21st Century Medicine is a research and development company that owns a 7,500-square-foot facility in Rancho Cucamonga, CA, containing laboratories devoted to life extension research. The Foundation has been funding several ground-breaking research projects at 21st Century, including the initial studies of The Rejuvenation Project and The Suspended Animation Project. Because much of the equipment is used at 21st Century for more than one research project, we've included a single list of research expenditures for January 1997 and anticipated costs for later in the year. Before we list these expenditures, let's take a closer look at the 21st Century Medicine facility and some of research being conducted there.
The 7,500-square-foot 21st Century building teems with millions of dollars worth of scientific and medical equipment. It features an operating room for large-animal research that includes heart-lung machines, heat-exchange devices, an X-ray machine and on-line, automated monitoring equipment. The founders of the 21st Century facility used their life savings to purchase much of this highly-sophisticated equipment at auctions and from private dealers.
Since 1993, The Life Extension Foundation and some of its members have contributed more than $1 million for additional equipment purchases, salaries, and research at the 21st Century facility. The staff has been working very long hours for very little pay because of their dedication to life extension research. The result is highly cost-effective research that cannot be matched in dollar value at other institutions.
To accelerate the volume and pace of 21st Century Medicine's research, the company expects to be adding at least three new, full-time scientists to the staff in 1997. The combined compensation for these three scientists will be about $125,000 a year, with considerable additional expenditures for equipment and supplies needed to support their research efforts. One of these new staff members will be a cardiovascular surgeon with advanced computer skills. We will be introducing you to the staff of 21st Century later in the year when the entire team has been assembled.
|TABLE 3. ITEMS PURCHASED BY 21 CENTURY MEDICINE WITH FUNDS FROM THE LIFE EXTENSION FOUNDATION, JANUARY 1997 |
|Added electrical capacity to facility ||$ 2,000 |
|Labor and parts for electrical hookups ||$ 1,000 |
|(All available electrical panel space has been used up on the main bus (the BIG) power panel which supplies power to the entire building. The use of multiple pieces of analytical equipment, low temperature coolers and freezers is the proximate cause of this. The building was originally outfitted for light office and warehouse space, not as a laboratory.) |
|Heat exchanger for FC perfusion unit ||$ 1,500 |
|(This item is the main heat exchanger in the fluorocarbon perfusion unit that is being built to vitrify entire animals. The heat exchanger can remove in excess of 20 degrees C per minute from an 80 kg animal.) |
|Bulkhead and reach-through for Cold Room ||$ 2,000 |
|(The minus-30 degree C operating room will, obviously, be very cold. There will be no breathable air in the room once the perfusion is underway. Staff time in the room will be minimized by building a see-through thermopane bulkhead on the warm side of which staff and computers can sit. Reach-throughs will be provided to allow access to equipment on the cold side.) |
|Spectrophotometer ||$ 2,000 |
|(This is necessary for tissue viability studies, clinical chemistries to determine cryoprotective agent purity, and to determine free hemoglobin released during RBC freezing/vitrification studies.) |
|Ramp to Cold Room ||$ 600 |
|(Needed to wheel equipment, animals and patients in and out. It includes related handling hardware which is not listed separately.) |
|Cold Room pump control extensions ||$ 400 |
|(The controls on the heart-lung machine used to carry out cryoprotective perfusion in large animals have to be moved off the front of the heart-lung machine and externalized through the bulkhead in the Cold Room.) |
|Flame photometer and supplies ||$ 6,000 |
|(This is the core piece of equipment required to do cryoprotectant tissue slice viability assessments. It measures the amount of sodium and potassium in tissues, their bathing medium to very tight specifications.) |
|Custom slice incubating chamber ||$ 1,800 |
|(This is an acrylic device used to house, load/unload and incubate tissue slices in cryoprotectants and for viability evaluation.) |
|McIlwain tissue chopper ||$ 2,000 |
|(This is the least expensive, and also one of the best, devices for producing viable brain slices.) |
|Shaker bath ||$ 2,000 |
|(Slices must be incubated at a controlled, warm temperature after exposure to cryoprotectants. In order to oxygenate and nourish the slices they must be shaken during this period.) |
|Misc. supplies for slice studies ||$ 3,000 |
|(Disposable supplies including pipettes, plastic ware, to support the slice work.) |
|Automatic watering system ||$ 500 |
|(There is already $10,000 worth of automatic watering equipment on the animal cages, but we need a step-down pressure regulator or the plumbing and hook-ups required to use it.) |
|Rodent flooring ||$ 1,800 |
|The new 400-square-foot rodent vivarium can now completed for long-term [lifespan] studies.) |
|Rat study expenses ||$ 3,000 |
|(Including the diagnosis of disease in some of the sentinel animals who became ill. All the adults are still OK. |
|Dishwasher ||$ 600 |
|(This will eliminate 8-10 hours spent each week by the staff washing cages and vivarium hardware in cold water using expensive germicides.) |
|Air curtain for rodent rooms ||$ 500 |
|In-line UV for rodent room ||$ 300 |
|Fluorocarbon for 1996 ||$ 2,000 |
|(An outstanding bill for work done to determine the feasibility of sub-zero fluorocarbon perfusion) |
|Additional FC for liquid vent studies ||$ 1,000 |
|(For liquid ventilation studies to optimize its use in cooling patients in emergency medicine.) |
|Recirculation pump for FC perfusion unit ||$ 700 |
|(The large FC cooling unit needs this to pump the fluorocarbon through the heat exchanger.) |
|New BioMedicus Cannulae ||$ 1,200 |
|(For ongoing dog survival studies.) |
|Replace obsolete O2 concentration meters ||$ 700 |
|(The mercury battery-powered units have been traded in for new 9V units using a manufacturer's exchange program at 50% off new cost.) |
|Facility truck (used) ||$ 6,000 |
|Fume hood ||$ 2,000 |
|(To protect staff against toxic solvents.) |
|Additional rat cages ||$ 2,000 |
|Backlogged supplies needed ||$ 1,000 |
|Research and overhead expenses ||$ 20,400 |
|Total amount contributed by The Life Extension Foundation to 21st Century Medicine in January 1997 ||$ 68,000 |
The Rejuvenation Project
The Rejuvenation Project will investigate the ability of nutrients, drugs, hormones, and other experimental regimens to reverse aging and extend maximum lifespan in old mice and rats. The animals used in these studies will be equivalent in age to humans in their 60s and 70s. By using animals of advanced ages, we will be searching for solutions to the weakness, debilitation, mental decline, and greater susceptibility to killer diseases that people have in the late stages of their lives.
The Rejuvenation Project is the first research program to seek basic underlying answers for the deficits and disabilities of the elderly. Success in developing effective rejuvenation therapies will not only improve the quality of life for older people, but also will reduce the medical costs borne by society as the largest population cohort in history-the Baby-Boom generation-moves closer to old age.
The first study in The Rejuvenation Project was started in the fall of 1996. It involves injections of genetically identical fetal stem cells into aging 344-Fisher rats. A full description of the rationale and protocol for this study will be carried in Life Extension magazine in the near future. This study is being conducted at the 21st Century Medicine facility by Mike Darwin and Steven B. Harris, M.D.
Future rejuvenation studies will be conducted at a number of facilities by eminent interventive gerontologists. Among the studies scheduled to begin in 1997 are growth-hormone injections in aged mice, based upon the findings of a study at the University of North Dakota in which there was a major reduction in mortality in mice receiving growth-hormone injections compared to mice receiving saline injections. The scientists conducting this study did not permit the animals to live out the rest of their natural lifespans. In our study, we will follow all the animals to the end of their lives.
The other rejuvenation study will be an attempt to repeat a provocative finding reported by physician Max Odens in the journal Nature in the 1960s. Odens claimed that he had achieved dramatic lengthening of the maximum lifespan of rats which were given injections of RNA and DNA. When this study was published, it was not taken serious by gerontologists because of the small number of animals used, the scant details given in the paper and the extraordinary results claimed by Odens. We will attempt to see if there is any validity to the claims Odens made in Nature.
Detailed reports and protocols on both these studies will be carried in Life Extension magazine later in the year.
The Suspended Animation Project
This project aims to perfect full-body suspended animation by the year 2020. Perfected suspended animation would permit reversible cryopreservation of terminal patients for transport into the future for advanced medical treatment. The current practice of cryonics has the same objectives, but cannot cryopreserve patients without inflicting severe damage from ischemia (reduced blood flow) and unperfected freezing methods. Suspended animation would guarantee the ability to apply the advances of future medicine to today's "terminal" patients.
Another important use of suspended animation will be for explorers and travelers taking trips to other star systems. Such trips could last hundreds and even thousands of years as we probe into the outer reaches of the Milky Way and eventually travel to other galaxies. Trips of such length will require lengthy periods of suspended animation-even for those who are physically immortal.
Several programs in the Suspended Animation Project are underway at the 21st Century Medicine facility. Here are short descriptions of these programs:
21st Century Medicine is developing methods to cool and store whole organisms near the freezing point of water (0-2 degrees C) in the absence of blood circulation and breathing. Currently, the maximum time a human can be kept safely in circulatory arrest at reduced temperatures is about 45 minutes. This does not allow for complex surgical procedures requiring circulatory arrest to be carried out. It also does not allow for rapid stabilization of trauma victims so they can be transported to the hospital in a state of reduced metabolism.
A good example of how this kind of "buying time" approach could be used would be when a soldier is badly injured on the battlefield. If blood washout coupled with deep cooling were available and the soldier could be held at near 0 degrees C for 12 to 24 hours without injury, it would be possible to transport him to a hospital.
21st Century Medicine is unraveling the biochemistry of hypothermic and cold ischemic injury. We are making major strides in learning how to increase the efficiency of reduced metabolism during profound hypothermia, and to inhibit the cascade of immune-inflammatory mediated injury that occurs when the animal (or human patient) is rewarmed and normal metabolism is restored. 21st Century has restored dogs to healthy, normal lives after replacing their blood with a patented chemical formula, lowering their body temperature to near freezing, and maintaining them in this condition for up to 5½ hours.
Brain Resuscitation Program
At 21st Century Medicine, we have learned that basic cascades of injury and decompensation occur in both the hypothermic ischemic animal and the normothermic ischemic animal (the latter is best exemplified by the patient who has suffered extended cardiac arrest from a heart attack or drowning). We have made enormous strides in understanding why brains fail after resuscitation, and why they are so vulnerable to short periods without blood flow at normal body temperature. Over the past three years, we have defined what we believe to be the key pathophysiological processes in brain ischemia and the "reperfusion" injury that occurs after blood flow is restored.
21st Century has access to a virtual cornucopia of new drugs with enormous promise for the treatment of cerebral ischemia, shock and multisystem organ failure. A number of these drugs represents entirely new classes of therapeutic agents acting on metabolic pathways only recently elucidated by the use of transgenic "knockout" mice. We are rapidly developing pharmacological approaches to brain injury resulting from 15 to 20 minutes of cardiac arrest. These drugs also may prove effective in reversing the ischemic damage that characterizes chronic brain diseases and aging.
Brain Cryopreservation Program
A major problem in organ cryopreservation research is that the drugs that scientists use to prevent freezing damage are not very permeable to cells, especially myelinated (white matter) nerve cells. In addition, most conventional cryoprotective drugs are fairly toxic and fail to prevent ice from forming in concentrations compatible with survival of complex organs and organisms. Another problem is how to cool a mass of tissue as big as a human brain or body, uniformly and rapidly. 21st Century Medicine has filed a patent for an entirely new class of cryoprotective drugs with lower toxicity and greater permeability than conventional cryoprotectants. A second patent deals with a newly developed technology for rapid and uniform cooling and rewarming of large tissue masses. Dogs have been cooled to minus 100 degrees C, and then rewarmed, both at an average rate of nearly 10 degrees C per minute.
In the coming year, we will be attempting to exploit our new cryoprotective drugs and cooling/rewarming technology to make progress in preserving the brain and the heart for transplant purposes. Currently hearts can be stored for only 4 to 6 hours after they are removed from the donor.
As of January 1997, The Life Extension Foundation has contributed or pledged a total of $1,339,668 for its PROJECT 2020 research programs aimed at conquering aging and death.
Your membership dues, donations and product purchases support research that could significantly extend your lifespan. Our products are of pharmaceutical quality, and can be purchased by Foundation members at near wholesale prices. Please purchase your supplements from the LIFE EXTENSION BUYERS CLUB to keep this research moving forward.