June 30--Our bodies don't come with an extended warranty.
The good news is they can last quite a while, but keeping the parts moving
smoothly, and warding off the natural effects of aging, is the owner's
responsibility. Each decade of a woman's life brings forth new challenges and
work-arounds to maintain the best possible health.
The overall message?
"Good nutrition and good movement and good calories and making sure people are
moving, staying agile, flexible and strong," said Dr. Judi Woolger, medical
director of executive medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of
Exercise is a key component of living well, into the 90s and beyond.
"The teens and 20s, those are the ages that will play a big role later in life,
that's when women reach their maximum bone density and that starts to taper down
with age," says Dr. Luis Roca, a gynecologist with South Miami Hospital's Center
for Women and Infants.
Dr. Vivian Birnbaum, internal medicine specialist at Mount Sinai Medical Center,
recommends that women exercise five days a week for 30 minutes apiece with a mix
of cardiovascular activities like walking, swimming, dancing or biking, along
with stretching such as yoga or Pilates, and strengthening exercises of the
arms, shoulders, legs and abdominals.
"And that's a minimum, ideal would be more than that," she says.
Haven't started yet? Don't fret.
"The biggest change anyone can make in life is changing from non-exercise to
exercise," says cardiologist Dr. Adam Splaver, director of echocardiography for
the Memorial Cardiac and Vascular Institute at Memorial Regional Hospital in
Hollywood. "I tell my patients all the time: if you're not exercising, try once
a week. You kept your appointment with me, now put an appointment on the
calendar to exercise for 15 to 20 minutes, for a month. At the end of the month,
put the appointment on twice. And then three times. And when you are done with
that, increase the intensity.
"Crawl before you can walk, walk before you run and it's the same with
Here, then, is a guide to dancing through the decades.
-- Girl, you're a woman now: "Before 20, patients should have all of their
vaccines. It's important women get the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to
prevent sexually transmitted diseases related to cancer in the uterus and cervix
and vagina and genital areas," Birnbaum says.
Once sexually active, check for cervical cancer via a pap smear test every two
years unless abnormalities are detected, upon which testing should be more
-- Watch for the Freshman 15: ""We break our routines, some women are a lot more
active in high school and athletics and get to the collegiate level and may not
want to, or have the ability to, compete at the higher level and they become
more sedentary,'' said Roca. "Diet becomes an issue ... a lot of women are now
away from home and have to determine what they'll eat.''
Avoid processed foods, simple sugars and empty carbs, Splaver adds.
During annual check-ups have your lipid profiles checked, meaning tests for
cholesterol, blood pressure. Begin performing breast self-exams.
-- Forbidden fruit: If you haven't begun smoking as a teenager, don't start now.
Seek counseling if using tobacco, recreational drugs or abusing alcohol.
-- Family and career: "Metabolism in the 30s is not the same as in the 20s,"
Roca says. "As the decades come we get more involved with our careers, and have
families that need our time, and it becomes tougher to stay active. Some women
fall into that pitfall where they neglect themselves and focus all of their
attention on families and careers and care for everyone else and these type of
things can lead to weight gain."
Women start losing bone mass in this decade. Make sure you are consuming
calcium, preferably from food sources like cheese, dried herbs such as celery
seed, parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme, along with sesame and flax seeds,
almonds, yogurt and milk and green leafy vegetables.
Check the thyroid at annual exams.
-- Dental hygiene: You already should have a routine of twice-yearly cleanings
and regular dental exams. If not, begin now. The American Dental Association
identifies an association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm
delivery, preeclampsia and low birth weight infants. Later, periodontal disease
can lead to cardiovascular disease.
-- Is it hot in here? The perimenopausal period can lead to irregularities as
menopause approaches. Hot flashes, mood swings and difficulty sleeping may occur
for some women.
Estrogen levels start to drop and, thus, fat storage builds around the abdomen.
"There's a rapid drop in bone density in the perimenopausal [period] because of
the loss of estrogen," says Dr. Erin N. Marcus, associate professor of clinical
medicine at the University of Miami. Thus, exercise becomes even more important,
especially strength training to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Work on the
-- Begin annual mammograms: If there is a family history of breast cancer, begin
these tests in the preceding decade.
Birnbaum recommends a BRCA test to check for the gene mutation that can
predispose a woman to breast or ovarian cancer if a first-degree family member
(mother, sister or blood aunt) had breast or ovarian cancer.
Have a heart-to-heart with your physician: "As women start to lose the
protective effects of estrogen, they are more susceptible to heart disease in
this decade and in future decades," Roca says.
"Cardiac risk starts to go up around 55," Marcus says, "and we see more women
developing hypertension. Lifestyle modification for prevention is important.
Maintain a normal body weight which means activity and diets rich in fruits and
vegetables. Avoid sodium. If you have to use canned food, rinse the can's
contents to get rid of some of the sodium."
Cardiovascular disease causes one death per minute among women in the United
States, more than cancer, respiratory disease, Alzheimer's and accidents
While some women get the classic symptoms such as chest pain or numbness on the
left side, a pending heart attack in a woman can reveal itself through neck and
back pain, nausea, and feelings of fatigue.
-- Have your first colonoscopy. Depending on the results and family history, the
test will be repeated every five to 10 years, more frequently if polyps are
-- Screen for diabetes.
-- Seek balance: Women should incorporate yoga or tai chi into their fitness
routines to promote balance and reduce the risk of falls.
Perform strength training exercises while standing, with good posture, says Beth
Jones, program coordinator and clinical exercise physiologist at Memorial West.
"Doing things while standing in your 60s and 70s helps bone density. Whether
it's cardio or strength training, this helps bone density in the hips and the
Include dancing as part of your cardio training, Jones adds. "It intuitively
includes many side to side and turning movements that can fall to the wayside as
-- Vaccinate for flu, pneumonia and shingles. Get a yearly flu shot but also
consider the less-publicized shingles virus. Shingles is a painful, blistering
skin rash that can strike at any age among people who have had chickenpox.
-- Eat more, eat smarter: "I see so many people who attempted to lose weight by
skipping meals but that's slowing metabolism in the process. Everyone can eat
and train like an athlete," Jones says. "You just need to eat more frequently,
trying to keep that metabolism revving and be smart with your choices.''
-- Feeling blue? Talk it over with your physician. "I always check on
depression," Woolger says. "As people get older they might be living alone and
getting more mood issues or sadness. I also check functional ability. Do they
need help getting to the phone? Driving? Managing money?"
-- Functional fitness: Check around the house to make sure you are better
protected against injury, Woolger suggests. Do you need handrails in the shower?
Better lighting? How's your hearing?
Water aerobics and walking against the water's resistance while waist-deep in a
pool can be among the best and least injurious exercises at this age and beyond.
Rethink some tests. Discuss the continued need for mammogram screening and
colonoscopy procedures with your physician if 75 and older. "The breast cancer
benefit declines after 75," Birnbaum says. "Also, colonoscopy.''
The 80s and up
-- Don't stop. "You have to be careful starting anything at any age, but for the
80s and up, continue activity as much as possible," Roca says.
Finally, as Jones says, "Keep striving to incorporate the healthy habits learned
in earlier years to retain your quality of life."
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