Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been shown to delay intestinal glucose absorption and inhibit gluconeogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the role of CGA in the regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle isolated from db/db mice and L6 skeletal muscle cells. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed on db/db mice treated with CGA and soleus muscle was isolated for 2-deoxyglucose transport study. 2DG transport was also examined in L6 myotubes with or without inhibitors such as wortmannin or compound c. AMPK was knocked down with AMPKα1/2 siRNA to study its effect on CGA-stimulated glucose transport. GLUT 4 translocation, phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, AMPK activity, and association of IRS-1 and PI3K were investigated in the presence of CGA. In db/db mice, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar was observed 10 minutes after the intraperitoneal administration of 250 mg/kg CGA and the effect persisted for another 30 minutes after the glucose challenge. Besides, CGA stimulated and enhanced both basal and insulin-mediated 2DG transports in soleus muscle. In L6 myotubes, CGA caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in glucose transport. Compound c and AMPKα1/2 siRNA abrogated the CGA-stimulated glucose transport. Consistent with these results, CGA was found to phosphorylate AMPK and ACC, consistent with the result of increased AMPK activities. CGA did not appear to enhance association of IRS-1 with p85. However, we observed activation of Akt by CGA. These parallel activations in turn increased translocation of GLUT 4 to plasma membrane. At 2 mmol/l, CGA did not cause any significant changes in viability or proliferation of L6 myotubes. Our data demonstrated for the first time that CGA stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via the activation of AMPK. It appears that CGA may contribute to the beneficial effects of coffee on Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32718
Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee effects on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins, and lipase activity: a controlled, randomized trial.
Coffee consumption has been associated with elevated plasma cholesterol. One hundred eighty-one men consumed a standard caffeinated coffee for 2 mo followed by randomization to continue caffeinated coffee (control), change to decaffeinated coffee or no coffee for 2 mo. Plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased significantly (0.12 +/- 0.65 mmol/L, P less than 0.025; 0.06 +/- 0.12 g/L, P less than 0.0004, respectively) in the group that changed to decaffeinated coffee. In a subgroup (n = 51), post-heparin lipoprotein lipase decreased significantly more (-270 mmol free fatty acids.L-1.h-1, P less than 0.003) in the decaffeinated-coffee group. Resting heart rate and blood pressure did not change significantly. Change from caffeinated to decaffeinated coffee increased plasma LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B whereas discontinuation of caffeinated coffee revealed no change. This finding suggests that a coffee component other than caffeine is responsible for the LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipase activity changes reported in this investigation.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Sep;54(3):599-605
Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice.
BACKGROUND: An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. METHODS: Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG) level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days) of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days) of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture). RESULTS: It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg. day) for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg. day) reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg), GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg) and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%), neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055%) and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081%) significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat metabolism in the liver. Caffeine was found to be a suppressor of fat absorption, while chlorogenic acid was found to be partially involved in the suppressive effect of GCBE that resulted in the reduction of hepatic TG level. Phenolic compounds such as neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture, except chlorogenic acid, can enhance hepatic CPT activity.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Mar 17;6:9
Coffee polyphenols suppress diet-induced body fat accumulation by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules in C57BL/6J mice.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, and obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of coffee polyphenols (CPP), which are abundant in coffee and consumed worldwide, on diet-induced body fat accumulation. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet, a high-fat diet, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 to 1.0% CPP for 2-15 wk. Supplementation with CPP significantly reduced body weight gain, abdominal and liver fat accumulation, and infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissues. Energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was significantly increased in CPP-fed mice. The mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and -2, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 in the liver were significantly lower in CPP-fed mice than in high-fat control mice. Similarly, CPP suppressed the expression of these molecules in Hepa 1-6 cells, concomitant with an increase in microRNA-122. Structure-activity relationship studies of nine quinic acid derivatives isolated from CPP in Hepa 1-6 cells suggested that mono- or di-caffeoyl quinic acids (CQA) are active substances in the beneficial effects of CPP. Furthermore, CPP and 5-CQA decreased the nuclear active form of SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, and cellular malonyl-CoA levels. These findings indicate that CPP enhances energy metabolism and reduces lipogenesis by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules, which leads to the suppression of body fat accumulation.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;300(1):E122-33
Modulating effects of chlorogenic acid on lipids and glucose metabolism and expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in golden hamsters fed on high fat diet.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on lipid and glucose metabolism under a high dietary fat burden and to explore the possible role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) in these effects. METHODS: Twenty male golden hamsters were randomly divided into CGA treatment group (n=10, given peritoneal injection of CGA solution prepared with PBS, 80 mg CGA/kg body weight daily), and control group (n=10, given PBS i.p. at the average volume of the treatment group). Animals in both groups were given 15% high fat diet. Eight weeks after treatment with CGA, the level of biochemical parameters in fasting serum and tissues and the expression of hepatic mRNA and protein PPAR-alpha were determined. RESULTS: Eight weeks after treatment with CGA, the levels of fasting serum triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (FSG), and insulin (FSI) were significantly lower in the GGA treatment group than in the control group. CGA also led to higher activity of hepatic lipase (HL), lower contents of TG and FFA in liver, and lower activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, CGA significantly elevated significantly elevated the expression level of mRNA and protein expression in hepatic PPAR-alpha. CONCLUSION: CGA can modify lipids and glucose metabolism, which may be attributed to PPAR-alpha facilitated lipid clearance in liver and improved insulin sensitivity.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2009 Apr;22(2):122-9
Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice.
This study investigated the efficacy of chlorogenic acid on altering body fat in high-fat diet (37% calories from fat) induced-obese mice compared to caffeic acid. Caffeic acid or chlorogenic acid was supplemented with high-fat diet at 0.02% (wt/wt) dose. Both caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid significantly lowered body weight, visceral fat mass and plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to the high-fat control group. They also lowered triglyceride (in plasma, liver and heart) and cholesterol (in plasma, adipose tissue and heart) concentrations. Triglyceride content in adipose tissue was significantly lowered, whereas the plasma adiponectin level was elevated by chlorogenic acid supplementation compared to the high-fat control group. Body weight was significantly correlated with plasma leptin (r=0.894, p<0.01) and insulin (r=0.496, p<0.01) levels, respectively. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities, while they increased fatty acid beta-oxidation activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha expression in the liver compared to the high-fat group. These results suggest that caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid improve body weight, lipid metabolism and obesity-related hormones levels in high-fat fed mice. Chlorogenic acid seemed to be more potent for body weight reduction and regulation of lipid metabolism than caffeic acid.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Mar;48(3):937-43
Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old.
BACKGROUND: Obesity, def-ined by a body-mass index (BMI) (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30.0 or more, is associated with an increased risk of death, but the relation between overweight (a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9) and the risk of death has been questioned. METHODS: We prospectively examined BMI in relation to the risk of death from any cause in 527,265 U.S. men and women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort who were 50 to 71 years old at enrollment in 1995-1996. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Relative risks and 95 percent confidence intervals were adjusted for age, race or ethnic group, level of education, smoking status, physical activity, and alcohol intake. We also conducted alternative analyses to address potential biases related to preexisting chronic disease and smoking status. RESULTS: During a maximum follow-up of 10 years through 2005, 61,317 participants (42,173 men and 19,144 women) died. Initial analyses showed an increased risk of death for the highest and lowest categories of BMI among both men and women, in all racial or ethnic groups, and at all ages. When the analysis was restricted to healthy people who had never smoked, the risk of death was associated with both overweight and obesity among men and women. In analyses of BMI during midlife (age of 50 years) among those who had never smoked, the associations became stronger, with the risk of death increasing by 20 to 40 percent among overweight persons and by two to at least three times among obese persons; the risk of death among underweight persons was attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: Excess body weight during midlife, including overweight, is associated with an increased risk of death.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 24;355(8):763-78
Obesity as a disease: no lightweight matter.
The epidemic rise in obesity has fuelled the current debate over its classification as a disease. Contrary to just being a medical condition or risk factor for other diseases, obesity is a complex disease of multifaceted aetiology, with its own disabling capacities, pathophysiologies and comorbidities. It meets the medical definition of disease in that it is a physiological dysfunction of the human organism with environmental, genetic and endocrinological aetiologies. It is a response to environmental stimuli, genetic predisposition and abnormalities, and has a characteristic set of signs and symptoms with consistent anatomical alterations. Excess adipose tissue increases the work of the heart and leads to anatomical changes in this organ. It alters pulmonary, endocrine and immunological functions, all with adverse effects on health. Some of the complications of obesity include cardiovascular disease, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis and cancer. Given the excess mortality, substantial morbidity and the economic toll of obesity, this is a disease that warrants serious attention by the medical community. Obesity’s status and acceptance as a disease is pivotal in determining its treatment, reimbursement for treatment and the development of widespread interventions.
Obes Rev. 2004 Aug;5(3):145-51
Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, fat cell size, and ectopic lipid in overweight subjects.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to determine the relationships among total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), fat cell size (FCS), ectopic fat deposition in liver (intrahepatic lipid [IHL]) and muscle (intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]), and insulin sensitivity index (S(i)) in healthy overweight, glucose-tolerant subjects and the effects of calorie restriction by diet alone or in conjunction with exercise on these variables. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-eight overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to four groups: control (100% of energy requirements), 25% calorie restriction (CR), 12.5% calorie restriction +12.5% energy expenditure through structured exercise (CREX), or 15% weight loss by a low-calorie diet followed by weight maintenance for 6 months (LCD). Weight, percent body fat, VAT, IMCL, IHL, FCS, and S(i) were assessed at baseline and month 6. RESULTS: At baseline, FCS was related to VAT and IHL (P < 0.05) but not to IMCL. FCS was also the strongest determinant of S(i) (P < 0.01). Weight loss at month 6 was 1 +/- 1% (control, mean +/- SE), 10 +/- 1% (CR), 10 +/- 1% (CREX), and 14 +/- 1% (LCD). VAT, FCS, percent body fat, and IHL were reduced in the three intervention groups (P < 0.01), but IMCL was unchanged. S(i) was increased at month 6 (P = 0.05) in the CREX (37 +/- 18%) and LCD (70 +/- 34%) groups (P < 0.05) and tended to increase in the CR group (40 +/- 20%, P = 0.08). Together the improvements in S(i) were related to loss in weight, fat mass, and VAT, but not IHL, IMCL, or FCS. CONCLUSIONS: Large adipocytes lead to lipid deposition in visceral and hepatic tissues, promoting insulin resistance. Calorie restriction by diet alone or with exercise reverses this trend.
Diabetes Care. 2006 Jun;29(6):1337-44
Kinetic analysis and mechanism on the inhibition of chlorogenic acid and its components against porcine pancreas alpha-amylase isozymes I and II.
Chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-CQA) is a kind of polyphenol and is richly included in green coffee beans. The inhibitory effects of 5-CQA and its components, caffeic acid (CA) and quinic acid (QA), on the two porcine pancreas alpha-amylase (PPA) isozymes, PPA-I and PPA-II, were investigated using p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoside as substrate at pH 6.9 and 30 degrees C. The inhibition potencies of the respective inhibitors against both PPA isozymes were almost the same and in the order of 5-CQA > CA >> QA. Their IC(50) values were 0.07-0.08 mM, 0.37-0.40 mM, and 25.3-26.5 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanisms of 5-CQA and CA were investigated by kinetic analyses, and the inhibitor constants K(i) and K(i)’ (for the free enzyme and enzyme-substrate complex, respectively) were determined. It was indicated that 5-CQA and CA showed mixed-type inhibition with K(i) > K(i)’ against both PPA-I and PPA-II. The binding of PPA-I or PPA-II with 5-CQA or CA was all exothermic and enthalpy-driven. QA is a poor inhibitor, and its inhibitory mode was unique and hardly analyzed by a simple Michaelis-Menten-type interaction between the enzyme and inhibitor. However, it was shown that the inhibitory activity of CA was enhanced 5 times by ester-bond formation with QA in the form of 5-CQA. These results provide us with significant hints for the development of alpha-amylase inhibitors useful for the prevention of diabetes and obesity.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9218-25