70% of patients showed improvement of disease as evident by disappearance of physical symptoms and signs such as dyspnoea, rhonchi, number of attacks, increase in FEV subset1, FVC and PEFR as well as decrease in eosinophilic count and ESR. In the control group of 40 patients 16 males and 24 females in the age range of 14-58 years with mean of 32.95 +/- 12.68 were treated with lactose 300 mg thrice daily for 6 weeks. Only 27% of patients in the control group showed improvement. The data show a definite role of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

Eur J Med Res. 1998 Nov 17;3(11):511-4

Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines in vitro.

Boswellic acids from frankincense were indentified as the active compounds which inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis, 5-lipoxygenase and exert antiproliferative activity toward a variety of malignant cells. Because of the relevance for the clinical application, we tested the ethanolic extract of Boswellia serrata gum resin containing a defined amount of boswellic acids for its cytotoxic, cytostatic and apoptotic activity on five leukemia (HL-60, K 562, U937, MOLT-4, THP-1) and two brain tumor (LN-18, LN-229) cell lines by WST-1 assay and flow cytometry. The Boswellia serrata extract induced dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on all human malignant cells tested with GI50 values (extract concentration producing 50% cell growth inhibition) between 57.0 and 124.1 micrograms/ml. In three haematological cell lines (K562, U937, MOLT-4) the effect of total extract expressed in GI50 was 2.8-, 3.3- and 2.3-times more potent (p < 0.05) than pure 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). Morphological changes after 24-27 hours and the detection of apoptotic cells by AnnexinV-binding and/or by the detection of propidium iodide-labelled DNA with flow cytometry, confirmed the apoptotic cell death. The results of this study suggest the effectiveness of Boswellia serrata extract with defined content of boswellic acids.

Anticancer Res. 2002 Sep-Oct;22(5):2853-62

Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Germany­—a survey of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested an increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of CAM in German patients with IBD. METHODS: A questionnaire was offered to IBD patients participating in patient workshops which were organized by a self-help association, the German Crohn’s and Colitis Association. The self-administered questionnaire included demographic and disease-related data as well as items analysing the extent of CAM use and satisfaction with CAM treatment. Seven commonly used CAM methods were predetermined on the questionnaire. RESULTS: 413 questionnaires were completed and included in the analysis (n = 153 male, n = 260 female; n = 246 Crohn’s disease, n = 164 ulcerative colitis). 52 % of the patients reported CAM use in the present or past. In detail, homeopathy (55%), probiotics (43%), classical naturopathy (38%), Boswellia serrata extracts (36%) and acupuncture/Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (33%) were the most frequently used CAM methods. Patients using probiotics, acupuncture and Boswellia serrata extracts (incense) reported more positive therapeutic effects than others. Within the statistical analysis no significant predictors for CAM use were found. 77% of the patients felt insufficiently informed about CAM. CONCLUSION: The use of CAM in IBD patients is very common in Germany, although a large proportion of patients felt that information about CAM is not sufficient. However, to provide an evidence-based approach more research in this field is desperately needed. Therefore, physicians should increasingly inform IBD patients about benefits and limitations of CAM treatment.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 May 22;6:19

Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acid derivatives in experimental colitis.

Recent clinical trials of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata have shown promising results in patients with ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether a semisynthetic form of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (sAKBA), the most potent anti-inflammatory component of the resin, also confers protection in experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to compare its effects with those standard medications of ulcerative colitis like steroids and to examine whether leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion is a major target of action of sAKBA. Clinical measurements of disease activity and histology were used to assess disease progression, and intravital microscopy was employed to monitor the adhesion of leukocytes and platelets in postcapillary venules of the inflamed colon. sAKBA treatment significantly blunted disease activity as assessed both grossly and by histology. Similarly, the recruitment of adherent leukocytes and platelets into inflamed colonic venules was profoundly reduced in mice treated with sAKBA. Because previous studies in the DSS model have shown that P-selectin mediates these blood cell-endothelial cell interactions, the expression of P-selectin in the colonic microcirculation was monitored using the dual-radiolabeled antibody technique. The treatment of established colitis with sAKBA largely prevented the P-selectin upregulation normally associated with DSS colitis. All of the protective responses observed with sAKBA were comparable to that realized in mice treated with a corticosteroid. Our findings demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect of sAKBA and indicated that P-selectin-mediated recruitment of inflammatory cells is a major site of action for this novel anti-inflammatory agent.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Jun;290(6):G1131-7

Effect of hexane extract of Boswellia serrata oleo-gum resin on chemically induced liver damage.

The hexane extract of oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia serrata (BSHE) was evaluated for its effect on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or thioacetamide. The BSHE was given in two different doses (87.5 mg/kg p.o. and 175 mg/kg p.o.). Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent was used as standard. The lower dose of BSHE (87.5 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes and prevented the increase in liver weight in all three models of liver injury, while the higher dose showed mild hepatoprotective activity. The hepatoprotective effect of lower dose of BSHE was supported by changes in histopathology. It was concluded that hexane extract of oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia serrata plant in lower doses possess hepatoprotective activity.

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Apr;19(2):129-33

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