Procyanidins from apples (Malus pumila Mill.) extend the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Apple polyphenols (AP) mainly consist of procyanidins (PC), which are composed of (-)-epicatechins and (+)-catechins. In order to investigate the antiageing effects of PC, we measured the life span of CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS worms treated with PC. Treatment with 65 µg/mL PC extended the mean life span of wild-type N2 and FEM-1 worms by 12.1 % and 8.4 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as resveratrol. In addition, treatment with 100 µg/mL AP also significantly prolonged the mean life span of the same worms by 12.0 % and 5.3 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as PC. In contrast, treatment with (-)-epicatechin did not extend the life span of the worms. PC did not modify the growth, food intake, or fecundity of C. elegans. Treatment with PC did not extend the life span of MEV-1 worms, which show excessive oxidative stress, indicating that PC had no antioxidant ability in the MEV-1 mutant. Moreover, treatment with PC had no effect on the longevity of SIR-2.1 worms, which lack the activity of SIR-2, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD (+)-dependent protein deacetylases. These results indicated that PC has SIR-2.1-dependent antiageing effects on C. elegans.
Planta Med. 2011 Jan;77(2):122-7
Apple polyphenols modulate expression of selected genes related to toxicological defence and stress response in human colon adenoma cells.
Apples contain significant amounts of flavonoids that are potentially cancer risk reducing by acting antioxidative or antiproliferative and by favorably modulating gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether polyphenols from apples modulate expression of genes related to colon cancer prevention in preneoplastic cells derived from colon adenoma (LT97). For this, LT97 cells were treated with effective concentrations of apple extracts (AEs). RNA was isolated and used for synthesis and labeling of cDNA that was hybridized to cDNA-arrays. Gene expression studies were performed using a commercial cDNA-array from Superarray that contains a limited number of genes (96 genes) related to drug metabolism, and a custom-made cDNA microarray that contains a higher number of genes (300 genes, including some genes from Superarray) related to mechanisms of carcinogenesis or chemoprevention. Real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays were additionally performed to confirm selected array results. Treatment of cells with AE resulted in 30 and 46 genes expressed over cut-off values (>or=1.5- or <or=0.7-fold) in Superarray and custom array, respectively. Of 87 genes spotted on both arrays, 4 genes (CYP3A7, CYP4F3, CHST7, GSTT2) were regulated with similar directional changes. Expression of selected phase II genes (GSTP1, GSTT2, GSTA4, UGT1A1, UGT2B7), regulated on either array, was confirmed by real-time PCR. The enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferases and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases were altered by treatment of LT97 cells with AE. The observed altered gene expression patterns in LT97 cells, resulting from AE treatment, points to a possible protection of the cells against some toxicological insults.
Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2647-55
Impact of apple polyphenols on GSTT2 gene expression, subsequent protection of DNA and modulation of proliferation using LT97 human colon adenoma cells.
Apple extract (AE) enhances expression of glutathione S-transferases (e.g., GSTT2) in human colon cells (LT97). Therefore, aim of the present study was to identify functional consequences of GSTT2 induction by AE and to determine the relation of AE effects to isolated compounds. Polyphenol composition of AE was analyzed. LT97 cells were treated with AE or synthetic polyphenol mixture (SPM) under conditions that induced GSTT2, and challenged with GSTT2-2 substrate cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) to determine DNA damage using comet assay. Modulation of GSTT2 expression (real-time PCR) was reassessed, and the influence on cell proliferation and pro-oxidative potential of AE and SPM were assessed to understand additional mechanisms. Induction of GSTT2 by AE was accompanied by protection of LT97 cells from CumOOH-induced genotoxicity. Although SPM was unable to reflect AE-specific bioactivity related to GSTT2 modulation and anti-genotoxicity, inhibition of LT97 cell proliferation by SPM was comparable. Storage of AE caused changes in phenolic composition along with loss of activity regarding GSTT2 induction and amplified growth inhibition. At the applied concentrations, no H(2)O(2) formation was detectable with any of the substances. AE can protect against oxidatively induced DNA damage. Nevertheless, chemopreventive effects of AE strongly depend on the specific composition, which is modified by storage.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Oct;53(10):1254-62
Apple juice intervention modulates expression of ARE-dependent genes in rat colon and liver.
BACKGROUND: The risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases is inversely correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables. This beneficial effect is mainly attributed to secondary plant constituents such as polyphenols, supposed to play a major role in protection against ROS (reactive oxygen species)-associated toxicity. AIM OF THE STUDY: To elucidate the potential of differently manufactured apple juices (clear AJ/cloudy AJ/smoothie, in comparison with a polyphenol-free control juice) to modulate expression of ARE-dependent genes. METHODS: In male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/group; 10d juice intervention, 4d wash-out; 4 treatment cycles), expression of target genes (superoxide dismutase, SOD1/SOD2; glutathione peroxidase, GPX1/GPX2; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase, GCLC/GCLM; glutathione reductase, GSR; catalase, CAT; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, NQO1 and transcription factor erythroid-derived 2-like-2, Nrf2) was quantified with duplex RT-PCR, using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as control. RESULTS: In colon and liver of rats consuming polyphenol-free control juice, rather similar basic expressions were observed (relative GAPDH ratios ranging from 2 to 0.7 and 2.5-0.3, respectively). In the distal colon, apple juice intervention slightly but significantly induced most genes (e.g. GPX2, GSR, CAT, Nrf2; p < 0.001), whereas in the liver only GPX1 and NQO1 mRNA were up-regulated; other hepatic target genes were not affected or down-regulated (SOD1, SOD2, GCLC/M, GSR), concomitant with the absence of Nrf2 induction. Induction of antioxidant gene expression differed with juice type (cloudy AJ > clear AJ ~ smoothie). CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results underline the potential of polyphenol-rich apple juice to increase the expression of ARE-dependent antioxidant genes.
Eur J Nutr. 2011 Mar;50(2):135-43
Cloudy apple juice decreases DNA damage, hyperproliferation and aberrant crypt foci development in the distal colon of DMH-initiated rats.
Clear (CleA) and cloudy (CloA) apple juices containing different amounts of analyzed procyanidins and pectin were investigated for preventive effects of colon cancer and underlying molecular mechanisms in F344 rats given intraperitoneal injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH; 20 mg/kg body wt) once a week for 4 weeks. Rats received either water (Cont), CleA or CloA (ad libitum) for 7 weeks starting 1 week before the first DMH injection. CloA inhibited DMH induced genotoxic damage in mucosa cells of the distal colon compared with Cont as investigated by single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay. The mean tail intensity in mucosa cells of DMH-treated controls (Cont/DMH: 6.1+/-0.9%) was significantly reduced by CloA (2.4+/-0.8%; P<0.01) but not by CleA intervention (4.1+/-1.2%; P>0.05). The crypt cell proliferation index induced by DMH (Cont/NaCl: 10.0+/-0.7%; Cont/DMH: 19.9+/-1.0%; P<0.001) was significantly decreased by CleA (15.7+/-0.7%; P<0.001) and CloA intervention (11.9+/-0.4%; P<0.001). CloA but not CleA significantly reduced the number of large aberrant crypt foci (ACF) consisting of more than four aberrant crypts (AC) (Cont/DMH: 37.4+/-5.4; CleA/DMH: 32.8+/-4.4, P>0.05; CloA/DMH: 18.8+/-2.5 ACF; P<0.05) and the overall mean ACF size in the distal colon (Cont/DMH: 2.31+/-0.09; CleA/DMH: 2.27+/-0.05; CloA/DMH: 2.04+/-0.03 AC/ACF; P<0.05). After treatment with DMH and/or apple juices there were no changes in transcript levels of colonic cyclooxygenase isoforms (COX-1, COX-2) or glutathione-associated enzymes (GST-M2, gamma-GCS, GST-P), the splenocyte natural killer cell activity and plasma antioxidant status. However, CloA but not CleA prevented the DMH-induced reduction of splenocyte CD4/CD8 (T-helper cells to cytotoxic lymphocytes) ratio. Since both formulations contained comparable concentrations and types of monomeric polyphenols, complex polyphenols or non-polyphenolic compounds, such as pectin might be responsible for the stronger cancer-preventive effect by CloA.
Carcinogenesis. 2005 Aug;26(8):1414-21
Apple polyphenol extracts prevent aspirin-induced damage to the rat gastric mucosa.
Aspirin causes gastroduodenal ulcers and complications. Food bioactive compounds could exert beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated whether apple polyphenol extract (APE) reduced aspirin-induced injury to the rat gastric mucosa. Rats were treated with APE (10(-4) m catechin equivalent) before oral aspirin (200 mg/kg). Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) and heparin-binding epidermal-growth-factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) mRNA and protein expression were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively; malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC; gastric secretion was evaluated in pylorus-ligated rats. APE decreased acute and chronic aspirin injury both macroscopically and microscopically (approximately 50 % decrease in lesion score; P < 0.05). Aspirin up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and HB-EGF, but not of TGF alpha; APE reduced aspirin-induced mRNA and protein over-expression of COX-2 and HB-EGF; aspirin significantly increased gastric MDA and this effect was counteracted by APE pre-treatment. APE did not significantly affect gastric acid secretion. In conclusion, APE reduces aspirin-induced gastric injury independently of acid inhibition. We speculate that APE might be of therapeutic use in the prophylaxis of aspirin-related gastropathy.
Br J Nutr. 2008 Dec;100(6):1228-36
Influence of apple polyphenols on inflammatory gene expression.
Apples (Malus spp., Rosaceae) and products thereof contain high amounts of polyphenols which show diverse biological activities and may contribute to beneficial health effects, like protecting the intestine against inflammation initiated by chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). IBD are characterized by an excessive release of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by different cell types which results consequently in an increased inflammatory response. In the present study we investigated the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts and single major constituents on inflammatory gene expression in immunorelevant human cell lines (DLD-1, T84, MonoMac6, Jurkat) induced with specific stimuli. Besides the influence on proinflammatory gene expression, the effect on NF-kappaB-, IP-10-, IL-8-promoter-, STAT1-dependent signal transduction, and the relative protein levels of multiple released cytokines and chemokines were studied. DNA microarray analysis of several genes known to be strongly regulated during gastrointestinal inflammation, combined with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the apple juice extract AE04 (100-200 microg/mL) significantly inhibited the expression of NF-kappaB regulated proinflammatory genes (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, CXCL9, CXCL10), inflammatory relevant enzymes (COX-2, CYP3A4), and transcription factors (STAT1, IRF1) in LPS/IFN-gamma stimulated MonoMac6 cells without significant effects on the expression of house-keeping genes. A screening of some major compounds of AE04 revealed that the flavan-3-ol dimer procyanidin B(2 )is mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of AE04. Furthermore, the dihydrochalcone aglycone phloretin and the dimeric flavan-3-ol procyanidin B(1 )significantly inhibited proinflammatory gene expression and repressed NF-kappaB-, IP-10-, IL-8-promoter-, and STAT1-dependent signal transduction in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on proinflammatory gene expression by the applied polyphenols thereby strongly correlated with the increased protein levels investigated by human cytokine array studies. In summary, we evaluated selected compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of AE04. In particular, procyanidin B(1), procyanidin B(2), and phloretin revealed anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and therefore may serve as transcription-based inhibitors of proinflammatory gene expression.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Oct;53(10):1263-80
GSTT2, a phase II gene induced by apple polyphenols, protects colon epithelial cells against genotoxic damage.
The potential protective effect of a polyphenol-rich diet for colon carcinogenesis is of great scientific and medical interest. Apples are a main source of polyphenols, and apple juice has been shown to attenuate chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. In addition to an antioxidant and antiproliferative activity, apple polyphenols have been shown to elevate expression of the phase II gene glutathione S-transferase T2 (GSTT2) in colon epithelial cells. We hypothesized that apple polyphenols may thereby provide protection against oxidant-induced DNA damage. Using GSTT2 promoter constructs and luciferase reporter assays, we found that polyphenolic apple extracts (AE) can directly enhance GSTT2 promoter activity. Comet assays demonstrated that the genotoxicity of the GSTT2 substrate cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) was significantly reduced when HT29 colon epithelial cells were pretreated with AE. Overexpression of GSTT2 in HT29 cells significantly reduced CumOOH induced DNA damage, whereas shRNA mediated knockdown of GSTT2 gene expression resulted in higher damage. Our results causally link GSTT2 levels with protection from genotoxic stress, and provide evidence that the antigenotoxic effects of apple polyphenols in vitro are at least in part due to an induction of GSTT2 expression. Induction of phase II genes may contribute to primary chemoprevention of colon cancer by apple polyphenols.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Oct;53(10):1245-53
Polyphenolic apple extracts: effects of raw material and production method on antioxidant effectiveness and reduction of DNA damage in Caco-2 cells.
A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is commonly perceived to be associated with reduced cancer risk, attributed to its high content of polyphenols. As apples represent a major polyphenol source in Western countries, we studied differentially produced extracts (1-100 microg/mL): two from different apple juices (AEs), one from pomace (APE), and one peel extract (PE) on their potential to reduce DNA oxidation damage and induce antioxidant defense in Caco-2 cells. Additionally, we measured direct antioxidant capacity (TEAC/ORAC) of the extracts. Quercetin-rich PE and APE most effectively diminished DNA damage and ROS level after 24 h incubation (PE > APE), whereas the AEs were only moderately effective. GPx activity was diminished for all extracts, with AEs > APE > PE. Direct antioxidant activity decreased in the order AEs > PE > APE, displaying no significant correlation with cellular markers. In conclusion, apple phenolics at low, nutritionally relevant concentrations may protect intestinal cells from ROS-induced DNA damage, mediated by cellular defense mechanisms rather than by antioxidant activity.
J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jun 9;58(11):6636-42
Annurca apple polyphenols have potent demethylating activity and can reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in colorectal cancer cells.
The CpG island methylator phenotype is characterized by DNA hypermethylation in the promoters of tumor suppressor genes with silencing of transcription. Hypermethylation of the promoter of hMLH1 and subsequent microsatellite instability occurs in approximately 12% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). Annurca apple, a variety of southern Italy, is rich in polyphenols that are associated with anticancer properties. Populations in southern Italy have lower incidences of CRC than elsewhere in the western world. We evaluated the mechanisms of putative anticancer effects of Annurca polyphenol extract (APE) in in vitro models of CRC. We extracted polyphenols from Annurca apples and treated RKO, SW48, and SW480 cells with APE and assessed the cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle. DNA methylation of selected tumor suppressor genes was evaluated after treatment with APE and was compared with the synthetic demethylating agent 5-aza-2’deoxycytidine (5-aza-2dC). DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-1 and -3b levels were evaluated. Decreased cell viability and induction of apoptosis was evident after treatment. We found no significant changes in cell cycle dynamics. We observed significant increases of p53 protein expression in RKO after treatment. APE treatment strongly reduced DNA methylation in the promoters of hMLH1, p14(ARF), and p16(INK4a) with consequent restoration of normal expression. These effects were qualitatively comparable with those obtained with 5-aza-2dC. We observed a significant reduction in expression of DNMT proteins after treatment without changes in messenger RNA. In conclusion, APE have potent demethylating activity through the inhibition of DNMT proteins. The lack of toxicity in Annurca extracts makes them excellent candidates for the chemoprevention of CRC.
J Nutr. 2007 Dec;137(12):2622-8
Apple polyphenols affect protein kinase C activity and the onset of apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.
Polyphenol-rich apple extracts have been reported to suppress human colon cancer cell growth in vitro. The protein kinase C (PKC) is among the signaling elements known to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether apple polyphenols affect PKC activity and induce apoptosis in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. A polyphenol-rich apple juice extract (AE02) was shown to inhibit cytosolic PKC activity in a cell-free system. In contrast, incubation of HT29 cells for 1 or 3 h with AE02 up to 2 mg/mL did not affect the cytosolic PKC activity. After prolonged incubation (24 h), cytosolic PKC activity was modulated, albeit a u-shaped curve of effectiveness was observed, with an initial inhibitory effect followed by the recurrence and even induction of enzyme activity. Concomitantly, in the cytosol, a significant decrease of the protein levels of PKCalpha, PKCbetaII, and PKCgamma together with a significant increase of a proapoptotic PKCdelta fragment was observed. However, the effects on the protein levels of these PKC isoforms in the cytosol were not associated with translocation between the different cellular compartments but might instead result from the onset of apoptosis. Indeed, the treatment with AE02 was shown to induce apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3, DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase. So far, identified and available constituents of the apple extract did not contribute substantially to the observed effects on PKC and apoptosis induction. In summary, apple polyphenols were found to inhibit PKC activity in a cell-free system. However, our results indicate that within intact cells PKC does not represent the primary target of apple polyphenols but appears to be affected in the course of apoptosis induction.
J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13): 4999-5006
Chemopreventive properties of apple procyanidins on human colon cancer-derived metastatic SW620 cells and in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis.
Apples contain several classes of polyphenols: monomers (catechins, epicatechins) and oligomers/polymers, such as the procyanidins. Our aim was (i) to study anti-proliferative mechanisms on human metastatic colon carcinoma (SW620 cells) of apple polyphenol fractions (monomers or procyanidins) and (ii) to evaluate their anti-carcinogenic properties in vivo. Two polyphenol-enriched fractions were isolated from apples. Fraction non-procyanidins contained 73% phenolic monomers and no procyanidins, while fraction procyanidins contained 78% procyanidins and no monomers. Inhibition of SW620 cell growth was only observed with fraction P (IC50 = 45 microg/ml). After a 24-h exposure of cells to fraction P, protein kinase C activity was inhibited by 70% and a significant increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and c-jun N-terminal kinases expression was observed together with the down-regulation of polyamine biosynthesis and the activation of caspase-3. Colon carcinogenesis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane, once a week for 2 weeks. Seven days after the last injection, Wistar rats received fraction P (0.01%) dissolved in drinking water. After 6 weeks of treatment, the colon of rats receiving procyanidins showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions when compared with controls receiving water. The total number of hyperproliferative crypts and of aberrant crypt foci was reduced by 50% in rats receiving 0.01% apple procyanidins in their drinking water. Our results show that apple procyanidins alter intracellular signaling pathways, polyamine biosynthesis and trigger apoptosis in tumor cells. These compounds antagonize cancer promotion in vivo. In contrast with absorbable drugs, these natural, non toxic, dietary constituents reach the colon where they are able to exert their antitumor effects.
Carcinogenesis. 2005 Jul;26(7):1291-5
Chemoprevention of intestinal polyps in ApcMin/+ mice fed with western or balanced diets by drinking annurca apple polyphenol extract.
The Western diet (WD) is associated with a higher incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) than the Mediterranean diet. Polyphenols extracted from Annurca apple showed chemopreventive properties in CRC cells. A multifactorial, four-arm study by using wild-type (wt) and Apc(Min/+) mice was carried out to evaluate the effect on polyp number and growth of APE treatment (60 μmol/L) ad libitum in drinking water combined with a WD or a balanced diet (BD) for 12 weeks. Compared with APE treatment, we found a significant drop in body weight (P < 0.0001), severe rectal bleeding (P = 0.0076), presence of extraintestinal tumors, and poorer activity status (P = 0.0034) in water-drinking Apc(Min/+) mice, more remarkably in the WD arm. In the BD and WD groups, APE reduced polyp number (35% and 42%, respectively, P < 0.001) and growth (60% and 52%, respectively, P < 0.0001) in both colon and small intestine. Increased antioxidant activity was found in wt animals fed both diets and in Apc(Min/+) mice fed WD and drinking APE. Reduced lipid peroxidation was found in Apc(Min/+) mice drinking APE fed both diets and in wt mice fed WD. In normal mucosa, mice drinking water had lower global levels of DNA methylation than mice drinking APE. APE treatment is highly effective in reducing polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice and supports the concept that a mixture of phytochemicals, as they are naturally present in foods, represent a plausible chemopreventive agent for CRC, particularly in populations at high risk for colorectal neoplasia.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Jun;4(6):907-15