Inhibitors of advanced glycation end product formation and neurovascular dysfunction in experimental diabetes.
Advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products (AGEs/ALEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the major microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus: nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. This article reviews the evidence regarding the peripheral nerve and its vascular supply. Most investigations done to assess the role of AGEs/ALEs in animal models of diabetic neuropathy have used aminoguanidine as a prototypic inhibitor. Preventive or intervention experiments have shown treatment benefits for motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, autonomic nitrergic neurotransmission, nerve morphometry, and nerve blood flow. The latter depends on improvements in nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and is responsible for conduction velocity improvements. A mechanistic interpretation of aminoguanidine’s action in terms of AGE/ALE inhibition is made problematic by the relative lack of specificity. However, other unrelated compounds, such as pyridoxamine and pyridoxamine analogues, have recently been shown to have beneficial effects similar to aminoguanidine, as well as to improve pain-related measures of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. These data also stress the importance of redox metal ion-catalyzed AGE/ALE formation. A further approach is to decrease substrate availability by reducing the elevated levels of hexose and triose phosphates found in diabetes. Benfotiamine is a transketolase activator that directs these substrates to the pentose phosphate pathway, thus reducing tissue AGEs. A similar spectrum of improvements in nerve and vascular function were noted when using benfotiamine in diabetic rats. Taken together, the data provide strong support for an important role for AGEs/ALEs in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:784-92
Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN), associated with diabetes, neurotoxic chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/antiretroviral drugs, alcoholism, nutrient deficiencies, heavy metal toxicity, and other etiologies, results in significant morbidity. Conventional pain medications primarily mask symptoms and have significant side effects and addiction profiles. However, a widening body of research indicates alternative medicine may offer significant benefit to this patient population. Alpha-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, benfotiamine, methylcobalamin, and topical capsaicin are among the most well-researched alternative options for the treatment of PN. Other potential nutrient or botanical therapies include vitamin E, glutathione, folate, pyridoxine, biotin, myo-inositol, omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, L-arginine, L-glutamine, taurine, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, magnesium, chromium, and St. John’s wort. In the realm of physical medicine, acupuncture, magnetic therapy, and yoga have been found to provide benefit. New cutting-edge conventional therapies, including dual-action peptides, may also hold promise.
Altern Med Rev. 2006 Dec;11(4):294-329
Advanced glycation endproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications?
Glycation is a major cause of spontaneous damage to proteins in physiological systems. This is exacerbated in diabetes as a consequence of the increase in glucose and other saccharides derivatives in plasma and at the sites of vascular complications. Protein damage by the formation of early glycation adducts is limited to lysine side chain and N-terminal amino groups whereas later stage adducts, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), modify these and also arginine and cysteine residues. Metabolic dysfunction in vascular cells leads to the increased formation of methylglyoxal which adds disproportionately to the glycation damage in hyperglycaemia. AGE-modified proteins undergo cellular proteolysis leading to the formation and urinary excretion of glycation free adducts. AGEs may potentiate the development of diabetic complications by activation of cell responses by AGE-modified proteins interacting with specific cell surface receptors, activation of cell responses by AGE free adducts, impairment of protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions by AGE residue formation, and increasing resistance to proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. The formation of AGEs is suppressed by intensive glycaemic control, and may in future be suppressed by thiamine and pyridoxamine supplementation, and several other pharmacological agents. Increasing expression of enzymes of the enzymatic defence against glycation provides a novel and potentially effective future therapeutic strategy to suppress protein glycation.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):233-45
Role of advanced glycation end products in hypertension and atherosclerosis: therapeutic implications.
The vascular diseases, hypertension and atherosclerosis, affect millions of individuals worldwide, and account for a large number of deaths globally. A better understanding of the mechanism of these conditions will lead to more specific and effective therapies. Hypertension and atherosclerosis are both characterized by insulin resistance, and we suggest that this plays a major role in their etiology. The cause of insulin resistance is not known, but may be a result of a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. In insulin resistance, alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism lead to the production of excess aldehydes including glyoxal and methylglyoxal. These aldehydes react non-enzymatically with free amino and sulfhydryl groups of amino acids of proteins to form stable conjugates called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs act directly, as well as via receptors to alter the function of many intra- and extracellular proteins including antioxidant and metabolic enzymes, calcium channels, lipoproteins, and transcriptional and structural proteins. This results in endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress. All these changes are
characteristic of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that increased AGEs are also associated with these conditions. A pathological role for AGEs is substantiated by studies showing that therapies that attenuate insulin resistance and/or lower AGEs, are effective in decreasing oxidative stress, lowering blood pressure, and attenuating atherosclerotic vascular changes. These interventions include lipoic acid and other antioxidants, AGE breakers or soluble receptors of AGEs, and aldehyde-binding agents like cysteine. Such therapies may offer alternative specific means to treat hypertension and atherosclerosis. An adjunct therapy may be to implement lifestyle changes such as weight reduction, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables that also decrease insulin resistance as well as oxidative stress.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2007;49(1):48-63
Diabetic neuropathy: new strategies for treatment.
Current therapeutic possibilities can be divided into two groups: the pathogenetically oriented and the symptomatic therapy. One of the most important component of etiology-based treatment is the stabilization of glycemic control. Based on efficacy and safety data benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid should be considered as first choices among pathogenetically oriented treatments of diabetic neuropathy. Promising data were published about the aldose reductase inhibitor ranirestat. The symptomatic effect of antiepileptic drugs in diabetic painful neuropathy (DPN) is originated from several possible pharmacological properties. Pregabalin and gabapentin have the highest efficacy and the lowest frequency of adverse events among these drugs. Antidepressants also extensively used for symptomatic treatment in DPN. In the last years several studies were published about the beneficial effect of duloxetine. Most likely combination therapy will be frequently applied in the future for the treatment of DPN, the optimal choice could be to combine pathogenetically oriented and symptomatic treatment.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 Feb;10(2):99-108
Cellular and molecular basis of wound healing in diabetes.
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), a leading cause of amputations, affect 15% of people with diabetes. A series of multiple mechanisms, including decreased cell and growth factor response, lead to diminished peripheral blood flow and decreased local angiogenesis, all of which can contribute to lack of healing in persons with DFUs. In this issue of the JCI, Gallagher and colleagues demonstrate that in diabetic mice, hyperoxia enhances the mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow to the peripheral circulation (see the related article beginning on page 1249). Local injection of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha then recruits these EPCs to the cutaneous wound site, resulting in accelerated wound healing. Thus, Gallagher et al. have identified novel potential targets for therapeutic intervention in diabetic wound healing.
J Clin Invest. 2007 May;117(5):1219-22
Soluble RAGE blocks scavenger receptor CD36-mediated uptake of hypochlorite-modified low-density lipoprotein.
Engagement of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) by its signal transduction ligands evokes inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of the vessel wall. However, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), the truncated form spanning the extracellular binding domain of RAGE, has potent anti-inflammatory properties by acting as a decoy for RAGE ligands. We now show that sRAGE binds with high affinity to atherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the major oxidant generated by the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system of phagocytes activated during inflammation. We further demonstrate that sRAGE can be coprecipitated with HOCl-LDL from spiked serum. To determine the functional significance of sRAGE binding to HOCl-LDL, cell association studies with macrophages were performed. sRAGE effectively inhibited cellular uptake of HOCl-LDL and subsequent lipid accumulation. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing class B scavenger receptor CD36 or SR-BI, two preferential scavenger receptors for HOCl-LDL, we demonstrate that sRAGE only interferes with CD36-mediated uptake of HOCl-LDL. The present findings indicate that sRAGE acts as a sink for HOCl-LDL, which is abundantly present in human atherosclerotic lesions. We propose that sRAGE represents a physiological antagonist that interferes with scavenger receptor-mediated cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation of macrophages.
FASEB J. 2007 Oct;21(12):3075-82
Serum level of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) is an independent determinant of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in nondiabetic general population.
Glucose can react nonenzymatically with amino groups of proteins to form senescent macroprotein derivatives termed advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Recently, AGEs have been shown to play an important role in atherosclerosis even in nondiabetic subjects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this is not fully understood. We have now investigated whether serum AGE level was an independent determinant of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis, in nondiabetic general population. One-hundred and eighty-six nondiabetic Japanese subjects underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of blood chemistries, PAI-1, and AGEs. Uni- and multivariate analyses were applied for the determinants of PAI-1 levels. The average PAI-1 levels were 29.7+/-23.8 ng/ml in males and 21.8+/-17.1 ng/ml in females, respectively. Univariate regression analysis showed that PAI-1 levels were associated with age (inversely, p=0.003), male (p=0.003), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), HDL-cholesterol (inversely, p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.001), fasting plasma glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.001), uric acids (p<0.001), AGEs (p=0.037), and alcohol intake (p<0.001). By the use of multiple regression analyses, BMI (p<0.001), male (p=0.003), fasting plasma glucose (p=0.005), age (inversely, p=0.017), and AGEs (p=0.034) remained significant. The present study is the first demonstration that serum AGE level was one of the independent determinants of PAI-1 in nondiabetic general population. The AGE-associated thrombogenic abnormality may be involved in atherogenesis in nondiabetic subjects.
Horm Metab Res. 2007 Nov;39(11):845-8
Clinical and prognostic value of advanced glycation end-products in chronic heart failure.
AIMS: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been proposed as a novel factor involved in the development and progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). We aimed to determine whether plasma levels of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), two well-known AGEs, are related to the severity and prognosis of CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 102 CHF patients, aged 58 +/- 12 years, with an average left ventricular ejection fraction of 28 +/- 9% were followed for 1.7 (1.2-1.9) years. NYHA functional class and NT-pro-BNP were used as estimates of the severity of CHF. CML and CEL were determined by LC-MS/MS. CML levels were associated with NYHA functional class (P < 0.001) and NT-pro-BNP levels (P < 0.001). Survival analysis for the combined end-point of death, heart transplantation, ischaemic cardiovascular event, and hospitalization for heart failure revealed that CML levels predicted outcome, even after adjustment for age, gender, aetiology of CHF, identified risk modifiers, and several known predictors of outcome in CHF. The predictive value of CML subsided after correction for renal function. CEL was not associated with the severity or prognosis of CHF. CONCLUSION: Plasma AGEs, in particular CML levels, are related to the severity and prognosis of CHF. The fact that the relation between CML and prognosis subsided after correction for renal function may suggest that AGE accumulation in renal failure explains part of the prognostic value of renal function in CHF. However, further investigation is warranted to exclude the possibility that CML is just an innocent marker of renal function.
Eur Heart J. 2007 Dec;28(23):2879-85
Rapid increase in human life expectancy: will it soon be limited by the aging of elastin?
The postponement of the most frequent age-related diseases stimulated speculations of the possibility of “dying of old age”. The selective decline of individual physiological functions-aging in spare-parts-indicates however the potential limitation of the life-span by the rapid decline of some of the vital parameters. We explored a possibility of such a limitation of maximal life-span by the age-related alteration of elastin, consisting in Ca-accumulation, lipid deposition and elastolytic degradation. The quantitative evaluation of these processes suggests an approximative upper limit for the elastic properties of the cardio-respiratory system of about 100-120 years, at least, as far as elastin is involved. This process, age-related alterations of elastic fibers, is however not the only one limiting the functional value of the cardiovascular system. Crosslinking of collagen fibers by advanced glycation end-products certainly contributes also to the age-dependent rigidification of the cardiovascular system. Therefore the answer to the initial question, can age-dependent alterations of a single matrix macromolecule be limiting such vital functions as the cardio-respiratory system-is a cautious yes, with however the caveat that other, independent mechanisms, such as the Maillard reaction, can also interfere with and limit further the functional value of such vital physiological functions.
Biogerontology. 2008 Jan 4
Thiamine pyrophosphate and pyridoxamine inhibit the formation of antigenic advanced glycation end-products: comparison with aminoguanidine.
Nonenzymatic glycation of proteins by glucose leading to the formation of toxic and immunogenic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be a major contributor to the pathological manifestations of diabetes mellitus, aging, and, possibly, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. We tested the in vitro inhibition of antigenic AGE formation on bovine serum albumin, ribonuclease A, and human hemoglobin by various vitamin B1 and B6 derivatives. Among the inhibitors, pyridoxamine and thiamine pyrophosphate potently inhibited AGE formation and were more effective than aminoguanidine, suggesting that these two compounds may have novel therapeutic potential in preventing vascular complications of diabetes. An unexpected finding was that aminoguanidine inhibited the late kinetic stages of glycation much more weakly than the early phase.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Mar 7;220(1):113-9
In vitro kinetic studies of formation of antigenic advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Novel inhibition of post-Amadori glycation pathways.
Nonenzymatic protein glycation (Maillard reaction) leads to heterogeneous, toxic, and antigenic advanced glycation end products (“AGEs”) and reactive precursors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and normal aging. In vitro inhibition studies of AGE formation in the presence of high sugar concentrations are difficult to interpret, since AGE-forming intermediates may oxidatively arise from free sugar or from Schiff ase condensation products with protein amino groups, rather than from just their classical Amadori rearrangement products. We recently succeeded in isolating an Amadori intermediate in the reaction of ribonuclease A (RNase) with ribose for rapid studies of post-Amadori AGE formation in absence of free sugar or reversibly formed Schiff base precursors to Amadori products. This provides a new bstrategy for a better understanding of the mechanism of AGE inhibition by established inhibitors, such as aminoguanidine, and for searching for novel inhibitors specifically acting on post-Amadori pathways of AGE formation. Aminoguanidine shows little inhibition of post-Amadori AGE formation in RNase and bovine serum albumin, in contrast to its apparently effective inhibition of initial (although not late) stages of glycation in the presence of high concentrations of sugar. Of several derivatives of vitamins B1 and B6 recently studied for possible AGE inhibition in the presence of glucose, pyridoxamine and, to a lesser extent, thiamine pyrophosphate proved to be novel and effective post-Amadori inhibitors that decrease the final levels of AGEs formed. Our mechanism-based approach to the study of AGE inhibition appears promising for the design and discovery of novel post-Amadori AGE inhibitors of therapeutic potential that may complement others, such as aminoguanidine, known to either prevent initial sugar attachment or to scavenge highly reactive dicarbonyl intermediates.
J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 28;272(9):5430-7