Life Extension Blood Test Super Sale

Life Extension Magazine

Life Extension Magazine May 2013
As We See It  

Federal Death Panels

By William Faloon

Annual Blood Test Super Sale

In 1996, we initiated a low-cost service whereby members could request their own blood tests.

Once a year, the price of the comprehensive Male or Female Blood Test Panel is sharply discounted so that members can ascertain their disease risk status and initiate preemptive measures before acute illness strikes.

The Male and Female Panels include the 25-hydroxyvitamin D test to ensure the proper dose of vitamin D is being taken to achieve optimal levels. The Male Panel includes the PSA test to assess the health of the prostate gland.

This year we are able to add the hemoglobin A1C test to the Male and Female Panels at no extra charge. Hemoglobin A1C is a measure of long term glucose control. It is more accurate than fasting glucose alone in detecting diabetic and pre-diabetic problems.

The retail price for the many individual tests included Male or Female Blood Test Panels can be astoundingly high, but Life Extension members obtain them for only $199 during the annual Blood Test Super Sale.

Upon receiving your order, we send your requisition out immediately. You can walk in for your blood draw at a time during normal business hours that is convenient to you. The next page describes the many unique tests that are included in Life Extension’s Male or Female Blood Test Panels.

To order the Male or Female Blood Test Panel at these once-a-year discounted prices, call 1-800-208-3444 (24 hours/day).

For longer life,

For Longer Life

William Faloon

Male and Female Blood Test Panels

Unlike commercial blood tests that evaluate only a few disease risk factors, Life Extension’s Male and Female Blood Test. Panels measure a wide range of blood markers that predispose people to common age-related disorders. This year we are able to add the hemoglobin A1c test to the Male and Female Panels at no additional cost. Hemoglobin A1c is a measurement of long-term glucose control. Just look at the huge number of parameters included in the Male and Female Blood Test Panels:

MALE PANEL FEMALE PANEL

Lipid Profile

Total Cholesterol
LDL (low-density lipoprotein)
HDL (high-density lipoprotein)
Triglycerides

Cardiac Markers

C-Reactive Protein (high sensitivity)
Homocysteine

Hormones

Free and Total Testosterone
DHEA-S
Estradiol (an estrogen)
TSH (thyroid function)
Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D)

Metabolic Profile

Glucose
Kidney function tests: creatinine, BUN, uric acid, BUN/creatinine ratio
Liver function tests: AST, ALT, LDH, GGT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase
Blood minerals: calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, iron
Blood proteins: albumin, globulin, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio
Hemoglobin A1c (Now Includes HEMOGLOBIN A1c)

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Red Blood Cell count including: hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW
White Blood Cell count including: lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils
Platelet count

Cancer Marker

PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)

Lipid Profile

Total Cholesterol
LDL (low-density lipoprotein)
HDL (high-density lipoprotein)
Triglycerides

Cardiac Markers

C-Reactive Protein (high sensitivity)
Homocysteine

Hormones

Progesterone
DHEA-S
Free and Total Testosterone
Estradiol (an estrogen)
TSH (thyroid function)
Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D)

Metabolic Profile

Glucose
Kidney function tests: creatinine, BUN, uric acid, BUN/creatinine ratio
Liver function tests: AST, ALT, LDH, GGT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase
Blood minerals: calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, iron
Blood proteins: albumin, globulin, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio
Hemoglobin A1c (Now Includes HEMOGLOBIN A1c)

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Red Blood Cell count including: hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW
White Blood Cell count including:
lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils
Platelet count

 

 

 

 

 

Non-member retail price: $481 • Special Member Discount Price: $199. Blood Test Super Sale — April 1 through June 3, 2013.
To obtain these comprehensive Male or Female Panels at these low prices, call 1-800-208-3444 to order your requisition forms.
Then—at your convenience—you can visit one of the blood-drawing facilities provided by LabCorp in your area.
(Restrictions apply in NY, NJ, RI, MA, MD)

References

  1. Available at: http://www.abmc.gov/search/wwii.php.  Accessed February 1, 2013.
  2. Available at: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/1/3/191.full.pdf+html.  Accessed January 9, 2013.
  3. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB, et al. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Apr 5;98(7):451-9.
  4. Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-checkup/post/uspstf-recommends-against-vitamin-d-calcium-supplements/2012/06/13/gJQATLNGbV_blog.html. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  5. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/13/health/calcium-and-vitamin-d-ineffective-for-fractures-us-preventive-services-task-force-says.html. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  6. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/06/12/us-vitamind-breaks-idUSBRE85B12220120612. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  7. Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-57451854-10391704/panel-postmenopausal-women-shouldnt-take-vitamin-d-calcium-supplements-to-prevent-fractures/. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  8. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/story/2012-06-07/panel-vitamin-d-recommendations/55549414/1. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  9. Available at: http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/06/12/154840966/panel-questions-benefits-of-vitamin-d-supplements. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  10. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/vitamind/vitdart.htm. Accessed February 4, 2013.
  11. Plaza SM, Lamson DW. Vitamin K2 in bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Mar;10(1):24-35.
  12. Booth SL, Broe KE, Gagnon DR, et al. Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):512-6.
  13. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y. Menatetrenone (vitamin K2) and bone quality in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutr Rev. 2006 Dec;64(12):509-17.
  14. Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2000 Mar;15(3):515-21.
  15. Yamaguchi M, Weitzmann MN. Vitamin K2 stimulates osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kappaB activation. Int J Mol Med. 2011 Jan;27(1):3-14.
  16. Ishimi Y. Nutrition and bone health. Magnesium and bone. Clin Calcium. 2010 May;20(5):762-7.
  17. Matsuzaki H. Prevention of osteoporosis by foods and dietary supplements. Magnesium and bone metabolism. Clin Calcium. 2006 Oct;16(10):1655-60.
  18. Ryder KM, Shorr RI, Bush AJ, et al. Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Nov;53(11):1875-80.
  19. Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):727-36.
  20. Aydin H, Deyneli O, Yavuz D, et al. Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Feb;133(2):136-43.
  21. Gennari L, Merlotti D, Martini G,et al. Longitudinal association between sex hormone levels, bone loss, and bone turnover in elderly men. J Ciin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5327-33.
  22. Duan Y, Seeman E. Bone fragility in Asian and Caucasian men. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2002 Jan;31(1):54-66.
  23. Clarke BL, Khosla S. Female reproductive system and bone. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Nov 1;503(1):118-28.
  24. Borer KT. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Sports Med. 2005;35(9):779-830.
  25. Guadalupe-Grau A, Fuentes T, Guerra B, Calbet JA. Exercise and bone mass in adults. Sports Med. 2009;39(6):439-68.
  26. Marcus R. Role of exercise in preventing and treating osteoporosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2001 Feb;27(1):131-41, vi.
  27. Available at: http://www.nof.org/articles/238. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  28. Williams CP, Child DF, Hudson PR, et al. Why oral calcium supplements may reduce renal stone disease: report of a clinical pilot study. J Clin Pathol. 2001 Jan;54(1):54-62.
  29. Heaney RP. Calcium supplementation and incident kidney stone risk: a systematic review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Oct;27(5):519-27.
  30. Candelas G, Martinez-Lopez JA, Rosario MP, Carmona L, Loza E. Calcium supplementation and kidney stone risk in osteoporosis: a systematic literature review. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2012 Nov-Dec;30(6):954-61.
  31. Ettinger B, Pak CY, Citron JT, Thomas C, Adams-Huet B, Vangessel A. Potassium-magnesium citrate is an effective prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 1997 Dec;158(6):2069-73.
  32. Jaipakdee S, Prasongwatana V, Premgamone A, et al. The effects of potassium and magnesium supplementations on urinary risk factors of renal stone patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Mar;87(3):255-63.
  33. Taylor EN, Fung TT, Curhan GC. DASH-style diet associates with reduced risk for kidney stones. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Oct;20(10):2253-9.
  34. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. Anticancer Res. 2011 Sep;31(9):2939-48.
  35. Timpini A, Pini L, Tantucci C, Cossi S, Grassi V. Vitamin D and health status in elderly. Intern Emerg Med. 2011 Feb;6(1):11-21.
  36. Nair-Shalliker V, Fenech M, Forder PM, Clements MS, Armstrong BK. Sunlight and vitamin D affect DNA damage, cell division and cell death in human lymphocytes: a cross-sectional study in South Australia. Mutagenesis 2012 Sep;27(5):609-14.
  37. Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;77(1):204-10.
  38. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.328/pdf. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  39. Garland CF, French CB, Baggerly LL, Heaney RP. Vitamin D supplement doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range associated with cancer prevention. Anticancer Res. 2011 Feb;31(2):607-11.
  40. Available at:  http://health.usnews.com/health-news/diet-fitness/diabetes/articles/2011/02/27/higher-vitamin-d-intake-could-cut-cancer-risk. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  41. Available at:  http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/01/05/vitamin-d-health-benefits.aspx. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  42. Available at: http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2010/jan2010_Startling-Findings-About-Vitamin-D-Levels-in-Life-Extension-Members_01.htm. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  43. Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, et al. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;103(3-5):708-11.
  44. Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, et al. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Oct;97(1-2):179-94.
  45. Feskanich D, Ma J, Fuchs CS, et al. Plasma vitamin D metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Sep;13(9):1502-8.
  46. Marshall DT, Savage SJ, Garrett-Mayer E, et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation at 4000 international units per day for one year results in a decrease of positive cores at repeat biopsy in subjects with low-risk prostate cancer under active surveillance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul;97(7):2315-24.
  47. John EM, Schwartz GG, Koo J, Van Den BD, Ingles SA. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 15;65(12):5470-9.
  48. Tworoger SS, Lee IM, Buring JE, Rosner B, Hollis BW, Hankinson SE. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and risk of incident ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Apr;16(4):783-8.
  49. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Jul 17;157(2):120-34.
  50. Glenski WJ, Klee GG, Bergstralh EJ, Oesterling JE. Prostate-specific antigen: establishment of the reference range for the clinically normal prostate gland and the effect of digital rectal examination, ejaculation, and time on serum concentrations. Prostate. 1992;21(2):99-110.
  51. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/qa/2009/plcoprostateresultsqa. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  52. Andriole GL, Marberger M, Roehrborn CG. Clinical usefulness of serum prostate specific antigen for the detection of prostate cancer is preserved in men receiving the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride. J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1657-62.
  53. Andriole GL, Humphrey P, Ray P, et al. Effect of the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride on markers of tumor regression in prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004 Sep;172(3):915-9.
  54. Andriole GL, Bostwick DG, Brawley OW, et al. Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 1;362(13):1192-202.
  55. Kashuba VI, Pavlova TV, Grigorieva EV, et al. High mutability of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1 and RBSP3 (CTDSPL) in cancer. PLoS One. 2009 May 29;4(5):e5231.
  56. Available at: http://www.cancerscreening.nhs.uk/prostate/prostate-booklet-text.pdf.  Accessed February 4, 2013.
  57. Sakr WA, Haas GP, Cassin BF, Pontes JE, Crissman JD. The frequency of carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the prostate in young male patients. J Urol. 1993 Aug;150(2 Pt 1):379-85.
  58. Deslypere JP, Young M, Wilson JD, McPhaul MJ. Testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone interact differently with the androgen receptor to enhance transcription of the MMTV-CAT reporter gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992 Oct;88(1-3):15-22.
  59. Wright AS, Thomas LN, Douglas RC, Lazier CB, Rittmaster RS. Relative potency of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in preventing atrophy and apoptosis in the prostate of the castrated rat. J Clin Invest. 1996 Dec 1;98(11):2558-63.
  60. Andriole GL, Roehrborn C, Schulman C, et al. Effect of dutasteride on the detection of prostate cancer in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2004 Sep;64(3):537-41.
  61. Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 17;349(3):215-24.
  62. Available at:  http://www.drugs.com/sfx/avodart-side-effects.html. Accessed January 11, 2013.
  63. Djavan B, Bursa B, Seit z C, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 density, and IGF-1/PSA ratio for prostate cancer detection. Urology. 1999;54:603-6.
  64. Wolk A, Mantzoros CS , Andersson SO, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and prostate cancer risk: a  population-based, case-control study . J Nat l Cancer Inst. 1998;90:911-15.
  65. Mantzoro s CS , Tzono u A, Signorello LB , et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1  in relation to prostate cancer and benign pro-static hyperplasia. Br J  Cancer. 1997;76:1115-18.
  66. Cohen P, Peehl DM, Graves HC, Rosenfeld RG. Biological effects of prostate specific antigen as an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 protease. J Endocrinol. 1994 Sep;142(3):407-15.
  67. Gallardo-Williams MT, Chapin RE, King PE, et al. Boron supplementation inhibits the growth and local expression of IGF-1 in human prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) tumors in nude mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2004 Jan;32(1):73-8.
  68. Barranco WT, Eckhert CD. Boric acid inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation. Cancer Lett. 2004 Dec 8;216(1):21-9.
  69. Cui Y, Winton MI, Zhang ZF, et al. Dietary boron intake and prostate cancer risk. Oncol Rep. 2004 Apr;11(4):887-92.
  70. Pezzato E, Sartor L, Dell’Aica I, et al. Prostate carcinoma and green tea: PSA-triggered basement membrane degradation and MMP-2 activation are inhibited by (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Int J Cancer. 2004 Dec 10;112(5):787-92.
  71. Siddiqui IA, Malik A, Adhami VM, et al. Green tea polyphenol EGCG sensitizes human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and synergistically inhibits biomarkers associated with angiogenesis and metastasis. Oncogene. 2008 Mar 27;27(14):2055-63.
  72. McCarthy S, Caporali A, Enkemann S, et al. Green tea catechins suppress the DNA synthesis marker MCM7 in the TRAMP model of prostate cancer. Mol Oncol. 2007 Sep;1(2):196-204.
  73. Adhami VM, Siddiqui IA, Ahmad N, Gupta S, Mukhtar H. Oral consumption of green tea polyphenols inhibits insulin-like growth factor-I-induced signaling in an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2004 Dec 1;64(23):8715-22.
  74. McLarty J, Bigelow RL, Smith M, Elmajian D, Ankem M, Cardelli JA. Tea polyphenols decrease serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients and inhibit production of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. Cancer Prev Res. (Phila). 2009 Jul;2(7):673-82.
  75. Ansari MS, Gupta NP. Lycopene: a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2004 Sep;22(5):415-20.
  76. Ansari MS, Gupta NP. A comparison of lycopene and orchidectomy vs orchidectomy alone in the management of advanced prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2003 Sep;92(4):375-8.
  77. Davis-Searles PR, Nakanishi Y, Kim NC, et al. Milk thistle and prostate cancer: differential effects of pure flavonolignans from Silybum marianum on antiproliferative end points in human prostate carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2005 May 15;65(10):4448-57.
  78. Zi X, Agarwal R. Silibinin decreases prostate-specific antigen with cell growth inhibition via G1 arrest, leading to differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells: implications for prostate cancer intervention. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999 Jun 22;96(13):7490-5.
  79. Singh RP, Agarwal R. A cancer chemopreventive agent silibinin, targets mitogenic and survival signaling in prostate cancer. Mutat Res. 2004 Nov 2;555(1-2):21-32.
  80. Moyers SB, Kumar NB. Green tea polyphenols and cancer chemoprevention: multiples mechanisms and endpoints for phase II trials. Nutr Rev. 2004 May;62(5)204-11.
  81. Kim HS, Kim MH, Jeong M, et al. EGCG blocks tumor promoter-induced MMP-9 expression via suppression of MAPK and AP-1 activiation in human gastric AGS cells. Anticancer Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2B):747-53.
  82. Pillai SP, Mitscher LA, Menon SR, et al. Antimutagenic/antioxidant activity of green tea components and related compounds. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1999;18(3):147-58.
  83. Khan N, Mukhtar H. Multitargeted therapy of cancer by green tea polyphenols. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):269-80.
  84. Siddiqui IA, Shukla Y, Adhami VM, et al. Suppression of NFkappaB and its regulated gene products by oral administration of green tea polyphenols in an autochthonous mouse prostate cancer model. Pharm Res. 2008 Sep;25(9):2135-42.
  85. Yang CS, Wang X. Green tea and cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(7):931-7.
  86. Reuter S, Eifes S, Dicato M, Aggarwal BB, Diederich M. Modulation of anti-apoptotic and survival pathways by curcumin as a strategy to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Dec 1;76(11):1340-51.
  87. Agrawal DK, Mishra PK. Curcumin and its analogues: potential anticancer agents. Med Res Rev. 2010 Sep;30(5):818-60.
  88. Vijayakumar S, Mehta RR, Boerner PS, Packianathan S, Mehta RG. Clinical trials involving vitamin D analogs in prostate cancer. Cancer J. 2005 Sep-Oct;11(5):362-73.
  89. Lou YR, Qiao S, Talonpoika R, Syvala H, Tuohimaa P. The role of Vitamin D3 metabolism in prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Nov;92(4):317-25.
  90. John EM, Schwartz GG, Koo J, Van Den BD, Ingles SA. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 15;65(12):5470-9.
  91. Woo TC, Choo R, Jamieson M, Chander S, Vieth R. Pilot study: potential role of vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) in patients with PSA relapse after definitive therapy. Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(1):32-6.
  92. Sarkar FH, Li Y. Indole-3-carbinol and prostate cancer. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3493S-8S.
  93. Garikapaty VP, Ashok BT, Chen YG, et al. Anti-carcinogenic and anti-metastatic properties of indole-3-carbinol in prostate cancer. Oncol Rep. 2005 Jan;13(1):89-93.
  94. Nachshon-Kedmi M, Yannai S, Haj A, Fares FA. Indole-3-carbinol and 3,3’-diindolylmethane induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Jun;41(6):745-52.
  95. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2018-23.
  96. Campbell SE, Musich PR, Whaley SG, et al. Gamma tocopherol upregulates the expression of 15-S-HETE and induces growth arrest through a PPAR gamma-dependent mechanism in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):649-62.
  97. Jiang Q, Wong J, Fyrst H, Saba JD, Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol or combinations of vitamin E forms induce cell death in human prostate cancer cells by interrupting sphingolipid synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 21;101(51):17825-30.
  98. Spaccarotella KJ, Kris-Etherton PM, Stone WL, et al. The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men. Nutr J. 2008 May 2;7:13.
  99. Adjakly M, Ngollo M, Boiteux JP, Bignon YJ, Guy L, Bernard-Gallon D. Genistein and daidzein: different molecular effects on prostate cancer. Anticancer Res 2013 Jan;33(1):39-44.
  100. Guo Y, Wang S, Hoot DR, Clinton SK. Suppression of VEGF-mediated autocrine and paracrine interactions between prostate cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells by soy isoflavones. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Jun;18(6):408-17.
  101. Ben Sahra I, Laurent K, Giuliano S, et al. Targeting cancer cell metabolism: the combination of metformin and 2-deoxyglucose induces p53-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 15;70(6):2465-75.
  102. Wright JL, Stanford JL. Metformin use and prostate cancer in Caucasian men: results from a population-based case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Nov;20(9):1617-22.
  103. Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, et al. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1320-8.
  104. Hugosson J, Carlsson S, Aus G, et al. Mortality results from the Göteborg randomised population-based prostate-cancer screening trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Aug;11(8):725-32.
  105. Kjellman A, Akre O, Norming U, Törnblom M, Gustafsson O. 15-year followup of a population based prostate cancer screening study. J Urol. 2009;181:1615-21.
  106. Sandblom G, Varenhorst E, Rosell J, Löfman O, Carlsson P. Randomised prostate cancer screening trial: 20 year follow-up. BMJ. 2011;342:d1539.
  107. Available at: https://www.labcorp.com. Accessed February 7, 2013.
  108. Available at: http://www.questdiagnostics.com/testcenter/TestDetail.action?ntc=5363. Accessed February 7, 2013.
  109. Available at: http://archive.is/Bm3A. Accessed March 18, 2013.
  110. Available at: http://www.asco.org/ASCOv2/Meetings/Abstracts?&vmview=abst_detail_view&confID=54&abstractID=20081.  Accessed February 7, 2013.