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Life Extension Magazine April 2014


Palmitoleic (16:1 cis-9) and cis-vaccenic (18:1 cis-11) acid alter lipogenesis in bovine adipocyte cultures.

Our objectives were to: (1) confirm elongation products of palmitoleic acid (16:1 cis-9) elongation in vitro using stable isotopes and (2) evaluate if exogenous supplementation of palmitoleic acid, elongation products, or both are responsible for decreased desaturation and lipogenesis rates observed with palmitoleic acid supplementation in bovine adipocytes. Stromal vascular cultures were isolated from adipose tissue of two beef carcasses, allowed to reach confluence, held for 2 days, and differentiated with a standard hormone cocktail (day 0). On day 2, secondary differentiation media containing 1 of 4 fatty acid treatments [0 µM fatty acid (control), or 150 µM palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic, or cis-vaccenic (18:1 cis-11)] was added for 4 days. On day 6, cells were incubated with [(13)C] 16:1, [(13)C] 2, or [(13)C] 18:0 to estimate elongation, lipogenic, and desaturation rates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Enrichment of [(13)C] 18:1 cis-11 confirmed 18:1 cis-11 is an elongation product of 16:1. Additionally, [(13)C] label was seen in 20:1 cis-13 and cis-9, cis-11 CLA. Synthesis of [(13)C] 16:0 from [(13)C] 2 was reduced (P < 0.05) in palmitoleic acid and cis-vaccenic acid-treated compared with control cells following 36 h incubation. By 12 h of [(13)C] 18:0 incubation, cells supplemented with palmitoleic acid had reduced (P < 0.05) [(13)C] 18:1 cis-9 compared with all other treatments. Gene expression and fatty acid results support isotopic data for lipogenesis and desaturation. Therefore, palmitoleic acid is actively elongated in vitro and its elongation product, cis-vaccenic acid, can also reduce lipogenesis. However, inhibition of desaturation can be directly attributed to palmitoleic acid and not its elongation products, 18:1 cis-11 or 20:1 cis-13.

Lipids. 2012 Dec;47(12):1143-53

Supplemental palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid reduces lipogenesis and desaturation in bovine adipocyte cultures.

Our objective was to determine if palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid supplementation to primary bovine adipocytes regulates lipogenic gene expression and rates of lipogenesis. Stromal vascular cells were isolated from subcutaneous and intermuscular fat, propagated, and frozen for use in this study. Cells were passaged 4 times, allowed to reach confluence, held for 2 d, and then differentiated with a standard hormone cocktail (d 0). At d 2, secondary differentiation media containing 1 of 4 concentrations of palmitoleic acid (0, 50, 150, or 300 µM) were added for 10 d. Cells were harvested on d 6 and 12 to assess fatty acid concentrations and gene expression. In addition, (13)C2 and (13)C18:0 stable isotopes were added on d 6 to measure lipogenesis and desaturase activity, respectively. Concentrations of C16:1 and total fatty acids increased (P < 0.05) linearly in response to palmitoleic acid supplement. Concentrations of C18:1 cis-11 and C20:1 cis-13 also increased (P < 0.01) in response to supplementation, suggesting elongation of palmitoleic acid in vitro. Concentrations of C16:1, C18:1 cis-11, and total fatty acids were also greater (P < 0.05) at d 12 compared with d 6. In contrast, C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 cis-9 concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in response to palmitoleic acid supplementation and were not affected (P > 0.05) by harvest day. The ratio of C18:1 cis-9/C18:0 and fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of desaturation decreased (P < 0.05) in response to increasing palmitoleic acid supplementation. In addition, FSR of lipogenesis was reduced (P < 0.05) in palmitoleic acid-treated cells. Messenger RNA abundance as determined by real-time quantitative PCR for stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and elongase protein 6 (ELOVL6) genes were reduced (P < 0.05) by palmitoleic acid supplementation. Expression of a β-oxidation gene, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), was upregulated (P < 0.05) with palmitoleic acid supplementation in a dose-responsive manner. Supplementation of palmitoleic acid to bovine adipocytes results in increased incorporation of this fatty acid and its elongation products into the adipocyte, which downregulates SCD1, FASN, and ELOVL6 to decrease lipogenesis and upregulates CPT1A, potentially increasing b-oxidation. These results suggest that palmitoleic acid, an end product of desaturation, can act as a regulator of lipogenesis, desaturation, and b-oxidation in bovine adipocytes.

J Anim Sci. 2012 Oct;90(10):3433-41

Distinct effects of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids on beta-cell turnover and function.

Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity contribute to the impaired beta-cell function observed in type 2 diabetes. Here we examine the effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at different glucose concentrations on beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. Adult rat pancreatic islets were cultured onto plates coated with extracellular
matrix derived from bovine corneal endothelial cells. Exposure of islets to saturated fatty acid (0.5 mmol/l palmitic acid) in medium containing 5.5, 11.1, or 33.3 mmol/l glucose for 4 days resulted in a five- to ninefold increase of beta-cell DNA fragmentation. In contrast, monounsaturated palmitoleic acid alone (0.5 mmol/l) or in combination with palmitic acid (0.25 or 0.5 mmol/l each) did not affect DNA fragmentation. Increasing concentrations of glucose promoted beta-cell proliferation that was dramatically reduced by palmitic acid. Palmitoleic acid enhanced the proliferation activity in medium containing 5.5 mmol/l glucose but had no additional effect at higher glucose concentrations (11.1 and 33.3 mmol/l). The cell-permeable ceramide analog C2-ceramide mimicked both the palmitic acid-induced beta-cell apoptosis and decrease in proliferation. Moreover, the ceramide synthetase inhibitor fumonisin B1 blocked the deleterious effects of palmitic acid on beta-cell viability. Additionally, palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid decreased the expression of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Finally, palmitoleic acid improved beta-cell-secretory function that was reduced by palmitic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that the lipotoxic effect of the saturated palmitic acid involves an increased apoptosis rate coupled with reduced proliferation capacity of beta-cells and impaired insulin secretion. The deleterious effect of palmitate on beta-cell turnover is mediated via formation of ceramide and activation of the apoptotic mitochondrial pathway. In contrast, the monounsaturated palmitoleic acid does not affect beta-cell apoptosis, yet it promotes beta-cell proliferation at low glucose concentrations, counteracting the negative effects of palmitic acid as well as improving beta-cell function.

Diabetes. 2001 Jan;50(1):69-76

Chronic administration of palmitoleic acid reduces insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in KK-Ay Mice with genetic type 2 diabetes.

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n-7) on reducing muscle insulin resistance and preventing beta-cell apoptosis. However, the effect of palmitoleic acid on diabetes remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the antidiabetic effect of palmitoleic acid in KK-Ay mice, a spontaneous model for studies of obese type 2 diabetes with low insulin sensitivity. METHODS: KK-Ay mice were orally administered vehicle, 300 mg/kg of palmitoleic acid, or 300 mg/kg of palmitic acid (C16:0) on a daily basis for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Palmitoleic acid reduced body weight increase, ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition, hepatic characteristics were significantly affected, as weight of the liver and hepatic triglyceride levels were lower in the palmitoleic acid group when compared to the control (vehicle and palmitic acid groups). Oil red O staining clearly indicated reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in response to palmitoleic acid. Furthermore, palmitoleic acid down-regulated mRNA expressions of proinflammatory adipocytokine genes (TNFa and resistin) in white adipose tissue and lipogenic genes (SREBP-1, FAS, and SCD-1) in liver. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that palmitoleic acid improves hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia by increasing insulin sensitivity, in part owing to suppressing proinflammatory gene expressions and improving hepatic lipid metabolism in diabetic mice.

Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Jul 21;10:120

Circulating palmitoleate strongly and independently predicts insulin sensitivity in humans.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether palmitoleate, which prevents insulin resistance in mice, predicts insulin sensitivity in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The fasting fatty acid pattern in the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) fraction was determined in 100 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity was estimated during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 9 months of lifestyle intervention and measured during the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (n = 79). RESULTS: Circulating palmitoleate (OGTT:F ratio = 8.2, P = 0.005; clamp:F ratio = 7.8, P = 0.007) but not total FFAs (OGTT:F ratio = 0.6, P = 0.42; clamp:F ratio = 0.7, P = 0.40) correlated positively with insulin sensitivity, independently of age, sex, and adiposity. High baseline palmitoleate predicted a larger increase in insulin sensitivity. For 1-SD increase in palmitoleate, the odds ratio for being in the highest versus the lowest tertile of adjusted change in insulin sensitivity was 2.35 (95% CI 1.16-5.35). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating palmitoleate strongly and independently predicts insulin sensitivity, suggesting that it plays an important role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in humans.

Diabetes Care. 2010 Feb;33(2):405-7

Gluteofemoral adipose tissue plays a major role in production of the lipokine palmitoleate in humans.

The expansion of lower-body adipose tissue (AT) is paradoxically associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk. We examined whether the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT are related to the production and release of the insulin-sensitizing lipokine palmitoleate (16:1n-7). Using venoarterial difference sampling, we investigated the relative release of 16:1n-7 from lower-body (gluteofemoral) and upper-body (abdominal subcutaneous) AT depots. Paired gluteofemoral and abdominal subcutaneous AT samples were analyzed for triglyceride fatty acid composition and mRNA expression. Finally, the triglyceride fatty acid composition of isolated human preadipocytes was determined. Relative release of 16:1n-7 was markedly higher from gluteofemoral AT compared with abdominal subcutaneous AT. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the key enzyme involved in endogenous 16:1n-7 production, was more highly expressed in gluteofemoral AT and was associated with greater enrichment of 16:1n-7. Furthermore, isolated human preadipocytes from gluteofemoral AT displayed a higher content of SCD1-derived fatty acids. We demonstrate that human gluteofemoral AT plays a major role in determining systemic concentrations of the lipokine palmitoleate. Moreover, this appears to be an inherent feature of gluteofemoral AT. We propose that the beneficial metabolic properties of lower-body AT may be partly explained by the intrinsically greater production and release of palmitoleate.

Diabetes. 2012 Jun;61(6):1399-403

Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease.

Lipids. 2007 Jun;42(6):583-7

Oral administration of omega-7 palmitoleic acid induces satiety and the release of appetite-related hormones in male rats.

We have analyzed the effect of palmitoleic acid on short-term food intake in male rats. Administration of omega-7 palmitoleic acid by oral gavage significantly decreased food intake compared to palmitic acid, omega-9 oleic acid, or a vehicle control. Palmitoleic acid exhibited a dose-dependent effect in this context and did not cause general malaise. A triglyceride form of palmitoleate also decreased food intake, whereas olive oil, which is rich in oleic acid, did not. Palmitoleic acid accumulated within the small intestine in a dose-dependent fashion and elevated levels of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). Both protein and mRNA levels of CCK were affected in this context. The suppression of food intake by palmitoleic acid was attenuated by intravenous injection of devazepide, a selective peripheral CCK receptor antagonist. Palmitoleic acid did not alter the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) target genes, and a PPARa antagonist did not affect palmitoleic acid-induced satiety. This suggests that the PPARa pathway might not be involved in suppressing food intake in response to palmitoleic acid. We have shown that orally administered palmitoleic acid induced satiety, enhanced the release of satiety hormones in rats.

Appetite. 2013 Jun;65:1-7

Fatty acids in berry lipids of six sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., subspecies carpatica) cultivars grown in Romania.

BACKGROUND: A systematic mapping of the phytochemical composition of different sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit subspecies is still lacking. No data relating to the fatty acid composition of main lipid fractions from the berries of ssp. carpatica (Romania) have been previously reported. RESULTS: The fatty acid composition of the total lipids (oils) and the major lipid fractions (PL, polar lipids; FFA, free fatty acids; TAG, triacylglycerols and SE, sterol esters) of the oils extracted from different parts of six sea buckthorn berry subspecies (ssp. carpatica) cultivated in Romania were investigated using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dominating fatty acids in pulp/peel and whole berry oils were palmitic (23-40%), oleic (20-53%) and palmitoleic (11-27%). In contrast to the pulp oils, seed oils had higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (65-72%). The fatty acid compositions of TAGs were very close to the compositions of corresponding seed and pulp oils. The major fatty acids in PLs of berry pulp/peel oils were oleic (20-40%), palmitic (17-27%), palmitoleic (10-22%) and linoleic (10%-20%) acids, whereas in seeds PLs, PUFAs prevailed. Comparing with the other lipid fractions the SEs had the highest contents of saturated fatty acids (SFAs). The fatty acid profiles of the FFA fractions were relatively similar to those of TAGs. CONCLUSIONS: All parts of the analyzed sea buckthorn berry cultivars (ssp. carpatica) exhibited higher oil content then the other European or Asiatic sea buckthorn subspecies. Moreover, the pulp/peel oils of ssp. carpatica were found to contain high levels of oleic acid and slightly lower amounts of linoleic and a-linolenic acids. The studied cultivars of sea buckthorn from Romania have proven to be potential sources of valuable oils.

Chem Cent J. 2012 Sep 20;6(1):106

Effects of increasing dietary palmitoleic acid compared with palmitic and oleic acids on plasma lipids of hypercholesterolemic men.

Palmitoleic acid is a minor monounsaturated fatty acid in the human diet and in blood plasma. Because macadamia oil is at least one potentially large source of palmitoleic acid, we tested its effect on plasma lipid levels against two other dietary fatty acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The dietary adjustments, through the use of supplements, provided comparisons of the three test fatty acids in which palmitoleic could be judged as behaving either like a saturated or a monounsaturated acid. Thirty-four hypercholesterolemic men ate the three test diets in random order in 3-week periods. Plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were similar with palmitic and palmitoleic acids and significantly higher than with oleic acid. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly lower with palmitoleic than with palmitic acid. The study confirms that, at least in hypercholesterolemic men, a modest increase in palmitic acid (+4% en) raises LDL cholesterol relative to oleic acid (+3% en), even when dietary cholesterol is low (< 165 mg/day). Palmitoleic acid (+4% en) behaves like a saturated and not a monounsaturated fatty acid in its effect on LDL cholesterol.

J Lipid Res. 1994 Apr;35(4):656-62